Lesson - 2 Organizations, Management and the Network Enterprise

Autumn 2011

CH1: IS in Global Business Today
What is an information system? A set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization Dimensions of information systems ± Organizations An organization is a social group which distributes tasks for a collective goal. ± Management Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. ± Technology Information Technology is one of the many tools manager use to coop with changes. ( e.g.. Software, Hardware, Data Management Technology, Networking and telecommunication technology.) Figure 1-5

CH1: IS in Global Business Today ‡ ‡ How information systems are transforming business and what is their relationship to globalization? Software ‡ Enterprise System ‡ Supply Chain Management System The Interdependence Between Organizations ‡ Customer Relation Management System and Information Technology ‡ Knowledge Management System Hardware Data Management System Telecommunication System ‡ Email ‡ Video Conferencing ‡ VOIP ‡ Internetwork ‡ ‡ ‡ Figure 1-2 3 .

services. and business models Customer and supplier intimacy Improved decision making Competitive advantage Survival 4 .CH1: IS in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today Operational excellence New products.

such as business integration and utilization 5 . physical technology.CH1: IS in Global Business Today Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems Technical approach: Emphasizes mathematically based models. and formal capabilities of systems Behavioral approach: Studies issues arising from development and maintenance of systems.

accounting. 6 . The Order Fulfillment Process Fulfilling a customer order involves a complex set of steps that requires the close coordination of the sales.CH2: E-Business: How Business use IS Business Processes and Information Systems A Business process is a logically related set of activities that define how specific business tasks are performed. and it represents a unique way in which an organization coordinates work. information and knowledge. and manufacturing functions.

CH2: E-Business: How Business use IS Types of Business Information Systems ‡ Functional Perspective :± Sales and marketing systems ± Manufacturing and production systems ± Finance and accounting systems ± Human resources systems ‡ Constituency Perspective: ± Transaction processing systems ± Management information systems and decision-support systems ± Executive support systems ‡ Relationship of systems to one another Overview of an Inventory System 7 .

DSSs serve the management.CH2: E-Business: How Business use IS Types of Business Information Systems TPS ( Transaction Processing Systems): A TPS is a computerized systems that performs and records the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business such as sales order entry. Interrelationships Among Systems 8 . payroll. operations. which may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance. and insight because there is no agreed on procedure for arriving at a solution. evaluation. employee record keeping and shipping DSS ( Decision Support Systems): A DSS is a computerized system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. ESS ( Executive Support Systems): A ESS help senior management make these decisions. ESS address non routine decision requiring judgment. hotel reservations. and planning levels of an organization and help to make decisions.

‡ Four Major Type of Enterprise Application ‡ Enterprise systems: Also known as enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems solve this problem by collecting data from various key business process in manufacturing and production. finance and accounting. SCM systems are one type of inter-organizational system because they automate the flow of information across organization boundaries. This system provide information to coordinate all of the business processes that deal with customers in dales. ‡ Supply chain management systems : Also known as SCM which helps businesses manage relationships with their suppliers. human resource and storing the data in a single central data repository. ‡ Customer relationship management systems : Also know as CRM system which help firms managing their relationships with their customers. customer satisfaction and customer retention ‡ Knowledge management systems: This will enable organizations to better manage processes for capturing and applying knowledge and expertise.CH2: E-Business: How Business use IS Systems That Span the Enterprise ‡ Enterprise Applications : Enterprise applications automate processes that span multiple business functions and organizational levels and may extend outside the organization. Sales and marketing . 9 . marketing and service to optimize revenue.

CH2: E-Business: How Business use IS Enterprise Application Architecture ‡ Enterprise applications automate processes that span multiple business functions and organizational levels and may extend outside the organization. 10 .

and its back-end corporate systems. shipping notifications. Transportation Management System (TMS). 11 .CH2: E-Business: How Business use IS Systems That Span the Enterprise Supply Chain Management System Customer orders. and other supply chain information flow among Haworth¶s Warehouse Management System (WMS). optimized shipping plans.

12 . software and process engineering.What is the difference between software engineering and computer science? Computer Science  theory  fundamentals Software Engineering   the practicalities of developing delivering useful software is concerned with System Engineering is concerned with all aspects of computer-based systems development including hardware.

checking that the software is what the customer wants ± Evolution .What is a software process? ‡ A set of activities whose goal is the development or evolution of software. ‡ Generic activities in all software processes are: ± Specification .changing the software in response to changing demands. such as requirements analysis. debugging and testing 13 . debugging and testing ‡ ‡ Upper-CASE ± Tools to support the early process activities of requirements and design Lower-CASE ± Tools to support later activities such as programming.what the system should do and its development constraints ± Development . CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering) :Software systems which are intended to provide automated support for software process activities.production of the software system ± Validation . system modelling.

‡ Maintainability ± Software must evolve to meet changing needs (scalable).What are the attributes of good software? ‡ The software should deliver the required functionality and performance to the user and should be maintainable. usable and compatible with other systems. ‡ Dependability ± Software must be trustworthy (reliable. 14 . dependable and acceptable. ‡ Acceptability ± Software must accepted by the users for which it was designed. ‡ Efficiency ± Software should not make wasteful use of system resources. secured and safe). This means it must be understandable.

± Reliable. ‡ Trust ± Developing techniques that demonstrate that software can be trusted by its users. 15 . ‡ Delivery ± Developing techniques that lead to faster delivery of software.What are the key challenges facing Software Engineering? ‡ Heterogeneity ± Developing techniques for building software that can cope with heterogeneous platforms and execution environments. Secured and Safe.

