Chapter 9 EIGRP

CIS 82 Routing Protocols and Concepts Rick Graziani Cabrillo College graziani@cabrillo.edu Last Updated: 4/28/2008

Note 
My web site is www.cabrillo.edu/~rgraziani.  For access to these PowerPoint presentations and other materials, please email me at graziani@cabrillo.edu.

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For further information 
This presentation is an overview of what is covered in the curriculum/book.  For further explanation and details, please read the chapter/curriculum.  Book:  Routing Protocols and Concepts  By Rick Graziani and Allan Johnson  ISBN: 1-58713-206-0  ISBN-13: 978-58713206-3

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Feasibility Condition.Topics  Introduction to EIGRP  EIGRP: An Enhanced Distance Vector Routing Protocol  EIGRP Message Format  Protocol-Dependent Modules  RTP and EIGRP Packet Types  Hello Protocol  EIGRP Bounded Updates  DUAL: An Introduction  Administrative Distance  Authentication  Basic EIGRP Configuration  EIGRP Network Topology  Autonomous Systems and Process IDs  The router eigrp Command  The network Command  Verifying EIGRP  Examining the Routing Table  EIGRP Metric Calculation  EIGRP Composite Metric and the K Values  EIGRP Metrics  Using the bandwidth Command  Calculating the EIGRP Metric  DUAL  DUAL Concepts  Successor and Feasible Distance  Feasible Successors. and Reported Distance  Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Successor  Topology Table: No Feasible Successor  Finite State Machine  More EIGRP Configurations  The Null0 Summary Route  Disabling Automatic Summarization  Manual Summarization  EIGRP Default Route  Fine-Tuning EIGRP 4 .

Introduction to EIGRP  EIGRP: An Enhanced Distance Vector Routing Protocol  EIGRP Message Format  Protocol-Dependent Modules  RTP and EIGRP Packet Types  Hello Protocol  EIGRP Bounded Updates  DUAL: An Introduction  Administrative Distance  Authentication .

 Both are Cisco proprietary  Operate only on Cisco routers. 6 .21.  Enhancement of Cisco Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP).Introduction to EIGRP  Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)  Distance vector  Classless routing protocol  Released in 1992 with Cisco IOS Software Release 9.

Introduction to EIGRP  The term hybrid routing protocol is sometimes used to define EIGRP.  Misleading. not a hybrid between distance vector and link-state  Solely a distance vector routing protocol. 7 .

 Only bandwidth and delay are used by default. reliability. 8 . both IGRP and EIGRP use metrics composed of bandwidth.Introduction to EIGRP  Instead of hop count. delay. and load.

 If the EIGRP packet is encapsulated in an Ethernet frame:  Destination MAC.  Encapsulated in an IP packet.EIGRP Message Format  EIGRP Header field  Data field = Type/Length/Value. multicast address: 01-00-5E-00-00-0A 9 . or TLV.  Protocol field = 88 (EIGRP)  Destination IP address = multicast 224.10.0.0.

However.  Opcode specifies the EIGRP packet type as one of the following:  Update  Query  Reply  Hello 10 .EIGRP Message Format Note: All fields are shown to provide an accurate picture of the EIGRP message format. only the fields relevant to the CCNA candidate are discussed.

 Unlike RIP.  Autonomous system number  Specifies the EIGRP routing process. However. (more later)  EIGRP packet types are discussed later in this chapter. 11 .EIGRP Packet Header Message Format Note: All fields are shown to provide an accurate picture of the EIGRP message format. Cisco routers can run multiple instances of EIGRP. only the fields relevant to the CCNA candidate are discussed.

EIGRP TLV Message Format  EIGRP uses weights for its composite metric. only bandwidth (K1) and delay (K3) are weighted (used)  Set to 1.  More later.  Other K values are set to 0 (affect load and reliability).  More later 12 .  Default.  The hold time  Amount of time the EIGRP neighbor receiving this message should wait before considering the advertising router to be down.

the prefix length for 255.255.0 is 24 (/24)  Destination field:  The destination network. 13 .255.IP Internal Routes TLV  Metric fields:  Delay and Bandwidth  Reliability and Load  (more later)  Subnet mask field (Prefix Length):  Example.

IP External Routes TLV  In this chapter.  Additional fields  All the fields used by the IP Internal TLV 14 . we import or redistribute a default static route into EIGRP.

15 . but it is not used to determine the routing metric.Note on MTU  Some EIGRP literature might incorrectly state that the maximum transmission unit (MTU) is one of the metrics used by EIGRP.  The MTU is included in the routing updates.  MTU is not a metric used by EIGRP.

Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)  AppleTalk. to route different protocols.  PDMs are responsible for the specific routing tasks for each network layer protocol.ProtocolDependent Modules  EIGRP uses protocol-dependent modules (PDM).  Example The IP-EIGRP module is responsible for:  Sending and receiving EIGRP packets that are encapsulated in IP.  Using DUAL to build and maintain the IP routing table. 16 . including:  IP.

17 .  Unreliable RTP does not require an acknowledgment (like UDP).RTP and EIGRP Packet Types  Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP)  Delivery and reception of EIGRP packets.10).  RTP includes both reliable delivery and unreliable delivery of EIGRP packets:  Reliable RTP requires an acknowledgment (like TCP).  Cannot use the services of UDP or TCP  IPX and AppleTalk do not use protocols from the TCP/IP protocol suite.0.  RTP can send packets either as a unicast or a multicast (224.0.

EIGRP Packet Types ± Hello Packet  Hello packets are used by EIGRP to:  Discover neighbors  Form adjacencies with those neighbors  EIGRP hello packets:  multicasts  unreliable delivery 18 .

 Uses reliable delivery.  Multicast when sent to multiple routers  Unicast when sent to a single router  Acknowledgment (ACK) Packets  Sent when reliable delivery is used (update.EIGRP Packet Types ± Update and Acknowledgement Packets EIGRP uses triggered updates X  Update Packets  Contains only the routing information needed (a change occurs)  Sent only to those routers that require it. and reply packets). 19 .  Sent as an unreliable unicast. query.

 Queries and replies use reliable delivery.  All neighbors must send a reply regardless of whether they have a route to the downed network.EIGRP Packet Types ± Query and Reply Packets Why Query? Another router could be attached to the same LAN.  Queries and replies packets are discussed in more detail in CCNP.  Queries can use multicast or unicast. whereas replies are always sent as unicast.  DUAL is discussed in a later section.  To keep this example simple. acknowledgments were omitted in the graphic. X  Used by DUAL when searching for networks and other tasks. 20 .

21 .  EIGRP routers discover neighbors and establish adjacencies with neighbor routers using the hello packet. EIGRP must first discover its neighbors.Hello Protocol  Before any EIGRP packets can be exchanged between routers.

544 Mbps) or slower.Hello Protocol  Most networks. EIGRP hello packets are sent every 5 seconds. hellos are unicast every 60 seconds.25. the neighbor and its routes remain viable.  On multipoint nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA) networks such as X. 22 . Frame Relay. and ATM interfaces with access links of T1 (1.  An EIGRP router assumes that as long as it is receiving hello packets from a neighbor.

 More later.maximum time the router should wait to receive the next hello before declaring that neighbor as unreachable.Hello Protocol  Hold time .  15 seconds on most networks  180 seconds on low-speed NBMA networks  If the hold time expires:  EIGRP declares the route as down  DUAL searches for a new path in the topology table or by sending out queries. 23 .3 times the hello interval.  Default hold time .

 This minimizes the bandwidth required to send EIGRP packets.  The term partial means that the update only includes information about the route changes.  EIGRP sends its updates only when the metric for a route changes.EIGRP Bounded Updates  EIGRP uses the terms partial and bounded when referring to its update packets.  The term bounded refers to the propagation of partial updates sent only to those routers that are affected by the change. 24 .

Garcia-LunaAceves. W. even temporary ones. J. S. it uses them somewhat differently. J.  The most prominent work with DUAL has been done by J. the primary way that EIGRP prevents routing loops is with the DUAL algorithm.  Although EIGRP uses both of these techniques. Dijkstra and C. 25 .  First proposed by E.  Routing loops.DUAL: An Introduction J. Scholten. can be extremely detrimental to network performance. Garcia-Luna-Aceves  Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) is the convergence algorithm used by EIGRP.  Distance vector routing protocols such as RIP prevent routing loops with hold-down timers and split horizon.

