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Fluids

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Liquid

Ship / submarine hydrodynamics Hydraulic systems Tank sloshing Blood flow Tides

Gas

Airframe aerodynamics Propulsion systems Inlets / Nozzles Turbomachinery Combustion We will concern ourselves with gases mostly air.

Fundamentals

Continuum Consider fluids in the sense of classical thermodynamics in which a differential element of fluid contains a very large number of molecules. Properties of the fluid (p, T, V,) are represented by statistical averages rather than behavior of individual molecules. Phases A fluid can exist in phases of liquid or gas. A two-phase flow contains both liquid and gas. Solid particles can be suspended in a fluid with the predominant dynamics be governed by the fluid. WIND is only capable of simulating single-phase flow. Equilibrium Types of equilibrium include mechanical, thermal, phase, and chemical equilibrium. Classical thermodynamics assumes processes that keep fluids in quasi-equilibrium. Properties Properties define the state of a fluid and are independent of the process used to arrive at the state. Properties are intensive (i.e. pressure) or extensive (i.e. mass). State Principle For a simple, compressible system consisting of a pure substance (fluid with uniform chemical composition) two properties are sufficient for defining the state of the system.

3

Basic fluid properties include: p, Static Pressure ( lbf/ft2 or N/m2 ) T, Static Temperature (oR or K ) V, Static Density ( slug/ft3 or kg/m3 ) c, Acoustic speed ( ft/sec or m/sec )

xp c2 | xV s h | e p V

h e p ! V e F 1 F| xh cp | xT p

K | cp cv

xe cv | xT v

Perfect Gas

A perfect gas is defined as A gas where intermolecular forces are negligible. A gas that is not perfect is called a real gas. Some use the term real gas effects for describing high-temperature effects of vibration, dissociation, and chemical reactions associated with high Mach number flows. The suggested term is high-temperature effects.

WIND only simulates perfect gases.

p ! V RT

, Universal gas constant M, Molecular weight

R! M

5

A gas may be a mixture of other gases. A mixture of several species of perfect gases is still a perfect gas. The composition of a gas mixture is defined by the mass fraction, ci

mi V i ci ! ! m V

where mi is the mass of species i and m is the total mass of all species. One condition for a mixture with ns species is that

ns

c

i !1

!1

M!

1 ns ci M i !1 i

R!

M

6

Partial Pressures

Perfect gas equation of state applies to each species to determine the partial pressure of species i, pi

pi ! Vi Ri T

Daltons Law of Partial Pressures states that

ns

p ! pi

i !1

ns

ns

V ! Vi

i !1

R ! ci R i

i !1

The specific enthalpy for a gas mixture is determined as

ns

h ! ci h i

i !1

h i ! h fi c pi dT

Tref

The hfi is the specific enthalpy of formation of species i at the reference temperature Tref. The cpi is the specific heat, which is defined using a polynomial

c pi Ri

! ak i T k

k !0

Transport Properties

The transport properties of a fluid are coefficients in physical models that govern the transport of 1) molecular kinetic energy: Q, molecular viscosity 2) thermal energy: k, thermal conductivity 3) mass: Dij, binary diffusion

Sutherlands Formula

Sutherlands formula computes the coefficient of molecular viscosity Q for an perfect gas with fixed composition as a function of temperature

T 3/ 2 Q ! C1 T C 2

Where C1 and C2 are constants.

10

Thermal Conductivity

The definition of the Prandtl number

Pr |

Q cp k

k!

Q cp Pr

WIND uses Pr = 0.72.

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Wilkes Law

Wilkes Law computes the transport properties Q and k for a mixture

Q !

i !1 ns

ns

xi Q i

ns j !1

x j Jij

k !

i !1

xi ki

ns j !1

x j Jij

1 Mi 1 Jij ! 8 Mj

1/ 2

Q 1 i Qj

1/ 2

Mj M i

1/ 4

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Diffusion

The coefficient of diffusion for a binary mixture of two species i and j of dilute gases is provided by the Chapman-Enskog formula

1 1 1 T 3/ 2 Dij ! 0.0018583 2 M i M j d ij p ; ij

where the effective diffusion collision integral factor is

; ij !

