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Concept Arithmetic Teaching kits

Perkataan percent diambil daripada perkataan Latin iaitu per centum. cent bermaksud seratus. Simbol % digunakan untuk mewakili peratus. Simbol tersebut berkemungkinan tercipta semasa abad ke-15. Menariknya, simbol % mengandungi 2 sifar seperti angka 100.

Menurut Mok Soon Sang & Siew Fook Cheong (1988) konsep peratus ialah perkiraan yang dinisbahkan dengan dasar seratus untuk memudahkan perbandingan. Perbandingan di antara kuantiti yang sama jenis di mana kuantiti asas dinisbahkan sebagai seratus (Mok Soon Sang, 1988).

The term percent means parts per hundred. (W. George Cathart, 2006)

The numerators of fractions with a denominator of 100 are called percents. (Benny F. Tucker, 2006)

Example :

7/100 = 7 per ratus = 7 peratus = 7%

In mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fractiomn of 100 (per centmeaning "per hundred" in Latin). It is often denoted using the percent sign, "%", or the abbreviation "pct". For example, 45% (read as "forty-five percent") is equal to 45/100, or 0.45.


Percentages are used to express how large/small one quantity is, relative to another quantity.

The first quantity usually represents a part of, or a change in, the second quantity, which should be greater than zero.

For example, an increase of $ 0.15 on a price of $ 2.50 is an increase by a fraction of 0.15/2.50 = 0.06. Expressed as a percentage, this is therefore a 6% increase.

Although percentages are usually used to express numbers between zero and one, any dimensionless proportionality can be expressed as a percentage. For instance, 111% is 1.11 and 0.35% is 0.0035.

Pengiraan Peratus (%)

Contoh 1 : 10% = 10 100 = 1 x 100 10 = 10%

Menukar nombor perpuluhan kepada peratus (%) Contoh : 0.83 = 0.83 x 100% = 83%

Menukar nombor pecahan kepada peratus Contoh : = 12 25 = 12 x 100 25 = 48%

Method And Teaching Kits Activity For Percentages (Understanding The Meaning Of Percent) Activity For Percentages (Let s Go To The Mega Sales)

ACTIVITY FOR PERCENTAGES (UNDERSTANDING THE MEANING OF PERCENT) LEARNING OUTCOMES  To represent percents as fractions with denominators of 100  To convert fractions with denominators of 100 to percent MATERIALS 100 pieces of one sen coins and 10 x 10 grid






Pupils arrange 100 one cent coins with head sides facing up on the 10 x 10 grid

Guide pupils to flip over a certain number of coins so that the tail sides are facing up

Pupils flip back the flipped coins. Procedure 2 is repeated with other number of coins

Teacher introduces percents as fractions with denominators of 100

Teacher guides pupil s to conclude on the meaning of percent


LEARNING OUTCOMES To find the value of a percent from an amount of money MATERIALS A dice marked with 10%.20%,25%,30%,50%,70% on each of its face for each group A calculator Mega sale lists Activity sheets

Procedure 1 :- in groups of four each pair of students take turns to buy any items from the mega sale list

Procedure 2 :- throw the dice to determine the percentage of discount

Procedure 4:- each pair is supposed to buy any 5 items

Procedure 3 :- calculate the amount of discount and fill in the table in activity

Mok Soon Sang. (1988). Panduan mengajar matematik KBSR. Kuala Lumpur: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Bhd. Mok Soon Sang & Siew Fook Cheong. (1988). Pengajaran dan pembelajaran matematik untuk peringkat sekolah rendah. Petaling Jaya: Longman Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.

John N. Fujii. (1965). Numbers and arithmetic. California: Blaisdell Publishing Company. Derek Haylock. (2006). Mathematics explained for primary teachers: third edition. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Benny F. Tucker, Ann H. Singleton & Terry L. Weaver. (2006). Teaching mathematics to all children: second edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Frank J. Swetz & Liew Su Tim. (1988). Pengajaran matematik KBSR. Petaling Jaya: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd. W. George Cathcart (2006). Learning mathematics in elementary and middle schools: a learner-centered approach. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.