A directly connected network on R2 goes down. 26 . R1 and R3 return an EIGRP acknowledgment indicating that they have received the update from R2.DUAL: An Introduction X X 1. 2.  R2 sends an EIGRP update message to its neighbors indicating the network is down .

6.  In this case. R2 sends an EIGRP query to its neighbors asking them whether they have a route to this downed network.DUAL: An Introduction X X 3. (more later. R1 and R3 return an EIGRP acknowledgment indicating that they have received the query from R2 5. R2 does not have an EIGRP backup route known as a feasible successor. 4.)  So. R1 and R3 send an EIGRP reply message in response to the query sent by R2. the reply would state that the router does not have a route to this network. R2 returns an acknowledgment indicating that it received the reply. Note: Much more later! 27 .

28 . you learn how to configure EIGRP summary routes.  Later in this chapter.Administrative Distance  When compared to other interior gateway protocols (IGP). EIGRP is the most preferred by the Cisco IOS software because it has the lowest AD.

 This practice ensures that routers will accept routing information only from other routers that have been configured with the same password or authentication information.  However. EIGRP can be configured for authentication.  When authentication is configured on a router. authentication does not encrypt the router¶s routing table.Authentication  Like other routing protocols.  It is good practice to authenticate transmitted routing information. the router authenticates the source of each routing update packet that it receives. 29 .

Basic EIGRP Configuration  EIGRP Network Topology  Autonomous Systems and Process IDs  The router eigrp Command  The network Command  Verifying EIGRP  Examining the Routing Table .

0/16.0. 31 .Topology  Includes the addition of the ISP router.16.  R1 and R2 routers have subnets that are part of the 172.

252 32 .255.255.0 ! interface Serial0/0/0 ip address 172.16.255.255.10.252 clock rate 64000 ! interface Serial0/0/1 ip address 192.16.R1¶s running-config hostname R1 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.255.1 255.3.1 255.5 255.1.168.255.

252 clockrate 64000  ISP router does not physically exist in our configurations. 33 .2 255.168.2.252 ! interface Serial0/0/1 ip address 192.1 255.255.255.255.3.  The connection between R2 and ISP is represented with a loopback interface on Router R2.16.255.255.252 description Simulated ISP ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.R2¶s running-config hostname R2 ! interface Loopback1 ip address 10.255.0 ! interface Serial0/0/0 ip address 172.1.255.1.10.16.9 255.255.1 255.

168.168.0 ! interface Serial0/0/0 ip address 192.252 34 .255.255.10 255.10.10.255.R3¶s running-config hostname R3 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 192.1 255.168.255.255.6 255.252 clockrate 64000 ! interface Serial0/0/1 ip address 192.255.1.

 Described in RFC 1930. 35 .  Same authority that assigns IP address space.  AS numbers are assigned by IANA and its RIR.Autonomous Systems and Process IDs  An autonomous system (AS) is a collection of networks under the administrative control of a single entity that presents a common routing policy to the Internet.

 The vast majority of companies and institutions with IP networks do not need an autonomous system number because they come under the control of a larger entity such as an ISP.  Uses exterior gateway routing protocol BGP. BGP 36 .Autonomous Systems and Process IDs  Who needs an autonomous system number?  ISPs  Internet backbone providers  Large institutions connecting to other entities that also have an autonomous system number.

Process ID Router(config)# router eigrp autonomous-system Router(config)# router eigrp 1 Must be same on all routers in EIGRP routing domain  Both EIGRP and OSPF use a process ID to represent an instance of their respective routing protocol running on the router. 37 . it actually functions as a process ID.  Although EIGRP refers to the parameter as an ³autonomous-system´ number.  AS parameter is between 1 and 65.535.  All routers in this EIGRP routing domain must use the same process ID number (autonomous system number).

The router eigrp Command

R1(config)# router eigrp 1 R1(config-router)# R2(config)# router eigrp 1 R2(config-router)# R3(config)# router eigrp 1 R3(config-router)# 

EIGRP is enabled on all three routers using the process ID of 1.
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The network Command

Router(config-router)# network network-address 

The network command in EIGRP has the same function as in other IGP routing protocols:  Any interface on this router that matches the network address in the network command will be enabled to send and receive EIGRP updates.  This network (or subnet) will be included in EIGRP routing updates.

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The network Command
Adjacency

R1(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 R2(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 1: Neighbor 172.16.3.1 (Serial0/0) is up: new adjacency 

The network-address is the classful network address for this interface.  172.16.0.0 includes both 172.16.1.0/24 and 172.16.3.0/30 subnets.  When EIGRP is configured on R2, DUAL sends a notification message to the console stating that a neighbor relationship with another EIGRP router has been established.  This new adjacency happens automatically because both R1 and R2 are using the same EIGRP 1 routing process and both routers are now sending updates on the 172.16.0.0 network.

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The network Command with a Wildcard Mask Router(config-router)# network network-address [wildcard-mask]  Network command ± When uses classful network address:  All interfaces on the router that belong to that classful network address will be enabled for EIGRP. to be enabled for EIGRP:  Use the wildcard-mask option.  To include only specific interface(s). 41 . subnets.

255.255.8 255.168. 0.3 Or R2(config-router)# network 192.255.252 --------------0. as can be verified with the show runningconfig 42 .255.10.255.255.255 .255.  The inverse of subnet mask 255.0.0.0.255.10. Cisco IOS software then converts the command to the wildcard mask format.252  Think of a wildcard mask as the inverse of a subnet mask. subtract the subnet mask from 255. 0.8 0.  Some Cisco IOS software versions also let you just enter the subnet mask.168.3.255.255.255.0.255.  However. 3 Subtract the subnet mask Wildcard mask R2(config-router)# network 192.252 is 0.The network Command with a Wildcard Mask 255.  To calculate the inverse of the subnet mask.

0.8 255.168.0.The network Command with a Wildcard Mask R2(config-router)# network 192.3 Or R2(config-router)# network 192.168.8 0.10.0.0.0.0 network 192.10.3 auto-summary 43 .16.10.168.252 R2# show running-config <some output omitted> ! router eigrp 1 network 172.255.8 0.255.

The network Command with a Wildcard Mask R2(config-router)# network 192.10.0. EIGRP stops sending hello packets on that interface.3  The passive-interface command should not be used with EIGRP.168.  Will not form an adjacency  Unable to send or receive routing updates. 44 .0.  When the passive-interface command is configured.8 0.

0.0.0 network 192.168.8 0.168.16.168.0.168.10.1.0.3 router eigrp 1 network 192.0 network 192.4 router eigrp 1 network 172.0 network 192.16.Network configurations R1 router eigrp 1 network 172.0 45 R2 R3 .10.10.

 Try pinging the IP address of the neighbor.Verifying EIGRP  EIGRP routers must first establish adjacencies with their neighbors before any updates can be sent or received.  show ip eigrp neighbors . 46 .  If a neighbor is not listed:  Check the local interfaces to make sure it is activated with the show ip interface brief command.view the neighbor table and verify that adjacencies with its neighbors.

thus preventing EIGRP hello packets on the interface? 47 .Verifying EIGRP Verifying EIGRP  If the ping is successful and EIGRP still does not see the router as a neighbor. examine the following configurations:  Are both routers configured with the same EIGRP process ID?  Is the directly connected network included in the EIGRP network statements?  Is the passive-interface command inappropriately configured.

10.168. EIGRP maximum hopcount 100 EIGRP maximum metric variance 1 These will be Redistributing: eigrp 1 explained Automatic network summarization is in effect later.2 90 00:02:12 Distance: internal 90 external 170 48 . K2=0.0.0.168.3.R1# show ip protocols Routing Protocol is ³eigrp 1´ Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Default networks flagged in outgoing updates Default networks accepted from incoming updates Some items to EIGRP metric weight K1=1. Serial0/0/0 Summarizing with metric 2169856 172. K5=0 make note of.168.16.10.0 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update (this router) 90 00:03:29 192.0/24 for FastEthernet0/0.0/16 for Serial0/0/1 Summarizing with metric 28160 Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 172. K4=0. Automatic address summarization: 192.16. K3=1.6 90 00:02:09 Gateway Distance Last Update 172.16.10.0 192.

