(Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service)

Presented by :Bhuvnesh Saxena

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduction to GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS WCDMA Summery

What is GSM??
(Global System for Mobile Communications)

GSM Architecture
‡ Three broad parts
± Mobile Station (MS): carried by the subscriber ± Base Station Subsystem: control radio link with MS ± Network Subsystem: its main part is MSC

‡ Interfaces:
± Um Interface : known as air interface or radio link. ± Abis Interface: between BTS and BSC ± A Interface: between BSC and MSC

Mobile Station
‡ ME(mobile equipment)
± the terminal

‡ SIM (Subscriber identity Module) ± provides personal mobility.
± Can insert the SIM card into another GSM terminal and use

Base Station Subsystem ‡ BTS (Base Transceiver Station) ± handle the radio link protocols with the Mobile Station ± many BTSs in a large urban area ‡ BSC (Base Station Controller) ± manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs ± handles such as: channel setup . frequence hopping and handovers. ± connection between MS and MSC .

Network Subsystem ‡ MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center) ± acts like a normal switching node of the PSTN or ISDN ± provides the connection to the fixed networks (such as the PSTN or ISDN). along with the current location of the mobile. ‡ HLR (Home Location Register ) ± contains information of each subscriber registered in the corresponding GSM network. ± logically one HLR per GSM network .

‡ VLR (Visitor Location Register) ± contains selected information from the HLR. ± each mobile currently located in the geographical area controlled by the VLR.Network Subsystem cont. necessary for call control and provision of the subscribed services. ‡ EIR (The Equipment Identity Register) ± a database that contains a list of all valid mobile equipment on the network. ‡ AuC (The Authentication Center) ± is a protected database:secret key of SIM .

GSM Features ‡ Multiple access: use TDMA/FDMA to share the limited radio spectrum ± The FDMA part involves the division by frequency of the (maximum) 25 MHz bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies spaced 200 kHz apart. ± Each of these carrier frequencies is then divided in time. ‡ GSM is a digital network ± Based on Circuit-switch . using a TDMA scheme.

Messages are transported in a store-andforward fashion. Messages can also be stored in the SIM card for later retrieval . ± an acknowledgement of receipt is provided to the sender. for sending messages such as traffic updates or news updates.GSM Features cont. ‡ SMS: Short Message Service ± is a bi-directional service for short (up to 160 bytes) messages. ± can also be used in a cell-broadcast mode.

GPRS System (General Packet Radio Service) .

25) and send them out into another network. .GPRS Architecture ‡ Introduce two new nodes into GSM network ± SGSN (the Serving GPRS Support Node): ‡ Keep track of the location of the mobile within its service area and send/receive packets from the mobile .g. passing them on. or receiving them from the GGSN ± GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node): ‡ convert the GSM packets into other packet protocols (e.IP or X.

± Establishes a Packet Data Protocol (PDP) which is logical connection between the mobile and GGSN ± now visible to the outside fixed networks . SGSN communicates with GGSN. GPRS packets are sent sent from the base station to SGSN. but unlike circuit-switched data calls which connects to MSC.GPRS Features ‡ Log on to GPRS ± A GPRS-capable terminal communicates with GSM base Stations.

GPRS Features Cont. ± No delay for sending data . ± SGSN and GGSN use GPRS tunnel protocol (GTP) which operates over the top of TCP/IP to encapsulate the packets ± Tunnels: information may be encrypted and additional data is added to each packet to prevent tampering ‡ Packed based ± No dial-up. just as with a LAN connection.

GPRS Features Cont. and not the idle time ± users need to confirm their agreement to pay for the delivery of content from the service. ± pay for the amount of data they actually communicate. This is performed by using WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) ± unsolicited packets may not be charged ± voice and Data Communication at the same time ± can be viewed as a sub-network of the Internet .

‡ Spectrum Efficiency ± users can share the resource (Radio link).2kbps.(GSM:9.6Kbps) . ± Theoretical Max speeds up to is used only when users are actually sending or receiving data ‡ Speed: Based on GMSK ± a modulation technique known as Gaussian minimumshift keying.GPRS Features Cont.

