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You are on page 1of 11

Electromagnetism

We want to apply the reaction theory developed in the first few lectures to

electronuclear interactions. It is worthwhile reviewing some facts from

electricity and magnetism.

CONSERVATION of CHARGE

dS

J

V

S

\ = =

V

3 3

surface. over the Integrate . S d element surface the leaves which J

density current charge, of flux a of because V volume

the from lost is dQ charge of amount an dt In time

S V

r d J S d J r d

t

T T T

T T

V

We used the divergence theorem to convert the integral over the surface S

into an integral over the volume V. We assume that the volume doesnt

change, so only the charge density V in the volume changes. This leads to

the continuity equation.

(1) , 0 = \ +

J

t

T

V

2

ELECTROSTATICS

Coulombs Law: This is a fundamental law of electrostatics. We will use the

Gaussian system of units here. This is also measured in cgs. The unit of

charge is the stat-coulomb. This amount of charge exerts a force of one

dyne on an equal charge located 1 centimeter away.

The electric field is a vector field which for a point charge is defined by

(2) ,

2

r

r

q

E =

T

r

q

E

From this expression for the electric field we derive Gauss law.

\ = =

V

3 3

) ( d 4

S V

r d E S d E r r

T T T

V T

We can convert the integral expression into a differential law,

(3) , 4TV = \ E

T

3

MAGNETOSTATICS

This case means that currents are constant. In particular the charge density

V(r) is independent of time. The consequence of this is that the divergence

of the current density J is zero. This is a result we can deduce from the

equation of continuity ( eqn 1). The fundamental experimental law in

magnetostatics is the Biot-Savart Law. The contribution dB, to the magnetic

field, B, at point P, due to the current I in a short length dl is given by.

(4) ,

| |

3

r

r l d

c

I

B d

T

T

T

v

=

I

r

S d J I

T T

=

.

where ,

J J J J dl l d = =

T T

We consider a current density J

into an area dS.

JdS

3

3

3

| | c

J

| |

r

r d r

r

r J dl

c

JdS

B d

T

T

T

T

v =

v

=

(5) ,

| ' |

'

) ' ( '

1

) (

3

3

r r

r r

r J dr

c

r B

T T

T T

T T

v =

| ' |

1

| ' |

'

3

r r r r

r r

T T T T

T T

\ =

P

4

v \ = (6) ,

| ' |

) ' (

'

1

) (

3

r r

r J

dr

c

r B

T X

T

T

T

T

Eqn. 6 can be written in terms

of an auxiliary potential A,

called the vector potential.

(7) ), (

| ' |

) ' (

'

1

) (

3

r

r r

r J

r d

c

r A

T

T T

T

T

T

T

] \ +

does not change the result we get for B in eqn 6. This arbitrariness in the

definition of the vector potential A can be used to advantage to simplify

equations. This flexibility is called gauge invariance. Consequently we

write for B,

(8) ), ( ) ( r A r B

T

T

T

T

v \ =

We can find another relation between B and J from Amperes Law.

S d B S d J

c

I

c

l d B

S C S

T T T T T T

v \ = = =

) (

4 4 T T

C is the path encircling a surface S. I is the total current through

surface S. We used Stokes theorem to connect the first and third

integral.

5

So for magnetostatics we get an alternate expression for Amperes law,

(9) ,

4

J

c

B

T T

T

= v \

ELECTRODYNAMICS

Now consider the case where currents change in time. The charge density is

now a function of time too.

FARADAYS LAW

S

C

E

B

B

The EMF generated around the curve C depends on

the changing magnetic flux through area S.

dl

1

= =

C

B

dt

d

c

l d E EMF

1

T T

Take the case where the geometry

remains constant so that only B changes

in time. Then using eqn 8,

(10) ,

1 1

S d

t

A

c

S d

t

B

c

S d E l d E

S S C S

T

T

T

T

T T T T

v \ =

= v \ =

6

From eqn 10 we note that an induced electric field arises from changing

vector potentials. However, we also know from electrostatics that the

electric field is also generated by a gradient of an electric potential. We

take into account both of these sources of the electric field by writing,

(12) ,

1 1

that note also we and (11) ,

1

t

B

c t

A

c

E

t

A

c

E

v \

= v \

\ =

T T

T

T

T

o

In eqn (12) we used that fact that the curl of a gradient is zero.

