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Solutions and the

Environment
Chapter 4
Dilute Products
 Have less solute per
amount of solvent

 Has high water content

 More packaging and


more garbage

 Examples:
Bottled juice
Concentrated Products
 Have a lot of solute per
volume of solvent

 Has low water content

 Less packaging and less


garbage

 Examples:
Instant coffee
Juice crystals
Soup mixes
List Some Concentrated
Products You Have Used
Before!

In concentrated products you add


solvent.
Concentrated or Dilute?

Dilute
Concentrated or Dilute?
Instant
Concentrated Coffee Mix
Concentrated or Dilute?

Dilute
Concentrated or Dilute?

Concentrate
d
How to Make Concentrated
Products
 Concentrated products are made by removing
some or all of the solvent

 All solvent removed examples?


Drink crystals
Instant coffee

 Some solvent removed examples?


Canned soup
Frozen juice

-Concentrated products are usually dry or very


thick. You need to add solvent to concentrated
products before you consume them.
Waste Packaging
 In Canada each person
throws out 2.2kg of trash
everyday.

 Using concentrated products


reduces the amount of
garbage created.

 Recycling also reduces the


amount of garbage created.

 These simple methods help


reduce a substantial amount
of waste produced.
Activity
 Doesbuying concentrated products really
reduce the amount of packaging?

 We will be marking this hand out!


Acids and Bases
What are the Common
Properties of Acids?
 Corrosive

 Sour-tasking

 Turns blue litmus paper red


 React with metals
 pH less than 7
 Neutralize bases
 Conduct electricity
What are the Common
Properties of Bases?
 Corrosive
 Slippery
 Bitter-tasting
 Turns red litmus paper
blue
 pH of more than 7
Base
 Neutralize acids
 Conduct electricity
B
ASE
R
L
E
U
ACID
E
Examples of Acids and Bases
COPY = Table 4.1 page 63
What Does Neutral mean?
 Substances that are neutral are neither acids
or bases. On the pH scale they are at EXACTLY
7.00
pH scale
 pH tells us if a substance is acidic, neutral or basic.
 It is a scale from 0-14.
◦ Acids have a pH of less than 7 (0-6)
◦ Bases have a pH greater than 7 (8-14)
◦ Substances that are exactly 7 are neutral (ONLY 7)

◦ Insert a pH scale
pH scale Neutral
Only at 7.00

BASE Acid
Greater than 7 Less than 7
Which is which?

•Acid

•Base

•Base

•Acid

•Acid
Identifying Acids and Bases
 We can use INDICATORS to help identify
acids and bases
 Indicators change colours in the presence of
an acid or base
 LITMUS PAPER can be used to identify acids
and bases
 Litmus is a dye made from lichens
I have a pH of 8. What am
I?

A Base
I taste sour and turn blue
litmus paper red. What am I?

 An Acid
I have a pH of 6.6. What am I?

 An Acid
I neutralize an acid. What am
I?

 Base
Ireact with metals and
conduct electricity. What am I?

 An Acid
I am slippery and taste bitter.
What am I?

A Base
I neutralize a base. What am
I?

 Acid
I turn blue litmus paper blue.
What am I?

 Base
I have a pH of exactly 7.0.
What am I?

 Neutral
I have a pH of 7.8. What am I?

A Base
I have a pH of 0 (zero). What am
I?

 An Acid
Acids and Bases in
Action
Do we use acids and bases?
 Baking-
 Cooking-
 Health care-
 Deodorizing-
Corrosion
 Substances that are found near either end of
the pH scale are HIGHLY CORROSIVE!

 This means they are able to severely burn


through skin and tissue. They can even eat
through metal or rock.

 Examples:
Acid: sulfuric acid
Base: drain cleaner
Corrosion
 Corrosion is the wearing away of materials
by chemical reaction.

 Acid rain and salt speed up corrosion.


Corrosion

 Substances
found near
either end of
the pH scale
are highly
corrosive
Corrosion
 This means that they can cause severe burns
to skin and other body tissues
Corrosion
 Drain cleaner has a high pH (12-14).
 This is highly corrosive
 How might being corrosive help a
drain cleaner to work?
Corrosion

 Corrosion is the wearing away of materials


by chemical action
 Also known as Rusting
 Acid rain and salt speed up the process