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Lecturer Kay Rithy Course leader of General English and Assistant to Director of MCEE Tel: 012 989 747

070 218 555 E-mail: kayrithy10@mekong.edu.kh

Introduction to Paragraph
What is Academic Writing? The kinds of writing you will do in this class is called academic writing because it is the kind of writing you do in college classes. Every kind of writing has a particular purpose and a particular audience. The purpose of academic writing is to explain something or to give information about something. Its audience is your teacher and your classmates.

Academic writing requires certain skills. Sentence structure (how to arrange words in a sentence) Organization (how to arrange ideas in a paragraph) Grammar and punctuation

Part 1: Organization What is a Paragraph? A paragraph is a group of related sentences about a single topic. The topic of a paragraph is one, and only one, idea. A paragraph has three main parts.  Topic sentence  Supporting sentence  Concluding sentence

1. Topic sentence The first sentence in a paragraph is a sentence that names the topic and tells what the paragraph will explain about the topic. This sentence is called the topic sentence. 2. Supporting sentences The middle sentences in a paragraph are called the supporting sentences. Supporting sentences give examples or other details about the topic. 3. Concluding sentence The last sentence in a paragraph is called the concluding sentence. A concluding sentence often repeats the topic sentence in different words or summarizes the main points.

A paragraph is like a cheeseburger sandwich: two pieces of bread (the topic and concluding sentences) enclosing the filling (the supporting sentences). Each paragraph that you write for this class should also have a title. A title tells the topic of the paragraph in a few words. A title is short. It is not a complete sentence. It may be just one word. My Classmate Friendship A Famous Soccer Player A self-introduction My best teacher My lovely cat

HAMBURGER PARAGRAPHS
TOPIC SENTENCE
SUPPORTING SENTENCE

CONCLUDING SENTENCE

How to Write a

Top Bun
Introductory Sentence
The introductory sentence introduces the reader to the topic of your paragraph. Try to make it exciting! On warm summer days, I love trying to catch butterflies. I have so much fun running around in my backyard chasing after the pretty butterflies that go zooming by! If I am lucky enough to catch one, I never keep it for very long. After all, butterflies belong in their natural habitat. I sure cant wait until next summer so that I can grab my net and catch some butterflies!

MAIN POINTS, REASONS, OR EXAMPLES

Be sure to add at least three reasons, examples, or main points that support the introductory/topic sentence.

Be sure to
A good paragraph includes details that DESCRIBE or TELL ABOUT the main points or reasons. Details should be delicious or interesting. When you write a hamburger paragraph, compare your details to all of the yummy parts of a hamburger such as: *Lettuce *Tomato *Cheese *Meat

Again, your elaboration should describe or tell about your main points. They should stick to the topic.

Which detail doesnt quite belong?


I really love my brother! His name is Jeff and he is super funny. One of my favorite things to do with my brother is play video games. He always beats me! Sometimes my sister cries at night. Maybe my brother will play a video game with me tonight!

How would a hamburger taste if it had ketchup, mustard, mayonnaise, pickles, lettuce, tomatoes, barbecue sauce, Swiss cheese, spicy cheese, and olives on top? Too much, right?

A writer can add too much detail to a paragraph as well. Paragraphs should be about 5-8 sentences long. If your paragraph is pages and pages long, you will eventually lose the interest of your reader.

I have a kitten named Simon. I bought him at a pet store over the summer. He is really cute and fun to play with. Simon is gray and white. His nose is black instead of pink! Simons favorite thing to do is bug me. All day long, he follows me around and chases after my feet. Sometimes I wish that Simon would just take a nap. It seems like he was born to stay awake forever and ever! I feed Simon Friskies Kitten Chow. He really likes it. Whenever it is time to eat, Simon rushes into the kitchen and slides across the floor. He is so silly. I sure do love Simon, even if he is crazy!