6.10. 49 .0/24 is a summary.168. S0/0/1 D C D D C D C D  Notice that EIGRP routes are denoted in the routing table with a D. 2 masks 192.16. I .16. FastEthernet0/0 172.2. S . EX .0.3.0. S0/0/1 172. 3 subnets. O .0/16 is a summary.00:02:43. 00:03:50.16.0/24 is directly connected.RIP.OSPF. 00:10:52. S0/0/0 172.168.16. R .1.0/30 is directly connected.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.10.6. Null0 172.connected.EIGRP external. M .1.IGRP.EIGRP.static.168. Null0 192. 00:02:31. <Output omitted> 192.10.3.168. D .168. which stands for DUAL. 3 masks 172.0/16 is variably subnetted.0/24 is variably subnetted.16.168.168.mobile. Serial0/0/1 192. 4 subnets.10.Examining the Routing Table: R1 R1# show ip route Codes: C .8/30 [90/2681856] via 192.0/24 [90/2172416] via 172.16.2.10.4/30 is directly connected.10. Serial0/0/0 192. 00:10:47.

00:04:07.16.10. 3 subnets. Serial0/0/1 172. S0/0/1 D D C D D C C C D  EIGRP is a classless routing protocol (includes the subnet mask in the routing update).0. S0/0/0 172.4/30 [90/2681856] via 192.10.168.10.Examining the Routing Table: R2 R2# show ip route <Output omitted> 192.168.00:03:05.1.16.168.2.8/30 is directly connected.0/30 is subnetted.10.10.S0/0/1 192. Null0 192.1.16.168.0/24 is a summary. Loopback1 192. Null0 172.16.1.3.10.10.0.0.168. it supports variable-length subnet masks (VLSM) and classless interdomain routing (CIDR).1. 4 subnets.0/16 is a summary.0/16 is variably subnetted.0/24 is variably subnetted.0 is directly connected.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192. FastEthernet0/0 172. 00:02:54.0/30 is directly connected. 3 masks 172.16.0/24 is directly connected.0. 00:11:11.1.3. 00:04:13.168. Serial0/0/0 10. 50 . 2 masks 192.0/24 [90/2172416] via 172. 1 subnets 10.168.16.10.

10.168.0/24 is directly connected.1.168.8/30 is directly connected.9.0/24 is variably subnetted. 2 masks 192. Serial0/0/0 192. 00:03:23.0.10. EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the major network boundary. 51 .10.0/24 is a summary. FastEthernet0/0 D C C D C  By default.10.5.168.168. S0/0/0 [90/2172416] via 192.168.10.16.  Null0 summary routes will be explained next. Serial0/0/1 172.168.10. 3 subnets.Examining the Routing Table: R3 R3# show ip route <Output omitted> 192. 00:03:23.168. Null0 192. just as you can for RIPv2.  You can disable the automatic summarization with the no auto-summary command.0/16 [90/2172416] via 192. S0/0/1 192.4/30 is directly connected. 00:03:11.

10.0/16 is variably subnetted.1.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.168.10.168.0 is directly connected.3.0/24 is variably subnetted.0.168.8/30 is directly connected. 00:04:13. Null0 D 172.1.0/30 is directly connected. 52 .16.0.10. 00:02:54. Serial0/0/1 172.1.  In other words.168.10.10.0.  If a packet does not match one of the level 2 child routes.0/24 is directly connected.16. 1 subnets C 10.168.1.Introducing the Null0 Summary Route R2# show ip route <Output omitted> 192.0/16 is a summary.168. the packet is discarded. 2 masks D 192.1.16.3.16. 3 subnets.16.10.0. Loopback1 D 192. Serial0/0/0 10.0.0/24 and 172.16. Null0 D 192.00:03:05. but none of the subnets.16.10. 3 masks D 172.0/24 [90/2172416] via 172. S0/0/0 C 172. 00:11:11.168. 4 subnets. 00:04:07. it is sent to the Null0 interface.0/24 is a summary.168.S0/0/1 C 192. S0/0/1  The 192.0/16 routes do not actually represent a path to reach the parent networks.10.0/30 is subnetted.4/30 [90/2681856] via 192. FastEthernet0/0 C 172.2.10. if the packet matches the level 1 parent.

S0/0/1 C 192.168.1.10. Null0 D 172.168.16.16. Null0 D 192.0.16.10.  Automatic summarization is enabled.0. Serial0/0/1 172. 2 masks D 192.16. S0/0/1  EIGRP automatically includes a Null0 summary route as a child route whenever both of the following conditions exist:  There is at least one subnet that was learned via EIGRP. 53 . 00:11:11. 00:04:07.10.  The Null0 summary route is removed when automatic summary is disabled (later).10.10.168.0/30 is subnetted.0/24 [90/2172416] via 172.168. S0/0/0 C 172.1.10.168. 00:04:13. Loopback1 D 192.3.168.0/30 is directly connected.Introducing the Null0 Summary Route R2# show ip route <Output omitted> 192. 4 subnets.10.0/24 is directly connected.1.168. 3 masks D 172.16.0. 1 subnets C 10.16.8/30 is directly connected.1. FastEthernet0/0 C 172.0/16 is a summary.0. Serial0/0/0 10.1.3.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.0/24 is a summary.4/30 [90/2681856] via 192.0/24 is variably subnetted.00:03:05.0 is directly connected.2. 3 subnets. 00:02:54.0/16 is variably subnetted.10.

2 masks 192.168.5.10.10. 00:03:23.  R1 and R2 are not propagating the individual subnets because of automatic summarization.8/30 is directly connected.168.1.10.168. Serial0/0/1 172. S0/0/1 192. 00:03:11.9.10. 00:03:23.0/24 is a summary.10.0.0.0/24 is variably subnetted.0/24 is directly connected.0/16 [90/2172416] via 192. S0/0/0 [90/2172416] via 192. 3 subnets. 54 .168.R3 Routing Table R3# show ip route <Output omitted> 192. Null0 192.16.0/16 network and sending it as a single routing update.16. Serial0/0/0 192.168. FastEthernet0/0 D C C D C  Both R1 and R2 are automatically summarizing the 172.  We will turn off automatic summarization later.10.4/30 is directly connected.168.168.

EIGRP Metric Calculation  EIGRP Composite Metric and the K Values  EIGRP Metrics  Using the bandwidth Command  Calculating the EIGRP Metric .

it is not a routing metric used by EIGRP or IGRP.EIGRP Composite Metric and the K Values  EIGRP uses the following values in its composite metric to calculate the preferred path to a network:  Bandwidth  Delay  Reliability  Load  Note: Although MTU is included in the routing table updates. 56 .

and K2.The Composite Metric  By default.  Note:  Modifying the metric weights is beyond the scope of this course.  The result is that only the bandwidth and delay values are used in the computation of the default composite metric.) 57 . (The tos value is always set to 0.  The tos (type of service) value is left over from IGRP and was never implemented. K1 and K3 are set to 1. and K5 are set to 0. but their relevance is important in establishing neighbors and is discussed in a later section. K4.

Verifying the K Values R1# show ip protocols Routing Protocol is ³eigrp 1´ Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Default networks flagged in outgoing updates Default networks accepted from incoming updates EIGRP metric weight K1=1. K5=0 <output omitted> K1 K2 K3 K4 K5  The K values on R1 are set to the default. K4=0. K3=1.  Changing these values to other than the default is not recommended unless the network administrator has a very good reason to do so. 58 .  Cisco recommends that these values are not modified. K2=0.

line protocol is up Hardware is GT96K Serial Description: Link to R2 Internet address is 172. BW 1544 Kbit. reliability.16. reliability 255/255. DLY 20000 usec. txload 1/255. delay.  Default values:  bandwidth  delay 59 .3. and load in the computation of the routing metric.Examining the Metric Values R1# show interface serial 0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is up.1/30 MTU 1500 bytes. lets you can examine the actual values used for bandwidth. rxload 1/255 <output omitted>  show interface command.