Generic Software Process Models ‡ A simplified representation of a software process. presented from a specific perspective ‡ Examples of process perspectives: ± Workflow perspective represents inputs. outputs and dependencies ± Data-flow perspective represents data transformation activities ± Role/action perspective represents the roles/activities of the people involved in software process ‡ Generic process models ± ± ± ± Waterfall Evolutionary development Formal transformation Integration from reusable components 16 .

garage.« ‡Construction ‡Entering ‡Living in the house ‡Fixing minor problems. enjoy to sit by the fireplace. lots of storage.Engineering Example Building a house: ‡Land and finances ‡garden. size of the garage « ‡type of bricks. color of the walls. you are used to age wine. don¶t like Bauhaus ‡Architect will define number of floors and rooms. orientation of the driveway. leaking in the roof « 17 .

‡Usually requirements change. ‡Low risk for well-understood developments using familiar technology. are incomplete or even not known ( Result: µThat¶s not what I meant !¶ ( go back to last step ) ‡WF-Model reacts very statically: Each stage must be completed before next one starts Validation Product Design Verification Detailed Design Verification Code Unit Test ‡Too expensive ‡Doesn¶t force to discipline Integration Product Verification Integration System Test Operation + Maintenance Revalidation 18 .The Waterfall Model System Feasibility Plans + Requirements Validation Waterfall Weakness ‡High risk for new systems because of specification and design problems.

19 . Transformational High risk because of need for advanced technology and staff skills. High risk because of lack of process visibility.Evolutionary Process Model Concurrent activities Initial version Specification Outline description Development Intermediate versions Validation Final version Process Model Weakness: Prototyping Low risk for new applications because specification and program stay in step.

verify Service next-level product 20 . Requires risk assessment expertise. Integrates development and maintenance. Integration test Acceptance test Develop. Focuses attention on early error elimination. Provides a framework for hardware/software development. resolve risks Risk analysis Risk analysis Risk analysis Prototype 2 Risk analysis Prototype 1 Concept of Operation Prototype 3 Operational protoype REVIEW Requirements plan Life-cycle plan Simulations. Puts quality objectives up front. benchmarks S/W requirements Product design Development plan Integration and test plan Requirement validation Design V&V Detailed design Code Unit test Plan next phase Focuses attention on reuse options. Contractual development often specifies process model and deliverables in advance.Spiral Process Model Determine objectives alternatives and constraints Evaluate alternatives identify. models.

Computer misuse ± Software engineers should not use their technical skills to misuse other people¶s computers. ± They should be careful to ensure that the intellectual property of employers and clients is protected. 21 . Confidentiality ± Engineers should normally respect the confidentiality of their employers or clients irrespective of whether or not a formal confidentiality agreement has been signed.CH4: Ethical and Social Issues in IS Software engineering involves wider responsibilities than simply the application of technical skills. ± Computer misuse ranges from relatively trivial (game playing on an employer¶s machine. Software engineers must behave in an honest and ethically responsible way if they are to be respected as professionals. Competence ± Engineers should not misrepresent their level of competence. ± They should not knowingly accept work which is outside their competence. copyright. Intellectual property rights ± Engineers should be aware of local laws governing the use of intellectual property such as patents. Ethical behaviour is more than simply upholding the law. etc. say) to extremely serious (dissemination of viruses).

educators. supervisors and policy makers. PUBLIC CLIENT AND EMPLOYER PRODUCT JUDGMENT MANAGEMENT PROFESSION COLLEAGUES SELF 22 . managers. including practitioners. Members of these organisations sign up to the code of practice when they join. The Code contains eight Principles related to the behaviour of and decisions made by professional software engineers. as well as trainees and students of the profession.CH4: Ethical and Social Issues in IS ‡ ‡ ‡ The professional societies in the US have cooperated to produce a code of ethical practice.

CH4: Ethical and Social Issues in IS ‡ ‡ PUBLIC ± Software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest. SELF ± Software engineers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession. MANAGEMENT ± Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance. 23 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . CLIENT AND EMPLOYER ± Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer consistent with the public interest. COLLEAGUES ± Software engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues. JUDGMENT ± Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment. PROFESSION ± Software engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest. PRODUCT ± Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible.

property rights and obligations. system quality. social. Figure 4-1 24 . quality of life. and Political Issues in an Information Society The introduction of new information technology has a ripple effect. raising new ethical. and accountability and control. and political levels. and political issues that must be dealt with on the individual. Social. These issues have five moral dimensions: information rights and obligations.CH4: Ethical and Social Issues in IS Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems The Relationship Between Ethical. social.

and control ‡ ‡ ‡ Computer-related liability problems System quality: Data quality and system errors Quality of life: Equity. work. access.CH4: Ethical and Social Issues in IS The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems ‡ Information rights: Privacy and freedom in the Internet Age ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The European directive on data protection Internet challenges to privacy Technical solutions ‡ Accountability. and leisure Dependence and vulnerability Property rights: Intellectual property ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Trade secrets Copyright Patents Challenges to intellectual property rights ‡ ‡ 25 . liability. and boundaries ‡ ‡ Balancing power: Center versus periphery Rapidity of change: Reduced response time to competition Maintaining boundaries: Family.

When the visitor returns to that Web site. The Web site can then use these data to display personalized information. the Web server requests the ID number from the cookie and uses it to access the data stored by that server on that visitor.CH4: Ethical and Social Issues in IS The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems How Cookies Identify Web Visitors Cookies are written by a Web site on a visitor¶s hard drive. Figure 4-3 26 .

27 .CH4: Ethical and Social Issues in IS The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems The Spamming Problem This figure shows the major types of products and services hawked through spam e-mail messages and the industries that receive the most spam.

Question??? Autumn 2011 28 .

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