Remember: A good seventh grade paragraph should be about five to eight sentences long. My favorite school lunch is chicken nuggets with mashed potatoes. One reason why I love this lunch so much is that it tastes so great! I also love being able to smell the yummy nuggets hours before its even lunch time. The creamy mashed potatoes and gravy just slide down my throat. I cant WAIT until the next chicken nugget day!

So far we have learned that a hamburger paragraph needs a top bun or INTRODUCTORY sentence.
The introduction should introduce the reader to your topic.

We also learned that good paragraphs contain three to six supporting sentences that tell more about the introductory sentence. These main points, examples, or details can be compared to the ingredients of a hamburger, such as the lettuce, tomato, cheese, and hamburger patty.

But whats missing? Hmm

Bottom Bun
Concluding Sentence
The bottom bun of a hamburger helps hold all of the ingredients together. It works with the top bun to keep the meat, cheese, tomato, and lettuce from falling on the floor! The concluding sentence of a paragraph helps hold all of the sentences together! It works with the introductory sentence to keep the details from falling apart. The concluding sentence should be interesting and let your reader know that you are finished writing. It wraps everything up!

Now you know exactly what it takes to cook up a delicious hamburger paragraph!

The rules for correct paragraph form for handwritten paragraph


1. Paper Use 81/2-inch-by-11-inch lined, 3-hole paper. The three holes should be on your left side as you write. Write on one side of the paper only. 2. Ink Use black or dark blue ink only. 3. Heading Write your full name in the upper left corner. On the next line, write the course name and number and number. On the third line, write the date the assignment is due in the order month-day-year, with a comma after the day.

4. Assignment Title Center the title of your paragraph on the first line. 5. Body Skip one line, and start your writing on the third line. Indent (move to the right) the first sentence inch from the left margin. 6. Margins Leave a 1-inch margin on the left and right sides of the paper. Also leave a 1-inch margin at the bottom of the page. Your teacher uses these empty spaces to write comments to you. 7. Spacing Leave a blank line between each line of writing. Your teacher uses the space between lines to mark corrections.

MODEL Computer-WritingAssignment

The rules for correct paragraph form for a paragraph typed on a computer. 1. Paper Use 8 inch-by-11-inch white paper. 2. Font Use a standard font style, such as Time New Roman. Do not use underlining, italics, or body type to emphasize words. It is not correct to do so in academic writing. 3. Heading Type your full name in the upper left corner. On the next line, type the course number. On the third line of the heading, type the date the assignment is due in the order month-day-year, with a comma after the day.

4. Assignment Title Skip one line, and then center your title. Use the centering icon on your word processing program. 5. Body Skip one line, and start typing on the third line. Indent (move to the right) the first line of each paragraph by using the TAB key. (the TAB key automatically indents five spaces.) 6. Margins Leave a 1 inch margin on the left and right margins. 7. Spacing Double-space the body.

Brainstorming

Brainstorming
The Key to Successful Essay Writing
Adapted from http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/brainstorming.

Brainstorming
What is it?
A gathering of ideas from your brain onto paper. The variety of ideas and the use of your imagination assist you in producing a lot of material with which to work.

Why do we need it?


Its the best way to collect your thoughts. Its helpful for organization. It ensures only quality ideas are used in the essay.

Brainstorming Technique
Number One

Freewriting
"This paper is supposed to be on the politics of tobacco What is it? but even though I went to all the lectures and production Think the book I can't think ofwrite, to say and I've felt this read about the topic. Then what write, write. Whatever comes into your brain even if it doesnt have to do I way for four minutes now and I have 11 minutes left and wonder topic. Example: with theif I'll keep thinking nothing during every minute but I'm not sure if it matters that I am babbling and I don't know what else to say about this topic and it is rainy today and I never noticed the number of cracks in that wall before and those cracks remind me of the walls in my grandfather's study and he smoked and he farmed and I wonder why he didn't farm tobacco..."