000 bps (1. 60 . BW 1544 Kbit.544.  Most serial interfaces use the default bandwidth value of 1544 Kbps or 1. reliability 255/255.  The value of the bandwidth might or might not reflect the actual physical bandwidth of the interface. DLY 20000 usec. rxload 1/255 <output omitted>  The bandwidth metric (1544 Kbps) is a static value used by some routing protocols such as EIGRP and OSPF to calculate their routing metric.  Modifying the bandwidth value does not change the actual bandwidth of the link.544 Mbps).Bandwidth R1# show interface serial 0/0/0 <output omitted> MTU 1500 bytes.  Should reflect actual bandwidth of the link. (next). txload 1/255.  kilobits per second (Kbps).

txload 1/255. BW 1544 Kbit. reliability 255/255. rxload 1/255 <output omitted> Delay is a measure of the time it takes for a packet to traverse a route. delay is a default value that can be changed by the network administrator.  Like the bandwidth value. he interface Expressed in microseconds (millionths of a second).Delay R1# show interface serial 0/0/0 <output omitted> MTU 1500 bytes. Based on the type of link.     61 . The router does not actually track how long packets are taking to reach the destination. DLY 20000 usec.

DLY 20000 usec. reliability 255/255.  Default value is 20. rxload 1/255 <output omitted>  100 microseconds for Fast Ethernet interfaces. txload 1/255.Delay R1# show interface serial 0/0/0 <output omitted> MTU 1500 bytes.000 microseconds for serial interfaces 62 . BW 1544 Kbit.

 Reliability is expressed as a fraction of 255. 255/255 would be 100 percent reliable. 63 . DLY 20000 usec. the more reliable the link.  Measured dynamically with a value between 0 and 255. the higher the value.Reliability R1# show interface serial 0/0/0 <output omitted> MTU 1500 bytes. reliability 255/255. txload 1/255.  So. with 1 being a minimally reliable link and 255 being 100 percent reliable. rxload 1/255 <output omitted>  Reliability is a measure of the probability that the link will fail or how often the link has experienced errors. BW 1544 Kbit.  Remember that by default EIGRP does not use reliability in its metric calculation.8 percent reliable.  Reliability is calculated on a 5-minute weighted average to avoid the sudden impact of high (or low) error rates. whereas a link of 234/255 would be 91.

Load is displayed as both an outbound.Load R1# show interface serial 0/0/0 <output omitted> MTU 1500 bytes. 64 . load is expressed as a fraction of 255. 1/255 would be a minimally loaded link. rxload 1/255 <output omitted>         Load reflects the amount of traffic using the link. However. or receive. a lower load value is more desirable because it indicates less load on the link. load value (rxload). BW 1544 Kbit. Remember that by default EIGRP does not use load in its metric calculation. 40/255 is a link at 16 percent capacity. load value (txload) and an inbound. DLY 20000 usec. Value between 0 and 255. reliability 255/255. So. in this case. or transmit. and 255/255 is a link that is 100 percent saturated. txload 1/255. Similar to reliability. This value is calculated on a 5-minute weighted average to avoid the sudden impact of high (or low) channel usage.

65 . the bandwidth metric defaults to 1544 Kbps.  Correct value for bandwidth is very important to the accuracy of routing information  Use the interface command bandwidth to modify the bandwidth metric.  Use the interface command no bandwidth to restore the default value.Using the bandwidth Command Router(config-if)# bandwidth kilobits  Most serial links.

Using the bandwidth Command R1(config)# inter s 0/0/0 R1(config-if)# bandwidth 64 R2(config)# inter s 0/0/0 R2(config-if)# bandwidth 64 R2(config)# inter s 0/0/1 R2(config-if)# bandwidth 1024 R3(config)# inter s 0/0/1 R3(config-if)# bandwidth 1024  Modify the bandwidth on the appropriate serial interfaces. 66 .  Be sure to modify both ends of the link.

3. reliability 255/255. BW 1024 Kbit. rxload 1/255 <some output omitted> R2# show interface serial 0/0/1 Serial0/0/1 is up.9/30 MTU 1500 bytes. txload 1/255. reliability 255/255.Verify changes R2# show interface serial 0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is up. DLY 20000 usec. DLY 20000 usec.2/30 MTU 1500 bytes. BW 64 Kbit. rxload 1/255 <some output omitted>  Verify the change using the show interface command. line protocol is up Hardware is PowerQUICC Serial Internet address is 192. txload 1/255.168. 67 .16. line protocol is up Hardware is PowerQUICC Serial Internet address is 172.10.

Calculating the EIGRP Metric  Using the default values for K1 and K3. you can simplify this calculation to: slowest bandwidth (or minimum bandwidth) plus cumulative sum of all the delays -----------------------------------------------EIGRP route metric 68 .

69 . Step 3. Determine the delay value for each outgoing interface on the way to the destination. That bandwidth is used for the (10. Determine the link with the slowest bandwidth.000/bandwidth) * 256 portion of the formula. and then multiply by 256 (* 256). Add the bandwidth and sum of delay values to obtain the EIGRP metric. Sum the delay values and divide by 10 (sum of delay/10). Step 2. Step 4.Calculating the EIGRP Metric Step 1.000.

000 Kbps.024. or 100 Mbps.000 bps.Bandwidth (10.000/bandwidth) * 256 = 2.840 70 .  (10.  The serial 0/0/1 interface on R2 has a bandwidth of 1024 Kbps. (Slowest)  The Fast Ethernet 0/0 interface on R3 has a bandwidth of 100. or 1.499.000.840 Slowest bandwidth Step 1.000.000/bandwidth) * 256 = 2.499. Determine the link with the slowest bandwidth.

71 .Step 2.  The Fast Ethernet 0/0 interface on R3 has a delay of 100 microseconds.  The serial 0/0/1 interface on R2 has a delay of 20. Determine the delay value for each outgoing interface on the way to the destination.000 microseconds.

72 .560. and then multiply by 256 (* 256).560 Step 3.560  The delay portion of the composite metric is 514. Sum the delay values and divide by 10 (sum of delay/10).000/10 + 100/10 = 2.  20.010 * 256 = 514.010  Then multiplied by 256.Delay (20.000/10 + 100/10)256 = 514. 2.

014. to obtain the EIGRP metric of 3.499.499.840 + 514.840 + 514.Route Metric 2. 73 .560 = 3.  Simply add the two values together. 2. Add the bandwidth and sum of delay values to obtain the EIGRP metric.014.560.400 Slowest bandwidth Step 4.400.

0/24 [90/3014400] via 192.168.168. 00:00:15.10. S0/0/1 74 .1.Calculating the EIGRP Metric R2# show ip route <code output omitted> D 192.10.

End of Part 1 Part 2 will be updated next week .

and Reported Distance  Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Successor  Topology Table: No Feasible Successor  Finite State Machine . Feasibility Condition.DUAL  DUAL Concepts  Successor and Feasible Distance  Feasible Successors.

DUAL Concepts  Diffusing Update Algorithm is the algorithm used by EIGRP.  Determines:  best loop-free path  loop-free backup paths (which can be used immediately)  DUAL also provides the following:  Fast convergence  Minimum bandwidth usage with bounded updates  DUAL uses several terms that are discussed in more detail throughout this section:  Successor  Feasible distance  Feasible successor  Reported distance or advertised distance  Feasible condition or feasibility condition 77 .

1.  The IP address of a successor is shown in a routing table entry right after the word via. 78 .10.0/24 [90/3014400] via 192.168.168.Successor and Feasible Distance R2# show ip route <code output omitted> D IP address of the successor 192. 00:00:15. S0/0/1  A successor is a neighboring router that is used for packet forwarding and is the least-cost route to the destination network.10.

168.  FD is the metric listed in the routing table entry as the second number inside the brackets.168.Successor and Feasible Distance R2# show ip route <code output omitted> D Feasible Distance 192. 00:00:15.1.0/24 [90/3014400] via 192. S0/0/1  Feasible distance (FD) is the lowest calculated metric to reach the destination network.10.10.  As with other routing protocols. 79 . this is also known as the metric for the route.

Feasible Successors.  Does not require to recompute DUAL. 80 . and Reported Distance  DUAL fast convergence because it can use backup paths to other routers known as feasible successors. Feasibility Condition.

Feasible Successors.168.0/24?  Remember. and Reported Distance  Is R1 a Feasible Successor?  Does R2 know if R1 has a loop-free backup path to 192. EIGRP is a Distance Vector Routing protocol. 81 .1. Feasibility Condition.

Feasible Successor ?  A feasible successor (FS) is a neighbor who has a loop-free backup path to the same network as the successor by satisfying the feasibility condition.1.0/24?  To be a feasible successor.  Would R2 consider R1 to be a feasible successor to network 192.168. 82 . R1 must satisfy the feasibility condition (FC).

