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Definition -is concerned with beliefs and values on the basis of which people interpret experiences and behave, individually or in groups -refers to a group or community with which you share common experiences that shape the way you understand the world -is the lens through which you view the world
The quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits A particular form or stage of civilization, as that of a certain nation or period: Greek culture A development or improvement of the mind by education or training
then.More definitions The behaviours and beliefs characteristic of a particular social. is a study of perfection. in an inward condition of the mind and spirit. and perfection which insists on becoming something rather than in having something. ethnic or age group: the youth culture Culture. not in an outward set of circumstances Matthew Arnold .
All these complex and diverse manifestations share one feature in common. house structures. art works to behaviourial regularities family interrelationships. and legal sanctions to abstract concepts and beliefs. Traits assume many forms varying from material artifacts tools.The fundamental element or building block of culture is the culture trait. they are symbols and as such express meaning . economic exchanges.
Cultural elements as symbols assume their meanings in relationship to other symbols within a broader context of a meaning system To interpret a symbol. anthropologists must investigate the interrelatedness of elements and the presence of unifying principles that connect symbols to form larger patterns and cultural wholes . therefore.
learning abilities and intelligence are essential assets for all human groups and have replaced the role of biologically based genetic transmission of instincts . technology. beliefs. and values are transmitted across generations and maintain continuity through learning. technically termed enculturation Accordingly.Culture traits and broader cultural patterns inclusive of language. institutions.
included but not limited to: Language: the oldest human institution and the most sophisticated medium of expression Arts and Sciences: the most advanced and refined forms of human expression Thought: the ways in which people perceive. interpret and understand the world around them .Conclusion Culture refers to the following ways of life.
including the give-and-take of give-andsocialization.Spirituality: the value system transmitted through generations for the inner wellwellbeing of human beings. and convention . expressed through language and actions Social activity: the shared pursuits within a cultural community. negotiation. demonstrated in a variety of festivities and life celebrating events Interaction: the social aspects of human contact. protocol.
MEANS OF EXPRESSING CULTURE Pictures Writing Books Printing Newspapers Telegraph Radio Cinema Television Internet .
Vivendi Universal) . Fox. AOLAOL-Time Warner.CULTURAL AND SYMBOLIC PRODUCTION -international tourism -thematic parks -fashion -cuisine -culture of the body -video game market Growing entertainment industry( Disney.
human being relates himself to the Other in the process of defining the difference National identity strongly related to culture and its symbols . each Alterity.CROSSCROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION Culture is at the root of communication challenges To open channels for cross cultural communication one must explore the historical experiences and the identity of the interrelating groups Identity cannot exist without Alterity.
CULTURAL IDENTITY Criteria to define the Other: Religious Political Ideological Economic Cultural .
church. shared and transmitted from one generation to the next Culture is primarily transmitted from parents to children. by school.More Culture Definitions Culture is learned. even by governments or special interest groups Social pressure influences culture due to its power of reinforcing ways of human thinking . social organizations. but at the same time.
geographical environment and historical events . education. attitudes and feelings. social and political institutions. religion.Aim of this course The presentation of a specific culture. shared manners. aesthetics. customs. the British culture Understand it To acquire basic knowledge on the life and thinking of the British society with its language.
gestures. family rituals and celebrations. artifacts (clothes. music. mealtime. cars) trade customs . the concept of family.Cultural Universals Elements included in all cultures Represent general values characteristic of the manifestations representing the worldwide way of life of any group Include: etiquette.
Civilization AT A CERTAIN MOMENT OF ITS EXISTENCE. EDUCATION. REGARDING SOCIAL. LEGISLATION . MATERIAL OR SPIRITUAL LIFE THE LEVEL OF MATERIAL AND SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT OF A SOCIAL ECONOMIC GROUP A PROCESS OF IMPROVING INSTITUTIONS. EACH SOCIETY OR SOCIAL GROUP FINDS ITSELF AT A CERTAIN LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT.
manner. taste .definition A relatively high level of cultural and technological development Specifically: the stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained The culture characteristic of a particular time or place Refinement of thought.
More definitions The people or countries that have reached an advanced stage of human development marked by a high level of art . and social and political organization Life in a place which has all the comforts of the modern world . science. religion.
gathers and fishers About 3000 BC Neolithic people crossed the sea from Europe in small boats.The beginning Has not always been an island it became one after the end of the last ice age First evidence of human life dates about 250.000 BC Britain was peopled by small groups of hunters.000 BC stone tools Around 10. They came either from the Iberian peninsula or North Africa .
from Cornwall at the southwest end of Britain all the way to the far north After 3000 BC people started building great circles of earth banks and ditches centers of religious. the forefathers of dark-haired darkinhabitants of Wales and Cornwall They settled in the Western parts of Britain and Ireland. and long-headed longpeople. dark.They were small. political and economic power .
probably over the whole of the British Isles After 2400BC new groups of people arrived in southeast Britain from Europe They were round-headed and strongly roundbuilt became leaders of British society They spoke an Indo-European language Indo .Most spectacular: Stonehenge built over a period of more than 1000 years The purpose remains a mystery Suggests: the political authority of the area surrounding Stonehenge was recognized over a very large area.
The Celts From the 7th century to the 3rd century BC they were moving across Europe in many directions One great body settled in France element in the racial content of the Galish nation A southern wing settled in the Valley of Po put an end to the Etruscan hegemony in Italy Others pushed into Spain and the Balkans .
subdued or chased across the island not only the Iberians.A northern wing of this great world movement overran the British Island and imposed the Celtic rule and language on its inhabitants They came in successive tribal waves. slaughtered. each with a dialect of its own Wave after wave of Celts entered Britain by lowlands of south and east. but also their own kinsfolk that preceded them .
and above all fighting preoccupied most of their time . skillful in iron lightImposed themselves as an aristocracy on the conquered tribes throughout Britain and Ireland They remained tribesmen bound together by legal and sentimental ties of kinship as the moral basis of society They didn t develop any territorial or feudal organization Hunting. bee-keeping. herding. fishing. weaving. light-haired warriors.Characteristics Tall. beemetal work.
Queen Boadicea she almost drove them from Britain in 61 AD . Highly successful farmers suggested by the increasing number of hill forts filled with houses They remained local economic centres long after the Romans came to Britain and long after they went For money they used iron bars Men wore shirts and breeches and a striped or checked cloak fastened with a pin (Scottish tartan and dress) Very clean and neat Women more independent than hundreds of years later the Romans found women who ruled the tribes and fought on chariots The most powerful woman who stood up to the Romans .
came to exploit and govern by right of superior civilization .The Roman Britain The name Britain comes from the Greco-Roman Grecoword Pretani for the inhabitants of Britain The Romans mispronounced the word and called the island Britannia Why did they invade? the Celts of Britain were working with the Celts of Gaul against them .important food producers .
quite a failure .The Roman conquerors effort was to induce their western subjects to assimilate Latin life in all its aspects Their success with the Gauls was permanent and became the starting point of modern European history 55 BC the first invasion under Julius Caesar .the need of tributes and slaves to enrich his partisans and to pay the soldiers .
43 AD emperor Claudius sent an army of 40.000 men and the Romans settled for the next 400 years The highlands and moorland of the northern and western regions (present -day Scotland Caledonia .Hadrian Roman control came to an end when the empire began to collapse 409 AD Rome pulled its last soldiers out of Britain .and Wales) were not as easily settled. they remained the frontier They built a strong wall along the northern border .