Brainstorming Technique
Number One

Freewriting
Options: Write for a specific time period Write for a specific amount of paper

Brainstorming Technique
Number One

Freewriting
When is it helpful? When you have NO ideas about a topic When you have TOO MANY ideas about a topic

???? ??

Maybe I could say this or maybe I could say that hmmm

Brainstorming Technique
Number Two

Making a Cube
What is it? Imagine a cube. It has six sides. On each side, you have a different task regarding the topic.

Brainstorming Technique
Number Two

Making a Cube
Side One: Describe the topic. Side Two: Compare the topic. Side Three: Associate the topic. Side Four: Analyze the topic. Side Five: Apply the topic. Side Six: Argue for or against the topic.

Argue Apply Analyze Associate Compare Describe

Brainstorming Technique
Number Three

Clustering
What is it? When you write down words or concepts associated with the topic any ideas that come into your mind

Brainstorming Technique
Number Three
Global Warming
rainforests disappearing

Clustering
Draw a bubble.
And write the topic above it.

extinction

dangerous TOXIC world wide dying animals Cars/SUVs factories landscape changes no icebergs expensive to fix? hurricanes REVERSIBLE?

emissions

Brainstorm!

Now look for words that connect with each other. Circle the words and connect them with lines.

Brainstorming Technique
Number Four

Listing or Bulleting
What is it? Create a list of terms/ideas/concepts about the topic. Create multiple lists depending on the purpose. Global Warming Toxic fumes SUVs/Cars Extinction Belief/Disbelief Kyoto Agreement Belief/Disbelief Scientists disagree Average American China/USA Normal occurrence or abnormal event?

Brainstorming Technique
Number Five

Venn Diagram

What is it? Draw two circles that connect, like this: List two topics above the circles. Brainstorm about the topics what do they have in common and what is unique about each one.

Capital Became Paris in 400 A.D. francopho ne

Cities Eiffel Tower

County seat Anglophon e Founded in 1839

Brainstorming Technique
Number Five

Venn Diagram
When is it used? When you are writing a comparison or contrast essay.

Capital Became Paris in 400 A.D. francophone

Cities Eiffel Tower

County seat anglophone Founded in 1839

Brainstorming Technique
Number Six

Tree Diagram
What is it? This diagram has a central idea to which you add branches that focus on details.

Brainstorming Technique
Number Six

Tree Diagram
When do you use it? This type of diagram is helpful in classification essays. Media Visual Audio
booklet cd mp3 cassette television webpage movie

Print

Newspaper

magazine

Brainstorming Technique
Number Seven

Act like a Journalist


What is it? Using the question words in English to explore the topic.

Who? Where? What?

Why? When? How?

Brainstorming Technique
Number Seven

Act like a Journalist


When is it useful? Use this technique when you want to write a narrative. Why?

Who? Where? What?

When? How?

Brainstorming Technique
Number Eight

T-Diagram
What is it? Using a T shape, list a category that you want to compare or contrast about a specific topic or topics. Do this for a variety of categories.

Paris, France and Paris Texas


location
Europe Northern France North America Northern Texas

Brainstorming Technique
Number Eight

T-Diagram
When is it useful? This technique helps when you are writing a contrast or comparison essay.

Paris, France and Paris Texas


location
Europe Northern France North America Northern Texas

Brainstorming Technique
Number Nine

Spoke Diagram
What is it? Write the topic in a circle. Then think of about causes and effects. Write these around the circle like spokes on a wheel.
too many people

cars/suvs

not recycling chopping down trees

Crazy weather

Global Warming dying animals

loss of polar ice caps

Brainstorming Technique
Number Nine

Spoke Diagram
When is it useful? Use this technique when you want to explore cause and effect.
too many people

cars/suvs

not recycling chopping down trees

Crazy weather

Global Warming dying animals

loss of polar ice caps

Brainstorming
In our class, you will need to show evidence of the brainstorming technique that you used to begin the essay process. Its part of your grade because its important!
Remember to ask for help or clarification if you need it.