R1: My FD to 192.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.1.172.1. 1.  The reported distance (advertised distance) .172. Serial0/0/1  Feasibility Condition: The FC is met when a neighbor¶s reported distance (RD) to a network is less than the local router¶s FD to the same destination network.168.1. R1: I will send R2 my RD to 192. .0/24 of 2. 83  The metric that a router reports to a neighbor about its own cost to that network.168.6.168.416 (my routing table).EIGRP neighbor¶s FD to the same destination network.10. 01:12:26.168.Feasibility Condition 2. R1# show ip route <output omitted> D 192.0/24 is 2.416.

if the link between R2 and R3 fails. can the neighbor R1 be a Feasibile Successor to this same 192.168.161. 84 . can R1 immediately be used as a backup path without a recomputation of DUAL?  R1 can only be an FS (Feasible Successor) if it meets the FC (Feasibility Condition).Feasibility Condition R2: If my path to R3 fails can I reach 192.0/24 via R1? Does it meet the FC?  If R3 is the successor.1.0/24 network?  In other words.

0/24 is 2. 1.1. R1: I will send R2 my RD to 192.1.172.1.168.172.Feasibility Condition 2.  R1 reports 2.0/24 of 2.168.416 is R1¶s RD (Reported Distance).416. 01:12:26.168.10.172.168. R1: My FD to 192. R1# show ip route <output omitted> D 192.1. 85 . Serial0/0/1  R1 FD to 192.416 (my routing table).416.0/24 is 2.168.172.172.416 is its FD (Feasible Distance).  R1¶s perspective: 2.6.172.416 to R2 as its RD (Reported Distance)  R2¶s perspective: 2.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.

10.400.6.1.1.1.0/24 R1# show ip route <output omitted> D 192.168. 86 . so R1 is the FS for 192. 00:00:15. is less than R2¶s own FD of 3.168.0/24 network.014.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.168. 01:12:26.  R1 is now an FS (Feasible Successor) for R2 to the 192. R1 meets the feasibility condition.R2# show ip route <output omitted> D 192.168.1. 2. Serial0/0/1 R1¶s RD is less than R2¶s FD.416.168.10.10.0/24 [90/3014400] via 192. Serial0/0/1  Because the RD of R1.172.168.

plus another delay of R1¶s s0/0/1.014.168.026.168.168.0/24?  The 64 Kbps link would be used as the ³slowest bandwidth part of the metric calculation.400. 00:00:15.014.R2# show ip route <output omitted> D 192.10. Serial0/0/1 If R1 was the successor.168.026.560) than 3.400 via successor R3.10. Serial0/0/1  Why isn¶t R1 the successor if its RD is less than R2¶s FD to 192.  The total cost for R2.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.1.10.168.1. its FD to reach 192. This would be a higher metric (41. R1# show ip route <output omitted> D 192.168.1.1. the 64 Kbps link is the slowest bandwidth.0/24 [90/3014400] via 192. 01:12:26.0/24 is greater through R1 41.6. 87 .560 than it is through R3 3.

R .Update.168. 88 .16. FD is 3014400 Successor via 192.Query. Q .Passive.1.1 (41026560/2172416). Serial0/1 <output omitted>  The successor.Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Successor R2# show ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1)/ID(10.reply Status. U .3.10.Active. 1 successors. FD is 3011840 via Connected.168. FD. Serial0/0/1 Feasible Successor via 172.1.Reply. and any FSs with their RDs are kept by a router in its EIGRP topology table or topology database.8/30.1. 1 successors.168.0/24.10.10 (3014400/28160).1) Codes: P . A .sia Status <output omitted> P 192. r . Serial0/0/0 P 192. s .

DUAL is recalculating or searching for a new path.  DUAL is not performing its diffusing computations to determine a path for a network  The route is in a stable mode  All routes should be in this state for stable routing domain.168.1. 89 . there will be multiple successors.  FD is 3014400: This is the FD.  192.0/24: This is the destination network that is also found in the routing table. the EIGRP metric to reach the destination network.Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Successor  P: This route is in the passive state.  If there are multiple equal-cost paths to this network.  active state .  1 successors: This shows the number of successors for this network.

168.Successor Information  via 192.160: This is the RD of the successor  R3¶s cost to reach this network.  3.0/24.168.014.  28.10: This is the next-hop address of the successor. 90 .  It is the metric shown in the routing table.1.400: This is the FD to 192. R3.  Also shown in the routing table.  Serial0/0/1: This is the outbound interface used to reach this network.10.  This address is shown in the routing table.

R1. 91 .172.416: This is the RD of the FS or R1¶s metric to reach this network.16.026.  This value.168.560: This would be R2¶s new FD to 192. must be less than the current FD of 3.1.  Serial0/0/0: This is the outbound interface used to reach the FC.  41.Feasible Successor Information  via 172.1: This is the next-hop address of the FS. if this router becomes the successor.  2.400 to meet the FC.014.0/24 if R1 became the new successor. RD.3.

3.10.0 IP-EIGRP topology entry for 192.1.0 if Minimum MTU is 1500 R3 was the successor. FD is 3014400 Routing Descriptor Blocks: 192. Route is Internal Successor Vector metric: Minimum bandwidth is 64 Kbit Reported Distance of R1 to R2 for Total delay is 40100 microseconds 192.168. from 192.16. Route is Internal Vector metric: Minimum bandwidth is 1024 Kbit Default metrics calculations Total delay is 20100 microseconds Reliability is 255/255 Optional metrics Load is 1/255 Other information passed in routing update (not Minimum MTU is 1500 Hop count is 1 part of composite metric) 172.1 (Serial0/0/0).168.10 (Serial0/0/1).168. 1 Successor(s).1.1.10.10.16.168.168. Send flag is 0x0 Feasible Composite metric is (41026560/2172416).168.0/24 State is Passive.1. This is the Hop count is 2 metric that would be if R2¶s routing table if R3 was the successor. from 172.0 Reliability is 255/255 Load is 1/255 Feasible Distance for to 192.Show eigrp topology [network] R2# show ip eigrp topology 192.1. Query origin flag is 1. Send flag is 0x0 Successor Composite metric is (3014400/28160).3. 92 .

3 subnets. S0/0/1 D C D D C D C D  Route to 192. Serial0/0/0 192.1.3.168.0/30 is directly connected. 2 masks 192.168. 00:46:10.0.2.172. Null0 172.168.16.16.3.168.0/24:  Successor is R3 via 192.10. S0/0/1 172.16.0.6. 00:44:55.8/30 [90/3523840] via 192.10.10. 00:44:56. 00:45:09. 3 masks 172.0/24 is variably subnetted.16.10. FastEthernet0/0 172.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192. Serial0/0/1 192.16.168.168.168.4/30 is directly connected.10.Topology Table: No Feasible Successor R1# show ip route 192. 4 subnets.0/24 is a summary.0/16 is variably subnetted.6.2.416 93 .10.6  FD of 2.1. Null0 192.0/24 [90/40514560] via 172.1.0/24 is directly connected.168.0/16 is a summary.168. S0/0/0 172.10. 00:45:09.16.

00:44:55.10.168.0/24 via R2 a guaranteed loop-free path? (more later)  Does R2 meet the Feasibility Condition? 94 .1.1.1.168.0/24 fails will R1 (DUAL) automatically use R2 as a backup route?  Is the path to 192.6.Topology Table: No Feasible Successor ? R1# show ip route D 192.168.168.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192. S0/0/1  Is R2 a Feasible Successor?  If current path to 192.

1.Topology Table: No Feasible Successor R1# show ip eigrp topology <output omitted> P 192.168. FD is 2172416 via 192.6 (2172416/28160).  No Feasible Successors.  R2 is not an FS because it does not meet the FC.0/24.168.  EIGRP is a distance vector routing protocol 95 . Serial0/0/1 <output omitted>  The topology table only shows the successor 192.  Topology shows that R2 has a backup route  EIGRP does not have a map of the network topology.168.10.6. 1 successors.10.

3.10.2 (41026560/3014400).16.  Even those routes that are not FSs.0/24.168.168.Topology Table: No Feasible Successor R1# show ip eigrp topology all-links <output omitted> R1¶s FD P 192.1.6 (2172416/28160). FD is 2172416. 1 successors.  Is R2 a Feasible Successor?  Does R2 meet the Feasibility Condition?  Is R2¶s RD less than R1¶s FD? 96 . serno 5 Successor via 192. Serial0/0/0 <output omitted> R2¶s RD  You can view all possible links whether they satisfy the feasible condition or not by adding the [all-links] option. Serial0/0/1 Feasible Successor? (No) via 172.