In the case of the magnetic field we can see that Amperes law can not

be the whole story. It can not only be a current which gives rise to the

magnetic field.

I I C

B

B

B=0 ?

7

Consider the case of charging up a capacitor C which is connected to very

long wires. The charging current is I. From the symmetry it is easy to see that

an application of Amperes law will produce B fields which go in circles

around the wire and whose magnitude is B(r) = 2I/(cR). But there is no charge

flow in the gap across the capacitor plates and according to Amperes law

the B field in the plane parallel to the capacitor plates and going through the

capacitor gap should be zero! This is clearly unphysical. We also note from

the differential form for Amperes law, eqn (9) that

J

c

B

T T

\ = = v \ \

T 4

0

But the divergence of J is zero only for magnetostatics. Maxwell saw that

Amperes Law, in the form of eqn 9, needed to be to modified to included

an additional current-like term, J

D

, called the displacement current.

. so, , 0

1 eqn from but , ) (

4

0 ) (

4

D

D D

J

t t

J

J J

c

B J J

c

B

T T

T T T T T T

\ =

+ \

\ + \ = = v \ \ + = v \

V V

T T

We now use Gauss Law in the form of eqn 3.

8

(13) ,

1

c

4

B

is fields dependent time includes which Law s Ampere' of form

complete the so ,

4

1

)

4

1

( )

4

1

(

t

t

E

c

J

t

E

J

t

E

E

t

D

+ = v \

\ = \

T

T T

T

T

T

T

T

T T T

V

MAXWELLS EQUATIONS for the VACUUM

(3) , 4TV = \ E

T

(12) ,

1

t

B

c

E

= v \

T

T

,

(14) , 0 = \ B

T

(13) ,

1

c

4

B

t

E

c

J

+ = v \

T

T T

T

(1) , 0 = \ +

J

t

T

V

Continuity equation

9

ALTERNATE FORM OF MAXWELLS EQUATIONS FROM THE POTENTIALS

From eqns 11 and 8 we see that we can write the electric and magnetic

fields E and B in terms of the scalar potential o and the vector potential A.

Substituting into Maxwells equations we obtain,

J

c t c

A

t

A

c

A

A

t c

T T

T

T

T

T N

TV N

4

)

1

(

1

and , 4 ) (

1

2

2

2

2

2

=

+ \ \

\

= \

+ \

Because of gauge invariance referred to in eqn 7, we have some flexibility

in our choice of A. In order that both B and E remain unchanged we must

make the following changes to the scalar potential if the vector potential is

modified.

(15) ,

1

change, then ,

t c

A A

\ +

]

N N ]

T T

This flexibility in choice of A allows us to choose ] in such a way that

(16) , 0

1

=

+ \

t c

A

N

T

10

Using eqn 15 the equations for the scalar and vector potentials become

(18) ,

4 1

and (17) , 4

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

J

c t

A

c

A

t c

T

T

T

T

TV

N

N

=

\

=

\

Eqns 16, 17, and 18 form an equivalent set of Maxwells equations. The choice

of gauge which yields eqn 16 is called the Lorenz gauge. This gauge is

particularly useful when the explicit Lorentz invariance of the theory is

needed. Another popular choice of gauge called the Coulomb gauge, is used

mainly in low energy situations, such as atomic physics. The Coulomb gauge

yields a Poisson equation for the electric potential.

(20) , 4 equation, s Poisson'

(19) , 0 gauge, Coulomb

2

TV N = \

= \ A

T

11

REFERENCES

1) Classical Electrodynamics, 2

nd

Edition, John David Jackson, John

Wiley and Sons, 1975

2) Electrodynamics, Fulvio Melia, University of Chicago Press, 2001

3) Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory, Franz Gross,

John Wiley and Sons, 1993

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