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Roselle Nicodemus Julienne Vega Arade Villena
Language of Radio
Descriptive Precise Repetitive An element of ´nownessµ (Hilliard, 1967) Permits its audience a subjective as well as an objective orientation Entertaining Relatable
Theories on Media Effects CULTIVATION THEORY Developed by George Gerbner Media cultivates social paranoia Violence as a part of everyday life Viewer profile (television types) Heavy viewer: watches TV for four hours or more Light viewer: less time spent watching TV. more selective (turns off TV after having watched a show that they like) .
CULTIVATION THEORY Gerbner·s Findings 1) Chances of involvement with violence 2) Fear of walking alone at night 3) Perceived activity of the police 4) General mistrust of people: ´Mean World Syndromeµ .
TV=violent. real life=violent . blending and bendingµ that heavy viewers undergo TV homogenizes its audience hand experiences on violence are resonated through symbolic interpretation on screen Real life=TV.CULTIVATION THEORY Mainstreaming The Resonance First process of ´blurring.
it is important who gets to tell the stories within a culture .CULTIVATION THEORY Fear: a paralyzing emotion Worry can make people prisoners in their own homes. change the way they vote. affect how they feel about themselves Heavy TV viewing affects a person·s world view Therefore.
AGENDA SETTING THEORY Developed by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw Watergate incident The media does not tell us what to think. but what to think about (agenda setting function) We look to professionals for cues on where to focus our attention .
Who sets the agenda for media? The gatekeepers of media or the media elite .AGENDA SETTING THEORY Observation: people only attend to news that does not threaten their established beliefs People who have a willingness to let the media shape have a high need for orientation (index of curiosity).
SPIRAL OF SILENCE THEORY Pioneered by Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann Refers to the increasing pressure people feel to conceal their views when they think they are the minority and ability of people to openly express themselves when they are the majority Fear of isolation Media mutes the minority while it glorifies majority At the same time media can make the majority look like a minority Minorities that are unafraid of being isolated have the chance of swaying and molding public opinion .
SPIRAL OF SILENCE THEORY .
MAGIC BULLET THEORY OR THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE THEORY Media ´injectsµ information into the audience·s heads Treats the audience as ´passiveµ receptors of information ´Shapesµ people·s opinions. ´manipulatesµ their thoughts States that the audience will take in and believe anything the media shares .
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM George Herbert Mead ´Humans acts toward people or things on the basis of the meanings they assign to those people or things. it is based on how we interpret the world. instead.µ -Herbert Blumer Meaning is not inherent in an object but. and make use of symbols around us Language. symbolisms and social interaction allow us to formulate concepts and thought processes Basically refers to the effects of language of the one who speaks to the one who hears .
but subtly communicates ideological or connotative meaning Reality as a system of signs SIGNIFIER (physical form.SEMIOTICS Roland Barthes ´Discipline studying everything which can be used in order to lie.µ -Umberto Eco Process of interpreting signs.seemingly straightforward. in fact. conversely it cannot be used to tell the truth. be used to tell at all. image) + SIGNIFIED (meaning associated with image) = SIGN (inseparable combination of signifier and signified) . it cannot. the meaning of sign relation ´Connotationµ . because if something cannot be used to tell a lie.
Attitude scale on our minds.Theories on Influence SOCIAL JUDGEMENT THEORY The amount of discrepancy between the position advocated and the stance of the listener is what makes or breaks a persuasive attempt. .
we will adjust our attitude somewhat to accommodate that new input. Different person espousing the same position may differ considerably in their tolerance around this point.People·s perceptions are altered dramatically by group membership. Ego-involvement refers to how crucial an issue is in our lives. Once we·ve judged a new message to be within our latitude of acceptance. .