168. 1 successors.0/24.0/24.172.1.1. FD is 2172416. Serial0/0/0 <output omitted> R2¶s RD  Even though R2 looks like a viable backup path to 192.172. R1 has no idea that its path is not a potential loop back through itself.400 R2¶s FD is 3.10.014.416 ? R2¶s RD to R1 is 3.400 R1¶s current FD is 2. 97 .Topology Table: No Feasible Successor R2 does not meet FC! 3.014.3.6 (2172416/28160).2 (41026560/3014400).16. serno 5 via 192.014.168.400 > 2.416 R1# show ip eigrp topology all-links <output omitted> R1¶s FD P 192.168. Serial0/0/1 via 172.

6 (2172416/28160).400 R2¶s FD is 3. FD is 2172416. Serial0/0/1 via 172.416 ? R2¶s RD to R1 is 3.400 R1¶s current FD is 2.400 > 2.014. DUAL will need to do some further processing. serno 5 via 192.Topology Table: No Feasible Successor R2 does not meet FC! 3.16. 1 successors.168.3. but there will be a longer delay before adding it to the routing table.  Before this can happen.172.416 R1# show ip eigrp topology all-links <output omitted> P 192.172.168.10.2 (41026560/3014400).014.014.0/24. which is explained in the next topic. Serial0/0/0 <output omitted>  Does this mean R2 cannot be used if the successor fails?  R3 can be used. 98 .1.

 DUAL Finite State Machine (FSM)  This FSM contains all the logic used to calculate and compare routes in an EIGRP network. 99 .Finite State Machine  The centerpiece of EIGRP is DUAL (EIGRP route-calculation engine).

DUAL FSM  FSMs defines:  The set of possible states that something can go through  What events cause those states  What events result from those states  Beyond the scope of this course. 100 .

FSM Example NO FOOD FOR 5 HOURS HUNGRY (START) FOOD IS INEDIBLE GET FOOD EAT MORE FOOD FULL EATING NOT ENOUGH FOOD EAT ENOUGH FOOD 101 .

0/24.1. FD is 3014400 Successor via 192. Serial0/0/1 Feasible via 172.3.10 (3014400/28160).DUAL FSM R2# show ip eigrp topology <partial output> P 192.168. 1 successors.168.1 (41026560/2172416). Serial0/0/0 Successor  R2 is currently using R3 as the successor to 192.16.10.168.0/24.1.  R2 currently lists R1 as an FS 102 .

DUAL FSM X R2# debug eigrp fsm R2# conf t R2(config)# int s0/0/1 R2(config-if)# shutdown <some debug output omitted> DUAL: Find FS for dest 192.10.1.10. 103 . RD is 3014400 DUAL: 192.0/24.1. nexthop 192.168.3.0/24.16.168.1  shutdown command simulates a failure of the link between R2 and R3.168.1 metric 41026560/2172416 found Dmin is 41026560 DUAL: Removing dest 192. FD is 3014400.10 DUAL: RT installed 192.16.3.168.0/24 via 172.10 metric 4294967295/4294967295 DUAL: 172.168.1.

now becomes the successor and is installed in the routing table as the 104 new best path to 192.168. R1.10 DUAL: RT installed 192.168.10.1  DUAL FSM searches for and finds an FS for the route in the EIGRP topology table. RD is 3014400 DUAL: 192.1.1 metric 41026560/2172416 found Dmin is 41026560 DUAL: Removing dest 192.16.0/24.10 metric 4294967295/4294967295 DUAL: 172.168.168.168. nexthop 192.  The FS.1.3. FD is 3014400.0/24.168.3.0/24 via 172.0/24.1.10.16.DUAL FSM X R2# debug eigrp fsm R2# conf t R2(config)# int s0/0/1 R2(config-if)# shutdown <some debug output omitted> DUAL: Find FS for dest 192. .1.

1.DUAL FSM Previous topology table X R2# show ip route <some output omitted> D 192.3.16.1 (41026560/2172416). FD is 3014400 via 172.1.1.168.1.  There are no new feasible successors.0/24.16. 105 .0/24 [90/41026560] via 172.3.168.0/24.168. 00:08:58. Serial0/0 R2# show ip eigrp topology <partial output> P 192. 1 successors. Serial0/0 Successor  R1 now becomes the successor  This route is installed in the routing table as the new best path to 192.

0/24  R3 is the Successor  No Feasible Successors  R2 is not a FS ± does not meet FC.1.014.172.168.No Feasible Successor R2¶s RD to R1 is 3.400 ? R2¶s FD is 3.416  What if the path to the successor fails and there are no FSs?  R1 to 192. 106 .014.400 R1¶s current FD is 2. so it wasn¶t added to the topology table as an FS.  Means that DUAL does not have a guaranteed loop-free backup path to the network.

Serial0/0/1 <output omitted>  Simulate a failure of the link between R1 and R3 with a shutdown on R1¶s S0/0/1 interface.0/24.014. 107 .168.No Feasible Successor R2¶s RD to R1 is 3.6 (2172416/28160).416 R1# show ip eigrp topology <output omitted> P 192.172.400 ? R2¶s FD is 3.014.1.168. 1 successors.10.400 X R1¶s current FD is 2. FD is 2172416 via 192.

168.2 metric 41026560/3014400 not found Dmin is 41026560 DUAL: Dest 192. RD is 2172416 DUAL: 192.168.6 DUAL: RT installed 192.1.0/24 via 172.  R2 replies with a path to this network.168.0/24 entering active state.168.3. FD is 4294967295.2  192.0/24 via 172.3.1.0/24.168.1.1.6 metric 4294967295/4294967295 DUAL: 172.168.16.2 metric 41026560/3014400 DUAL: Find FS for dest 192.168. FD is 2172416.16.16. nexthop 192.0/24 network put into the active state and shows that EIGRP queries are sent to other neighbors.1.0/24.1.No Feasible Successor R1# debug eigrp fsm R1# conf t R1(config)# int s0/0/1 R1(config-if)# shutdown <some debug output omitted> DUAL: Find FS for dest 192.3.10.168.10. RD is 4294967295 found DUAL: Removing dest 192. DUAL: rcvreply: 192.0/24.  This becomes the new successor  Installed into the routing table. 108 .168.1.

If the sender of the EIGRP queries receives EIGRP replies that include a path to the requested network. 192.1. Reply from R3 ± Yes I have a route to 192. Query from R2 for 192.2.168. Query from R1 for 192.168.168. 00:00:17.16. 5.0/24 via R2 into Routing Table.  If none of the EIGRP replies have a path to this network.1. the preferred path is added as the new successor and 109 added to the routing table. R1 puts route to 192.1. DUAL will send EIGRP queries asking 172. letting the sender of the EIGRP query know whether they have a path to the requested network. 4. Serial0/0/0 D 3-4. Other routers return EIGRP replies. When the successor is no longer available and there is no FS.1.168. 1.0/24 [90/41026560] via other routers for a path to this network.0/24 2. Reply from R2 ± Yes I have a route to 192.0/24 5.3.1.No Feasible Successor 3.0/24 into Active State.168. <some output omitted> 2-3. .0/24 X 5. the sender of the query will not have a route to this network.1.168.168.0/24 1.1. R1 puts 192. DUAL puts the R1# show ip route route into active state.

168.0/24 X 5. 4. Query from R1 for 192.0/24 into Active State.2. Reply from R3 ± Yes I have a route to 192. Reply from R2 ± Yes I have a route to 192.  Note: DUAL FSM and the process of queries and replies is beyond the scope of this course.1. 00:00:17.168.168. R1 puts route to 192.16.168. Query from R2 for 192.No Feasible Successor 3.0/24 [90/41026560] via 172.0/24 5.3.168.1.0/24 1.168.1.0/24 2. 110 .1.0/24 via R2 into Routing Table. Serial0/0/0  This process takes longer than if DUAL had an FS in its topology table and was able to quickly add the new route to the routing table.1. R1# show ip route <some output omitted> D 192.1.168. R1 puts 192.1.

1 successors.0/24. FD is 41026560 via 172.2 (41026560/3014400). 111 .168. Serial0/0/0 Successor  The topology table for R1 now shows R2 as the successor and shows that there are no new feasible successors.16.1.No Feasible Successor X R1# show ip eigrp topology <parital output> P 192.3.