± a channel that is 200kHz wide. is divided into 8 separate data streams. GSM only use one channel. ‡ complement rather than replace the current data services available through today¶s GSM ± doesn't require new radio spectrum ± supports TDMA: also use for IS-136 .GPRS Features Cont.4kbps typical). each carrying maximum 20kbps(14. GPRS combine up to 8 of these channels.

but is expected to higher data rates through possible incorporation of techniques such as EDGE. . in addition to Point-to-Multipoint support. Point to point GPRS will be supported ‡ Phrase 2 ± net yet fully defined.GPRS Phrase ‡ Phrase 1 ± expectedly to be available commercially in 2001.

EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) .

from 8.EDGE Features ‡ Introduce new methods at the physical layer ± new form of modulation: 8PSK(phrase Shift Keying) ‡ introduced as a complement to GMSK (Gaussian Filter Minimum Shift Keying) ‡ 8PSK: use 8 phrases to carry signals ± Different ways of encoding ‡ nine MCS(Module Coding Schemes) have been defined.8kbps per timeslot(MCS-1 with GMSK modulation) up to 59.2kbps per timeslot(MCS-9 with 8PSK modulation) ± High radio interface data rates (up to 384kbps) .

SGSN) stay the same ± Can be introduced smoothly in GPRS(doesn¶t require any new elements) . ± Software upgrades to BSC and Base Stations can be carried out remotely. ‡ Provides an evolutionary migration path from GPRS to UMTS ± Only one EDGE transceiver unit need to be added to each cell.EDGE Features cont. ± Higher layer protocols (GGSN.

± Also introduced into existing IS-136 networks . ± and for GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) to meet the demands of wireless multimedia applications.EDGE Features cont. ‡ EDGE is a technology both for ± HSCSD(High Speed Circuit Switched Data) is simply a Circuit Switched Data call in which a single user can take over up to four separate channels at the same time.

Such as GTP(GPRS Tunneling Protocol) ‡ As a consequence EDGE is a way to provide 3G services on 2G networks .EDGE Features cont. ‡ The Data networking for WCDMA will likely be based on EDGE/GPRS infrastructure protocols.

Scenario for Migration from 2G to 3G .

two air modes: ‡ one based on the parallel use of 3 contiguous cdmaOne carriers (multi-carrier approach).g. ‡ the other one on the use of the corresponding 3 carriers width spreading (direct spread approach) .What are 3G Technologies? ‡ UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service) ± EDGE can co-exist with UMTS ‡ e. Edge provide high speed services for wide-area coverage while UMTS is deployed in urban hot spots. ‡ Cdma 2000 ± based on the cdma One standard.

D-AMPS operators mainly promote UWC-136. UWC-136 can benefit from the expected standardization of voice over IP (VoIP) on EDGE. ‡ UWC-136 (USA cellular standard) ± based on GPRS and EDGE technologies defined by ETSI for data on overlay of ANSI-136 "classical" networks for voice. . Nevertheless.What are 3G Technologies? Cont.

HongYi Wu will give us More detail about these topics .To be Continued ‡ Mr.

2Mb/s . 384kb/s . low-rate data and high-rate data ± 144kb/s.What does UMTS provide? ‡ Circuit.and Packet-Oriented Services ‡ Seamless Global Roaming ‡ Capacity and Capability to serve more than 50% population ‡ A Wide Range of Services ± Voice.

5 2.UMTS coverage vs. bit rate Vehicle Outdoors Walk Fixed UMTS Broadband Radio Indoors GSM 0.0 155Mb/s .

UMTS Hierarchical Cell Structure Satellite Mega-Cell Macro-Cell Satellite Mega-Cell Macro-Cell Micro-Cell Pico-Cell Micro-Cell Pico-Cell Micro-Cell Pico-Cell Micro-Cell Pico-Cell .

UTRAN-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Core Network lu lur RNC lub Node B Node B lu lur RNC Node B Node B lu RNC Node B Node B Uu MH .

Frequency Allocation ‡ 1920-1980 MHz paired with 2110-2170 MHz ‡ Total 35 MHz unpaired band C C 1920 A 1980 MSS B 2110 A MSS 2170 2200 2010 2025 .

048Mb/s FDD-384kb/s .FDD vs. TDD Both FDD and TDD are available in UMTS TDD has been designed for use in high density areas The highest bearer rate: TDD-2.

