Muhammad Hafiz Jamal P.Khas (B.M)/P.S/P.

J

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Children with learning disabilities (LDs) in reading and youngsters who are English language learners (ELLs) both are at risk for low reading achievement, but for different reasons.

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Children with genuine LDs in reading have intrinsic learning difficulties or differences, often related to problems in phonological processing that impact their word identification skills.

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ELLs usually can learn to read normally in their native language, but they lack sufficient exposure to both spoken and written English, which can adversely affect their development of English literacy.

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When both situations coexist for the same youngster---when a child with a learning disability happens also to be an English language learner---the issues surrounding identification and remediation can be very complex

When we learn a language, there are four skills that we need for complete communication. ` When we learn our native language, we usually learn to listen first, then to speak, then to read, and finally to write. ` These are called the four "language skills³ : -Listening -Speaking -Reading -Writing
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Listening skills are essential in the workplace, the family and the community at large.

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Listening, however, is more than just being able to hear and understand what someone else says.

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Listening skills involve etiquette, asking for clarification, showing empathy and providing an appropriate response.

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Good listening skills include using body language that empowers the speaker. You should make eye contact with the speaker. In a large auditorium or in a classroom, this means keeping your eyes looking at the speaker, not down or gazing at some daydream. Keep your hands down, not folded across your chest. Sit up and look alert.

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Speaking is one of the skills that have to be mastered by students in learning English. It is important for students to known definition first.

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Communication involves at least two people where both sender and receiver need to communicate to exchange information, ideas, opinions, feelings. views, or

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It means that the words that the speakers use, must be clear, so that listeners can understand what the speaker says.

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Here, the speaker must consider speed and volume. The speed at which you speak is relevant her. If you speak quickly, listeners may have difficulty. The volume with which you speak can also have a bearing. Speak out and do not mumble . Your words have to be loud enough to reach all your listeners.

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Reading comprehension is the degree to which we understand what we read. When we pick up the newspaper and read about the latest election results, call up a web site and read directions on installing a new light switch, or grab a novel off the shelf of the local bookstore, we are using our reading comprehension skills to gather information from text.

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Reading comprehension is a tricky topic, and century old debates about what it entails, how it happens, and how to best facilitate it still rage in academic circles. However, everyone agrees that reading comprehension is the ultimate end-goal of reading. If we do not read to understand, then we read for nothing.

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Writing is the final product of several separate acts that are hugely challenging to learn simultaneously. Among these separable acts are note-taking, identifying a central idea, outlining, drafting and editing.

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Both young and old people can encounter the discouraging µwriter¶s block¶ if they engage in more than one or two of these activities at once. It is difficult to start writing a report, for example, without a central idea and notes to support it.

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Often, the more detailed an outline, the easier is the writing. People frequently find that they can finish faster by writing a first draft quickly and then editing and revising this draft.

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Integrated

or

interdisciplinary

curriculum²the

terms

are

used

interchangeably in this collection, though there are various distinctions made by others within the field²has enjoyed renewed attention in recent years.
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Many fine small schools have worked hard to develop an integrated curriculum that is contextualized for their students, their community, and their school, district, or state standards.

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Small school staff are drawn to integrated curriculum because they believe it both reflects real-world experience more accurately and better fits newer understandings about how people learn best.

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