More EIGRP Configurations  The Null0 Summary Route  Disabling Automatic Summarization  Manual Summarization  EIGRP Default Route  Fine-Tuning EIGRP .

6.The Null0 Summary Route R1# show ip route 192.10.0/24 [90/40514560] via 172.3. 00:46:10. Serial0/0/0 D 192.16.0/24 is directly connected.16.16. or 172. 00:44:55.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192. Serial0/0/1 D 192. 3 subnets. 113 .6.10.16.10. 3 masks D 172.16. 00:45:09.16. 172.168. 00:44:56.16. Null0 C 192. FastEthernet0/0 D 172.0/16 classful network but do not match one of the child routes 172.16.16.168.8/30 [90/3523840] via 192.2.0/24.10.0/24. 00:45:09.1.4.0. Null0 C 172. (By default with EIGRP)  R1 will discard any packets that match the parent 172.0/24 is variably subnetted.  For example.0/16 is a summary.  Automatic summarization is enabled. 4 subnets.0/16 is variably subnetted.16.3. S0/0/0 C 172.2.0/30 is directly connected.10.168.10.10 would be discarded.1.168.16.1.0/24 is a summary.168.168.0.0.2. a packet to 172. S0/0/1 172.4/30 is directly connected.168. Serial0/0/1  EIGRP automatically includes a Null0 summary route as a child route whenever both of the following conditions exist:  There is at least one subnet that was learned via EIGRP. 2 masks D 192.3.0/24.

10.0/16 is a summary.  Therefore denying the use of any supernet or default route. Serial0/0/0 D 192. 00:46:10.168.0/24 [90/40514560] via 172.16. 2 masks D 192.168.1.0/30 is directly connected.2.10.4/30 is directly connected.6. 00:44:55. S0/0/1 172. Null0 C 172.  This is regardless of ip classless or no ip classless command.168. 4 subnets. Serial0/0/1 D 192.3.0.168.168. 114 .0/24 is a summary.16.10.8/30 [90/3523840] via 192. 00:45:09.0/24 is directly connected.16.2.10.10.1.The Null0 Summary Route R1# show ip route 192. FastEthernet0/0 D 172.0/16 is variably subnetted.0.168. Null0 C 192. 3 subnets.16. 3 masks D 172.16.16.6.0/24 is variably subnetted. 00:45:09.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192. 00:44:56. S0/0/0 C 172. Serial0/0/1  This Null0 summary route is a child route that will match any possible packets of the parent route that do not match another child route.3.10.168.

0/16 R3# show ip route 192.4/30 is directly connected.10.168.10.168.Disabling Automatic Summarization 172.16.1.0.5. Null0 C 192. Serial0/0/1 D 172. Serial0/0/0 C 192.8/30 is directly connected. EIGRP automatically summarizes at major network boundaries using the default auto-summary command. 3 subnets. 01:08:35.168.10.16. 115 .0/24 is a summary.0/24 is variably subnetted. Serial0/0/0 C 192.0. FastEthernet0/0  Like RIP. 2 masks D 192.0/16 [90/2172416] via 192.10.10.168.0/24 is directly connected.168. 01:08:30.168.

4/30 is directly connected. 3 subnets.Disabling Automatic Summarization 172.0/16 [90/2172416] via 192. Serial0/0/0 C 192. 01:08:30. Serial0/0/1 D 172.0/16 172.16. FastEthernet0/0  Both R1 and R2 automatically summarized those subnets to the 172. Null0 C 192.168.5.0/24 is a summary.168.10.10. Serial0/0/0 C 192.16.10.  The result is that R3 has one route to 172.10.168.0.0/16 through R1.0. 01:08:35.0. 2 masks D 192.0/24 is directly connected.0.0/16 classful boundary when sending EIGRP update packets to R3.168.168.16.0/24 is variably subnetted.  R1 is the successor because of the difference in bandwidth.8/30 is directly connected.1.10. 116 .0.16.0/16 R3# show ip route 192.16.168.

0/16 R3# show ip route <output omitted> D 172.10. 01:08:30.16.0. 117 .  In other words.0.0/16.16.0/16 [90/2172416] via 192.  Across a very slow link to R2 (64 Kbps).16.  Need R1 and R2 to send individual routes for each of the 172. R1 and R2 must stop automatically summarizing 172.0.  R3 will route all packets destined for 172.5. Serial0/0/0  You can quickly see that this route is not optimal.2.16.0 through R1.Disabling Automatic Summarization 172.168.16.0/16 subnets.0.

2 (Serial0/0/0) is down: peer restarted %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP(0) 1: Neighbor 172.3.16.16.2 (Serial0/0/0) is resync: summary configured %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP(0) 1: Neighbor 172.3.Disabling Automatic Summarization R1(config)# router eigrp 1 R1(config-router)# no auto-summary %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP(0) 1: Neighbor 172.  If on.2 (Serial0/0/0) is up: new adjacency <output omitted> R2(config)# router eigrp 1 R2(config-router)# no auto-summary R3(config)# router eigrp 1 R3(config-router)# no auto-summary  Automatic summarization can be disabled with the no auto-summary. you will see output similar to that shown for R1.3. 118 .16.  The router configuration command eigrp log-neighborchanges is on by default on some IOS implementations.

10. 00:45:09.1.10.10.0/24 is directly connected.168.168. 00:46:10. S0/0/1 172.168.3. 2 subnets 192.168. 00:16:55.10.168.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192. Serial0/0/1 C D C D C D  R1 no more Null0 summary routes: D 192. S0/0/1 172.8 [90/3523840] via 192. Null0  This mean any packets for their parent networks that do not match a child route.16. 00:16:52.168.16.6.4 is directly connected.0. 2 masks 172.  Unless no ip classess is used 119 .0/16 is variably subnetted. FastEthernet0/0 172.10.10.1. 3 subnets.0.168.0/30 is subnetted.16.16. 00:16:53.6.16.0/30 is directly connected. Serial0/0/0 192.168.0/16 is a summary.0/24 [90/3526400] via 192.10.0/24 is a summary. Serial0/0/1 192. Null0 D 172.6.Disabling Automatic Summarization R1# show ip route 192.2. the routing table will check supernet and default routes.

Disabling Automatic Summarization
R2# show ip route 192.168.10.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets 192.168.10.4 [90/3523840] via 192.168.10.10, 00:15:44, S0/0/1 192.168.10.8 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.1.0/24 [90/3526400] via 192.168.10.10, 00:15:44, S0/0/1 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.3.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0 10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1 192.168.1.0/24 [90/3014400] via 192.168.10.10, 00:15:44, S0/0/1

D C D C C C D 

R2 no more Null0 summary routes : D 192.168.10.0/24 is a summary, 00:00:15, Null0 D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:00:15, Null0

120

Disabling Automatic Summarization
R3# show ip route 192.168.10.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets 192.168.10.4 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0 192.168.10.8 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.1.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192.168.10.5, 00:00:11, S0/0/0 172.16.2.0/24 [90/3014400] via 192.168.10.9, 00:00:12, S0/0/1 172.16.3.0/30 [90/41024000] via 192.168.10.5, 00:00:12, S0/0/0 [90/41024000] via 192.168.10.9, 00:00:12, S0/0/1 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

C C D D D C 

Without automatic summarization, R3¶s routing table now includes the three subnets:  172.16.1.0/24, 172.16.2.0/24, and 172.16.3.0/24.  Why does R3¶s routing table now have two equal-cost paths to 172.16.3.0/24?  Shouldn¶t the best path only be through R1 with the 1544-Mbps link?
121

Disabling Automatic Summarization

172.16.3.0/24

172.16.3.0/24
R3# show ip route <output omitted> D 172.16.3.0/30 [90/41024000] via 192.168.10.5, 00:00:12, S0/0/0 [90/41024000] via 192.168.10.9, 00:00:12, S0/0/1 

The slowest link is the 64-Kbps link that contains the 172.16.3.0/30 network. 
The 1544-Mbps link and the 1024-Kbps link are irrelevant in the calculation as far as the bandwidth metric is concerned.

122

Manual Summarization 

EIGRP can be configured to summarize routes, whether or not automatic summarization (auto-summary) is enabled.  Modified topology.