² The distressing mental state that people feel when they find themselves doing things that don·t fit with what they know. or having opinions that do not fit with other opinions they hold. Not only do we tend to listen to opinions and select materials that are consistent with our existing beliefs. The tension of dissonance motivates us to change either our behavior or our belief in an effort to avoid that distressing feeling. . Belief and attitude changes that take place because of cognitive dissonance.COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY C. we usually choose to be with people who are like us.D.
. People tended to select information that lined up with what they already believed and ignored facts or ideas that ran counter to those beliefs. Minimal Justification for Action Induces a Shift in Attitude A claim that the best way to stimulate an attitude change in others is to offer just enough incentive to elicit counterattitudinal behavior. Because the audience tends to turn a blind eye to information. Compliance without inner conviction.Selective Exposure Prevents Dissonance Mass media have a minimal effect on their audience . Postdecision Dissonance Creates a Need for Reassurance Motivates us to seek reassuring information and social support for our decision.
Meaning in the service of power. Marx directly links ideology to the ruling class. . ´The role of the media here is that of legitimation through the production of false consciousness.POLITICAL ECONOMY VIEW IDEOLOGY. in the interests of the class which owns and controls the media. A political economy approach leads us to expect that capitalistowned media decisions and content will tend to favor those with economic power.µ Ownership is considered the primary means through which the ruling class exerts control over media institutions. Here. which derives its power from its control of capital. Media content is a cultural commodity of a capitalist system.
. These strategies take advantage of the professional occupational routines of journalists to further the corporate ideology. or ´pay the piper.µ The business class has mobilized to stave off public opinion and the possible consequences of additional government regulation.µ Whether the press is called free or state-controlled. Instrumental Variation of Political Economy The media can be considered an important ´elite power group.Variations in Ideology by Funding Source Altschull starts with the assumption that media reflect the ideology of those that finance them. it reflects the ideology of the paymaster.
Carrying out their function is said to recquire systematic propaganda. A Propaganda Model Media serve the dominant elite. entertainment programs encourage a feeling of social stability resistant to substantial social change. . Prefers recurring format of ´balancingµ commentators or guests that present any disagreement within an adequate comfort zone.Elite News Source Structure By relying on repeatable formulas.
(3) the reliance of the media on information provided by government. (4) 'flak' as a means of disciplining the media. . owner wealth. business and 'expert' funded and approved by these primary sources and agents of power. and profit orientation of the dominant mass-media firms. (2) advertising as the primary income source of the mass media.Herman and Chomsky·s 5 news ´filtersµ: (1) the size. concentrated ownership. and (5) 'anti-communism' as a national religion and control mechanism.
and corporations have large budgets for public relations efforts that effectively ´subsidizeµ the cost of information gathering for the media (Gandy. leading right-wing media research to focus on documenting individual political bias among the gatekeepers. The conservative critique of media bias grants major power to the journalists who makes news decisions. 1982). .The government is able to produce great quantities of authoritative news through its vast information staff.
2001.org/explanations/theories/spirals_silence.) A First Look at Communication Theory 7th Edition. Retrieved November 14. ed. Honors: Spring 2001 Capstone Workbook. The Spiral of Silence Theory. Shoemaker. Robert L. a Manual for Training. The Radio Announcer's Handbook.htm. Retrieved November 14.htm. 1973. http://www.Y. Radio Broadcasting: An Introduction to the Sound Medium. Whiteplains. 1967.. http://communicationtheory. 2011. 2011. Spiral of Silence Theory in Mass Communication Context.10020. 2011. http://changingminds. Emory.Y. Hilliard. McGraw Hill Companies. Radio Programme Production. Communication Theory. Henneke. Mediating the Message: theories of influences on mass media content 2nd Edition.References: Aspinall. Retrieved November 14. 1948. (2009.uky. c1996 Griffin. 2010. Changing Minds. New York: Rinehart. Pamela J. . Richard.edu/~drlane/capstone/mass/spiral. Paris: Unesco. Inc. The Spiral of Silence Theory. N. Ben G. (1996). Hastings House.org/the-spiral-of-silence-theory/.: Longman. 2011.N.
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