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MODULE II

ySensitivity analysis ;

allocation problems Assignment and distribution problems

.personnel to jobs. management needs to assign .. n) the cost incurred is Cij.... y The objective is to assign the jobs to machines so that the total cost is minimised. . or . . 2.....salespersons to territories.. y Consider the situation of assigning n jobs to n machines. n) is assigned to machine j (= 1. machines to job locations. y When a job i (= 1. 2.The Assignment Problem y In many business situations. .jobs to machines.

jobs represent sources and machines represent destinations. y The supply available at each source is 1 unit And demand at each destination is 1 unit. . y Here.The Assignment Problem y This situation is a special case of the Transportation Model and it is known as the assignment problem.

" -. No machine can do the work of one extraordinary man.Elbert Hubbard ."One machine can do the work of fifty ordinary men.

The Assignment Problem The assignment model can be expressed mathematically as follows: Xij= 0. if the job j is assigned to machine i . if the job j is not assigned to machine i 1.

The Assignment Problem .

An algorithm known as Hungarian Method has proven to be a quick and efficient way to solve such problems.The Assignment Problem y Assignment problem can be either formulated as a linear programming model. y However. . or it can be formulated as a transportation model.

Hungarian Method Example The following table gives the costs incurred in assigning jobs to certain machines in a factory. Determine the assignment that minimizes the cost. .

Hungarian Method Example Step 1: Select the smallest value in each row. . Subtract this value from each value in that column. Subtract this value from each value in that row Step 2: Select the smallest value in each column.

Hungarian Method Example .

. Proceed in this manner until all the columns have been examined. then do not consider that row but proceed to the next. Put a box around the zero as an assigned element and cross out all other zeroes in that column. until a row with exactly one zero element is found. Put a box around the zero as an assigned element and cross out all other zeroes in that row. until a column with exactly one zero element is found. Proceed in this manner until all the rows have been examined.Hungarian Method Example Step 3 : (i) Examine the rows successively starting from the first. then do not consider that row but proceed to the next. If there are more than one zero in any column. (ii) Examine the columns successively starting from the first. If there are more than one zero in any row.

Hungarian Method Example .

and job 3 to machine 2. y It is not always possible to obtain a feasible assignment as in here. y Therefore. . y Total cost is 5+12+13 = 30.Hungarian Method Example Step 4 : If each row and column contain exactly one assigned zero then the assignment is optimal . we assign job 1 to machine 1. job 2 to machine 3.

2. C. 1 5 2 INSPECTORS 7 5 JOBS 2 7 3 8 3 3 9 4 9 2 4 8 5 1 4 . 4 to inspectors A.PROBLEM 1 y Assign Jobs 1. 3. B. D so that the cost is minimised using the following data.

E M P L O Y E E S Jobs 1 A B C D E 8 0 3 4 9 2 4 9 8 3 5 3 2 5 9 1 8 4 6 5 2 0 9 5 1 4 6 3 5 . The time ( in hours) that each employee takes is given below.PROBLEM 2 y A department has 5 employees and 5 jobs to be performed. Determine the job allocation that will minimise the man hours.

1 10 3 EMPLOYEES 10 5 JOBS 2 5 9 7 11 3 13 8 3 9 4 15 3 2 7 .HOMEWORK 1 y Find the optimal assignment schedule given the following data.

Hungarian Method Example 2 .

. Such that all zero values are crossed out. y In such a case.Hungarian Method Example 2 y A feasible assignment is not possible at this moment. The procedure is to draw a minimum number of lines through some of the rows and columns.

. y (ii) Put a tick mark to those columns which have zeros in the marked rows. If the number of these lines is equal to the order of the matrix then the solution is optimal. y (iv) Repeat (ii) and (iii) until no more rows and columns can be checked. Else go to the next step. y Draw lines through unmarked rows and marked columns. y (iii) Put a tick mark to those rows (not already marked) which have assignments (boxed zeroes) in marked columns.Hungarian Method Example 2 y (i) Put a tick mark to those rows where no assignments have been made.

Hungarian Method Example 2 The next step is to select the smallest uncrossed out element. This element is subtracted from every uncrossed out element and added to every element at the intersection of two lines. .

Solution is to assign (1 to 1). y If drawing lines do not provide an easy solution. (2 to 3). . we should continue drawing lines until a feasible assignment is possible. y Actually. then we should perform the task of drawing lines one more time. (3 to 2) and (4 to 4).Hungarian Method Example 2 y We can now easily assign to the zero values.

If it is not balanced and the number of rows is less than the number of columns add dummy rows with zero cost to balance the problem. y Step 1: . Subtract this value from each value in that column. y Step 3: Select the smallest value in each column. Subtract this value from each value in that row.Hungarian Algorithm Check whether the number of rows = the number of columns in the cost matrix. y Step 2: Select the smallest value in each row. If so the assignment problem is said to be balanced and we can proceed to Step 2. If it is not balanced and the number of columns is less than the number of rows add dummy columns with zero cost to balance the problem.

then do not consider that column but proceed to the next. Proceed in this manner until all the rows have been examined. until a row with exactly one zero element is found. . Proceed in this manner until all the columns have been examined.Hungarian Method Example Step 4 : (i) Examine the rows successively starting from the first. If there are more than one zero in any column. Put a box around the zero as an assigned element and cross out all other zeroes in that row. Put a box around the zero as an assigned element and cross out all other zeroes in that column. until a column with exactly one zero element is found. then do not consider that row but proceed to the next. (ii) Examine the columns successively starting from the first. If there are more than one zero in any row.

Hungarian Algorithm y Step 5 : If each row and column contain exactly one assigned zero then the assignment is optimal. If either a row or a column does not contain exactly one assigned zero then the assignment is not optimal. go to Step 6. . y Step 6: Cover all the zeros by drawing minimal number of lines as follows : y (i) Put a tick mark to those rows where no assignments have been made. y (iv) Repeat (ii) and (iii) until no more rows and columns can be checked. y (iii) Put a tick mark to those rows (not already marked) which have assignments (boxed zeroes) in marked columns. y (ii) Put a tick mark to those columns which have zeros in the marked rows.

Else go to the next step. If the number of these lines is equal to the order of the matrix then the solution is optimal. add it to the elements lying in the intersection of the straight lines and do not change the remaining elements on the straight lines. y Step 8: Determine the smallest cost element not covered by the straight lines. y Go to step 4 and repeat the procedure until an optimal solution is reached. .Hungarian Algorithm y Step 7 : Draw lines through unmarked rows and marked columns. Subtract this element from all the uncrossed elements.

E M P L O Y E E S Jobs 1 A B C D E 10 3 10 7 7 2 5 9 7 11 9 3 13 18 2 9 10 4 15 13 2 7 4 5 16 6 2 12 12 . Determine the job allocation that will minimise the man hours.PROBLEM 1 y A department has 5 employees and 5 jobs to be performed. The time ( in hours) that each employee takes is given below.

PROBLEM 2 y The processing time ( in hours) for jobs when allocated for different machines are indicated. JOBS M A C H I N E S 1 A B C D E 9 43 41 74 36 2 22 78 28 42 11 3 58 72 91 27 57 4 11 50 37 49 22 5 19 63 45 39 25 . Determine the job allocation that will minimise the total processing time.

y The Traveling salesman begins its journey from his/her home city And visits other cities (in no particular order) before returning home. there are m locations (or nodes) y And unit costs (Cij) are associated with traveling between locations i and j. y The goal is to find the cycle that minimizes the total (traveling) distance required to visit all locations (nodes) without visiting any location twice. .The Traveling Salesman Problem y In the traveling salesman problem.

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