123

2.0 R3(config-if)# router eigrp 1 R3(config-router)# network 192.Manual Summarization R3(config)# interface loopback 2 R3(config-if)# ip address 192.0 R3(config-router)# network 192.1 255.255.3.0  Add two more networks to R3.2.1 255.3.168.255.168.255.168.168.0 R3(config-if)# interface loopback 3 R3(config-if)# ip address 192.255.  With the appropriate network commands R3 will propagate these networks to other routers. 124 .

0/24 networks as a single route.168.0/24. 192.6.0/24 R1# D D D R2# D D D show ip route 192.10.168.2.0/24 [90/2297856] via 192.1. S0/0/1 192.0/24. 192. S0/0/1  R1 and R2 routing tables show these additional networks in their routing tables.168. 192.168. 00:01:30.168.10.168.10. 00:00:34.1.168.3.2.0/24 [90/2297856] via 192.0/24 [90/3014400] via 192. 192.10.168.Manual Summarization 192.6.10.3.0/24.1.0/24 [90/3139840] via 192. 00:01:46.1.3.0/24 [90/2172416] via 192. R3 can summarize the 192.10.168.2.168.168.10.0/24 [90/3139840] via 192. 125 .3.0/24. S0/0/1 show ip route 192.  Instead of sending three separate networks.2. 02:08:50.3.168.168.1. and 192.168.0/24. 00:00:18. S0/0/1 192. S0/0/1 192.168.168.2. 02:07:38. S0/0/1 192.6.168.168.10.168. 192.0/24 Only pertinent routes shown 192.168.10.0/24.168.

Find the matching bits.  This number becomes your subnet mask for the summarized route: /22 or 255.252.0/22 126 .168. 2.255. copy the matching 22 bits and add all 0 bits to the end to make 32 bits.0. To find the network address for summarization.0. 3.  Count the number of leftmost matching bits. Write out the networks that you want to summarize in binary. The result is the summary network address and mask for 192.Determining the Summary EIGRP Route 1. which in this example is 22.

252. the EIGRP manual summarization in configured on both Serial 0/0/0 and Serial 0/0/1.0 255.255.168.Configure EIGRP Manual Summarization 192.0 R3(config-if)# interface serial 0/0/1 R3(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp 1 192.0  Because R3 has two EIGRP neighbors.0.0 255.255.168.252. 127 .0/22 Router(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp as-number network-address subnet-mask R3(config)# interface serial 0/0/0 R3(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp 1 192.0/22 192.0.0.0.168.168.

0/22 192.0/22 [90/2172416] via 192.6. 00:00:23.0/22 R1# show ip route <output omitted> D 192.168. Serial0/0/1  Summary routes lessen the number of total routes in routing tables.10. 128 .  Summary routes also require less bandwidth utilization for the routing updates because a single route can be sent rather than multiple individual routes.0. Serial0/0/1 R2# show ip route <output omitted> D 192.168.168. 00:01:11.0.168.0/22 [90/3014400] via 192.Verify EIGRP Manual Summarization 192.0.168.10.0. which makes the routing table lookup process more efficient.168.10.

By using a loopback interface.  EIGRP requires the use of the redistribute static command to include this static default route with its EIGRP routing updates.0.0.0. we can simulate a connection to another router. 129 .0.0.0/0 as a default route is not routing protocol dependent.0.  The ³quad zero´ static default route can be used with any currently supported routing protocols.EIGRP Default Route The ISP router in our topology does not physically exist.0 0.0 loopback 1 R2(config)# router eigrp 1 R2(config-router)# redistribute static  Using a static route to 0. Default Route Redistribute default static route in EIGRP updates R2(config)# ip route 0.

0.0.0.168.0. 00:02:14.0.0 D*EX 0.0. 00:01:25. Loopback1 R3# show ip route Gateway of last resort is 192. other output omitted. S0/0/1 130 .0.0.0.0.10.0/0 [170/3139840] via 192.0 D*EX 0.9 to network 0.0 to network 0.10.9. S0/0/1 R2# show ip route Gateway of last resort is 0.EIGRP Default Route Default Route Redistribute default static route in EIGRP updates Only static default route shown.10.0 S* 0.0.0.6.0.10.168.168. R1# show ip route Gateway of last resort is 192.168.0.0/0 is directly connected.0/0 [170/3651840] via 192.6 to network 0.

in this case a static route outside of the EIGRP routing domain.  170: This is the AD of an external EIGRP route.0.0/0 [170/3651840] via 192.10.10.0 D*EX 0.168. notice the routing source and AD for the new static default route.0.0. other output omitted.EIGRP Default Route Default Route Redistribute default static route in EIGRP updates Only static default route shown. 131 .6 to network 0.168.  *: The route is a candidate for a default route. S0/0/1  In the routing tables for R1 and R3. 00:02:14.  D: This static route was learned from an EIGRP routing update.6.0.  EX: The route is an external EIGRP route. R1# show ip route Gateway of last resort is 192.

shtml. using the ip default-network command.cisco. 132 .com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a 0080094374.  More information on this command can be found at this site:  http://www.EIGRP Default Route Redistribute default static route in EIGRP updates Default Route  There is another method to propagate a default route in EIGRP.

Fine-Tuning EIGRP: EIGRP Bandwidth Utilization EIGRP updates use no more than 50% of the link¶s bandwidth by default. 133 .  The ip bandwidth-percent eigrp command can be used to configure the percentage of bandwidth that may be used by EIGRP on an interface. EIGRP uses only up to 50 percent of the bandwidth of an interface for EIGRP information. Router(config-if)# ip bandwidth-percent eigrp as-number percent  By default.  This prevents the EIGRP process from overutilizing a link and not allowing enough bandwidth for the routing of normal traffic.

 Therefore.EIGRP Bandwidth Utilization R1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)# bandwidth 64 R1(config-if)# ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 50 R2(config)# interface serial 0/0/0 R2(config-if)# bandwidth 64 R2(config-if)# ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 50  The ip bandwidth-percent eigrp command uses the amount of configured bandwidth (or the default bandwidth) when calculating the percent that EIGRP can use. .  Here we are limiting EIGRP to no more than 50 percent of the link¶s bandwidth. EIGRP will never use more the 32 Kbps of the link¶s bandwidth for 134 EIGRP packet traffic.

 The seconds value for both hello and holdtime intervals can range from 1 to 65.Configuring Hello Intervals and Hold Times Router(config-if)# ip hello-interval eigrp as-number seconds Router(config-if)# ip hold-time eigrp as-number seconds  Hello intervals and hold times are configurable on a per-interface basis and do not have to match with other EIGRP routers to establish adjacencies. make sure that you also change the hold time to a value equal to or greater than the hello interval.  Otherwise. neighbor adjacency will go down after the hold time expires and before the next hello interval. OSPF¶s Hello and other timers do need to match. 135 .535  If you change the hello interval.  We will see later.

136 .Configuring Hello Intervals and Hold Times R1(config)# int s0/0/0 R1(config-if)# ip hello-interval eigrp 1 60 R1(config-if)# ip hold-time eigrp 1 180 R2(config)# int s0/0/0 R2(config-if)# ip hello-interval eigrp 1 60 R2(config-if)# ip hold-time eigrp 1 180  The no form can be used on both of these commands to restore the default values.

Topics  Introduction to EIGRP  EIGRP: An Enhanced Distance Vector Routing Protocol  EIGRP Message Format  Protocol-Dependent Modules  RTP and EIGRP Packet Types  Hello Protocol  EIGRP Bounded Updates  DUAL: An Introduction  Administrative Distance  Authentication  Basic EIGRP Configuration  EIGRP Network Topology  Autonomous Systems and Process IDs  The router eigrp Command  The network Command  Verifying EIGRP  Examining the Routing Table  EIGRP Metric Calculation  EIGRP Composite Metric and the K Values  EIGRP Metrics  Using the bandwidth Command  Calculating the EIGRP Metric  DUAL  DUAL Concepts  Successor and Feasible Distance  Feasible Successors. and Reported Distance  Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Successor  Topology Table: No Feasible Successor  Finite State Machine  More EIGRP Configurations  The Null0 Summary Route  Disabling Automatic Summarization  Manual Summarization  EIGRP Default Route  Fine-Tuning EIGRP 137 . Feasibility Condition.

Chapter 9 EIGRP CIS 82 Routing Protocols and Concepts Rick Graziani Cabrillo College graziani@cabrillo.edu Last Updated: 4/28/2008 .

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