WCDMA ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Radio Parameters Performance Improvement Channels Channel Generation Power Control Handoff .

WCDMA Radio Parameters ‡ Group 200KHz bands into 4.096 Mchips/sec ‡ System Capacity of 128 channels per cell provided by 5 MHz bandwidth .2-5.0 MHz carriers ‡ Chip Rate is 4.

WCDMA Performance Improvement ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Capacity Improvement No Frequency Planning Multiple Services per Connection Frequency Handoff ± HCS ± Hot Spot .

HCS & Hot-Spot HCS-Scenario Hot-Spot Scenario Macro f1 Micro Macro f2 f1 f1 Hot-Spot f2 f1 f1 Handoff between layers is alwayse needed Handoff at Hot-Spot is sometimes needed .

WCDMA Channels ‡ Forward WCDMA Channels ± Pilot Channel ± Sync Channel ± Paging Channel ± Forward Traffic Channel ‡ Forward Information Channel ‡ Forward Singal Channel .

WCDMA Channels ‡ Reverse WCDMA Channels ± Access Channel ± Reverse Traffic Channel ‡ Reverse Information Channel ‡ Reverse Signaling Channel .

An Example of Channel Generation Long Code Generator 4.096 Mcps 16 ksps Convolutional Encoder R=1/2. k=9 16 kbps Block Interleaver 16 ksps 16 ksps 16 ksps 64 ksps Symbol Repetition 64 ksps Walsh 128 A Forward WCDMA Sync Channel .

b..8) Convolutional Encoder Implemented by LFSR .a2) (b1..b2) .WCDMA Convolutional Encoder Input data a.1. Output Symbols (a1... A (2..

.. .. ... .....WCDMA Block Interleaving 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 .. .. . . .... ...

..WCDMA Orthoganal Modulation ‡ Walsh Code Generation H1 ! 0 H2 « H1 ! ¬ ­ H1 «H 2 ! ¬ ­H 2 H1 » «0 ¼ ! ¬0 H1 ½ ­ «0 ¬0 H2 » ¬ ¼ ! ¬0 H2 ½ ¬ ­0 0» 1¼ ½ 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0» 1¼ ¼ 1¼ ¼ 0½ H4 .... H 128 ! 128 v 128 Matrix .

C4. C5) ± Compute MSI (Modulation Symbol Index) MSI= C0+2 C1+4 C2 +8C3+16C4+32 C5 ± Each of the six symbol group is mapped to the row(MSI) of H128 . C1. C2.CDMA Orthoganal Modulation ‡ Modulation ± Take 6 bit from the input stream (C0. C3.

WCDMA Direct Sequence Spreading Long Code Generation by LFSR Long Code Seed 1 x x2 x32 XOR Long Code 4.096 Mcps .

WCDMA Direct Sequence Spreading dw(t) 0 0 0 0 1 C(t) 0 1 Ds(t ) 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 t 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 t 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 t .

Power Control In WCDMA Bit Error Rate and Power N: Spread Factor Kp : Carrier-to-Interference-Ratio for Pp subscriber P K p ! §P k !0 k{ p K 1 k .

Power Control In WCDMA ‡ Perfect Power Control K p 1 ! k 1 3N ) k 1 P ! Q( e .

.Power Control In WCDMA ‡ Near-Far Problem in CDMA ± Different Performance for Subcriber Links ± A Few Subscribers closest to the BTS may contribute too much multiple Access Interference.

increase the power transmitted by users farest to the BTS .Power Control In WCDMA ‡ How to do power control ± Force all users to transmit the minimum amount of power ± Reduce the power transmitted by users closest to the BTS.

Power Control In WCDMA ‡ Open Loop vs. BS instructs the user to raise or lower it transmission power . MS measures the DL power and reports to the BS. Close Loop ± Open Loop Power Control Subscriber measures the DL power and adjusts its transmission power ± Close Loop Power Control BS measures the UL power.

WCDMA Soft Handoff BS1 BS2 Active set = BS1 BS2 Active set = BS1 & BS2 BS2 SS > add threshold BS1 BS2 Active set = BS2 BS1 SS < drop threshold BS1 .

Active Research Topics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cellular system architecture UMTS air interface Power control in CDMA Handoff Satellite-UMTS traffic .

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