1

0 TD .145

1 TD 0.5 2

T TD ! TI ij

1 d ij ! i d j d 2

Dim !

1 X i

Xj i D j{ ij

ns

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Air

Air is the most common gas (default gas) used in CFD simulations with WIND. Air is a mixture of mostly nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) with other trace gases (Argon, water vapor). Usually assume air to have a fixed composition with constant R, K, cp, and cv, which is assuming air behaving as an calorically (ideal) perfect gas. Simulations with hypersonic Mach numbers and higher temperatures (>1440 oR) involve changes in the energy states and composition of air. The relations for a mixture of perfect gases need to be used and models for the chemical reactions need to be used to determine the thermodynamic and transport properties.

14

Air

(continued)

The behavior of air with temperature can be summarized as T < 1440 oR. Air behaves as a calorically perfect gas. T > 1440 oR. Vibrational energy states of molecules become significant and the specific heats become a function of temperature. Air behaves as a thermally perfect gas. T > 4500 oR. Air chemically reacts to dissociate O2 to form atomic oxygen O. T > 7200 oR. Air chemically reacts to dissociate N2 to form atomic oxygen N. T > 16200 oR. Both N and O begin to ionize to form a plasma. The above temperatures assume the air pressure is 1 atm. If the the air pressure is lower, the on-set temperatures (except the 1440 oR) will be lower, and vice versa. Once air chemically reacts, the chemical composition (species) of the air mixture will need to be tracked and the chemical reactions modeled.

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Gas Models

The following gas models provide specific relations for the thermodynamic properties ( p, T, V, h, e, ) and the transport properties ( Q, k, D ): Constant Property Fluid Calorically Perfect (Ideal) Gas Thermally Perfect Gas Equilibrium Chemistry Finite-Rate Chemistry

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Composition remains constant. Specific heats cp and cv are constant, maybe the same, c. Molecular viscosity Q and thermal conductivity k are constant. Density V may be constant (incompressible). Used for simulating liquid flow.

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Ideally Perfect (Ideal) Gas Composition remains constant, thus R is constant. Assumes the specific heats cp and cv are constant

h cp F! ! !K e cv

Given V and e,

KR cp ! K 1

R cv ! K 1

p ! V e K 1

p T! VR

Molecular viscosity Q is computed using Sutherlands formula Thermal conductivity k computed assuming a constant Prandtl number, Pr.

This model is the default model and is probably used 95-99% of time for WIND applications.

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Vibrational energy modes of gas molecules are significant. Composition is frozen, and so, gas constant, R, remain constant. Specific heats cp and cv are functions of static temperature, T.

T

cp R

! ak T k

k !0

cv ! c p R

h ! href c p T
dT

Tref

Given V and e,

h F! e

p ! V e F 1

p T! VR

Molecular viscosity Q is computed using Sutherlands formula Thermal conductivity k computed assuming a constant Prandtl number, Pr.

19

The equilibrium chemistry model considers changes in the chemical composition; however, the chemical reactions are assumed to happen instantaneously such that the flow remains in local thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium. Chemical composition varies, but is a function of two properties (p, T) Curve fits (Liu & Vinokur) are available for thermodynamic and transport properties. Applicable when fluid motion time scale is much greater than chemical reaction time scale. For air, chemical reactions occur above 4500 oR (2500 K).

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The finite-rate chemistry model considers changes in chemical composition when the time scales of chemical reactions are comparable or greater with the fluid motion time scale. Requires the specification of the chemical reactions in the model

a ?X Am b ?X A

i i i i i !1

Kf

Kb

i !1

ai and bi are the stoichiometric mole numbers of the reactants and products of species i, respectively.

V ci Xi ! Mi

K f ! C T exp? E / K T A

n

Kb !

Kf Ke

Each species has a continuity equation that must be solved as part of the system of conservation equation.

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