Chapter 4 Human Populations


Chapter Four Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to

‡ Summarize historic factors that have contributed to human population growth; ‡Describe Malthusian and Marxian theories of limits to population growth, and explain why technological optimists and supporters of social justice oppose these theories; ‡ Explain the process of demographic transition and why it produces a temporary population surge; ‡ Understand how changes in life expectancy, infant mortality, women's literacy, standards of living, and democracy affect population changes; ‡ Evaluate pressures for and against family planning in traditional and modern societies; ‡ Compare modern birth control methods and think about a personal family planning agenda.

Chapter Four Key Terms McGraw-Hill Course Glossary y birth control y crude birth rate y crude death rates y demographic transition y demography y dependency ratio

y family

planning y life expectancy y neo-Malthusians y pronatalist pressures y total fertility rate y zero population growth (ZPG)


Chapter Four - Topics
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Population growth Limits to growth: some opposing views Human demography Population growth: opposing factors Demographic transition Family planning and fertility control The future of human populations

Part 1: Population Growth

World population now 6.7 billion mid 2008 5 1.15% pr yr 75 m.people pr /yr

Current Birth and Death Rates
‡ Every second: about 4 -5 children are born, while about 2 other people die ‡ Net gain: 2.3 humans added to the world population every second, 75 million added every year


Human Population Levels Throughout History

ADD FIG. 4.2




Part 2: Limits to Growth
Varying Perspectives ‡ Overpopulation causes resource depletion and environmental degradation ‡ Human ingenuity and technology will allow us to overcome any problems - more people may be beneficial ‡ Resources are sufficient to meet everyone's needs - shortages are the result of greed, waste, and oppression

Decisions on how many children to have are influenced by many factors, including culture, religion, politics, need for old-age security, and immediate family finances.

Part 3: Human Demography
‡ Demography - vital statistics about people, such as births and deaths ‡ Two demographic worlds ‡ Less-developed counties represent 80% of the world population, but more than 90% of projected growth ‡ Richer countries tend to have negative growth rates



By 2050, India will probably be the world's most populous country.


Fertility and Birth Rates
‡ Fecundity - physical ability to reproduce ‡ Fertility - the actual production of offspring ‡ Crude birth rate - number of births per year per 1000 people ‡ Total fertility rate - number of children born to an average woman during her reproductive life ‡ Zero population growth (ZPG) - occurs when births + immigration just equal deaths 14 + emigration

Regional Declines in Total Fertility Rates


China's one-childper-family policy decreased the country's fertility rate from 6 to 1.8 in two decades. However, the policy is very controversial.



As incomes rise, so does life expectancy.


Living Longer: Demographic Implications ‡ A population growing by natural increase has more young people than does a stationary population. ‡ Dependency ratio - the number of nonworking individuals compared to working individuals - declining in countries such as the U.S. and Japan ‡ If current trends continue, by 2100 the median age in the U.S. will be 60.


Part 4: Population Growth Opposing Factors

Pronatalist pressures ‡ Factors that increase people's desires to have children Birth reduction pressures ‡ Factors that tend to reduce fertility

U.S. Birth Rates: 1910-2001


Part 5: Demographic Transition
‡ Optimistic view - world population will stabilize during this century ‡ Pessimistic view - poorer countries of the world are caught in a "demographic trap" - helping poor countries will only further threaten the earth's resources ‡ Social justice view - overpopulation due to a lack of justice, not resources

Demographic Transition Accompanying Economic and Social Development


Fig. 4.13


Infant Mortality and Women's Rights


Part 7: The Future of Human Populations


Philippines Population 101,833,938 (July 2011 est.) Age structure 0-14 years: 34.6% (male 17,999,279/female 17,285,040) 15-64 years: 61.1% (male 31,103,967/female 31,097,203) 65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,876,805/female 2,471,644) (2011 est.)

Median age total: 22.9 years male: 22.4 years female: 23.4 years (2011 est.) Population growth rate 1.903% (2011 est.) Birth rate 25.34 births/1,000 population (2011 est.) Death rate 5.02 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net migration rate -1.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.) Urbanization urban population: 49% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female 30 total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate total: 19.34 deaths/1,000 live births male: 21.84 deaths/1,000 live births female: 16.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.) Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.66 years male: 68.72 years female: 74.74 years (2011 est.) Total fertility rate 3.19 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Major infectious diseases degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)


Ethnic groups Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census) Religions Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census) Languages Filipino and English (official); 8 major dialects Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or 33 Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and

Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 92.6% male: 92.5% female: 92.7% (2000 census) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) total: 12 years male: 12 years female: 12 years (2008) Education expenditures 2.8% of GDP (2008)

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