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CONTINUOUS IDEAL REACTORS

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

CSTR Contd. . .

CSTR Animation

Also called as Mixed, Backmix, Ideal stirred tank reactor Open system, operates under steady state conditions Reactants are continuously introduced and products are continuously withdrawn Perfect mixing contents have uniform properties No spatial variations Conditions at the exit are same as inside the reactor Used for homogenous liquid phase reactions where constant agitation is required Eg. Sulfonation, Polymerization, plastics, explosives, synthetic rubber etc.
CSTR Contd. . . 5

Advantages: Cheap to construct Good temperature control Reactor has large heat capacity Easy access to interiors Disadvantages: Conversion per unit volume of the reactor is smallest compared to other flow reactors

CSTR Contd. . .

Fractional Conversion (xA): FA0  FA xA ! FA0 C A0  C A (for constant density) xA ! C A0 Space time (X): Space time is the time required to process one reactor volume of inlet material (feed) measured at inlet conditions. X is the time required for a volume of feed equal to the volume of the vessel (V) to flow through the vessel. X = V/v0 = sec
N.B. : Volume of vessel here means volume of Reaction Mixture.
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Space Velocity (S): Space velocity (S) is the reciprocal of space time, the number of reactor volumes of feed, measured at inlet conditions, processed per unit time. Mean Residence time tm: The residence time is the length of time species spend in the reactor. All molecules that enter may not spend the same time in the reactor. The distribution of residence times RTD The average length of time that molecules spend in the reactor mean residence time (tm) tm = V/vE
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FA ! FA0 (1  x A )

v0 ! FA0 / C A0

lit mol mol ! z sec sec lit

For constant density: FA FA0 (1  x A ) CA ! ! ! C A0 (1  x A ) v v0 For variable density:


(1  x A ) FA FA0 (1  x A ) CA ! ! C A0 ! (1  I A x A ) v v0 (1  I A x A )

Stoichiometric Table Flow Systems aA + bB p rR + sS


Species Initial Change -FA0xA -(b/a)FA0xA +(r/a)FA0xA +(s/a)FA0xA 0 Final moles FA= FA0(1-xA) FB= FA0(MB-(b/a)xA) FR= FA0(MR+(r/a)xA) FS= FA0(MS+(s/a)xA) FI = FI0

A
B R S I

FA0
FB0 FR0 FS0 FI0

Total

FT0

FT = FT0 + NA0 xA

Where: MI = FI0/FA0 = (r/a + s/a b/a 1)

For Constant density: CA = CA0(1-xA)

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Design Equation
General Mass Balance Equation: Rate of Input = rate of output + accumulation + rate of disappearance FA0 = FA + 0 + (-rA) V FA0 - FA = (-rA) V FA0 xA = (-rA) V V / FAo = xA / -rA
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General Design eqn. for a CSTR: V / FAo = xA / -rA V / (v0 CA0) = xA / -rA X / CA0 = xA / -rA Design eqn. for a CSTR under constant density: X = (CA0 CA) / -rA tm = V/vE

Note that the space time and the mean residence time are equal only in the case of constant density. 13

DA =kCA0n-1 X

Comparison of Different order Reactions in a CSTR

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Plug Flow Reactor

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The necessary and sufficient condition for plug flow is the residence time in the reactor to be the same for all elements of the fluid.

PFR Animation

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PFR is also called as tubular reactor Residence time is same for all fluid elements Operated under steady state conditions Reactants are consumed as they flow down along the length of the reactor Axial concentration gradients exist One long tube or a number of short tubes (see fig.) Choice of diameter depends on fabrication cost, pumping cost and heat transfer needs Wide variety of applications in gas/liquid phase Eg.: Production of gasoline, cracking, synthesis of ammonia, SO2 oxidation
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(1) The flow in the vessel is Plug flow. (2)There is no axial mixing of fluid inside the vessel (i.e., in the direction of flow). (3)There is complete radial mixing of fluid inside the vessel (i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the direction of flow). (4)Properties may change continuously in the direction of flow (5)In the axial direction, each portion of fluid, acts as a closed system in motion, not exchanging material with the portion ahead of it or behind it.
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Advantages: Easily maintained as there are no moving parts High conversion per unit volume Unvarying product quality Good for studying rapid reactions Disadvantages: Poor temperature control Hot spots may occur when used for exothermic reactions
PFR Contd. . . 20

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Design Equation
General Mass Balance Equation: Rate of Input = rate of output + accumulation + rate of disappearance

FA = FA + dFA + 0 + (-rA) dV -dFA = (-rA) dV FA0 dxA = (-rA) dV


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General Design eqn. for a PFR:


xA xA

V / FA0 ! dx A /  rA
0 xA

X / C A0 ! dx A /  rA
0 V

Design eqn. for a PFR (under constant density):

X !  dC A /  rA
0

tm ! dV / v
0

Note that the space time and the mean residence time are equal only in the case of constant density.
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CA/CA0

DA = kCA0n-1 X

Comparison of Different order Reactions in a PFR

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Item XA CA -rA t

BR (NA0-NA)/NA0 NA/V (NA0/V)dxA/dt NA0dxA/V(-rA)

CSTR

PFR

(FA0-FA)/FA0 FA/v FA0xA/V FA0dxA/dV X = V/v0

Constant density XA -rA t (CA0-CA)/CA0 -dCA/dt -dCA/(-rA) (CA0-CA)/CA0 (CA0 -CA)/X X = V/v0
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-dCA/dX

Algorithm for Isothermal Reactor Design

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CSTR
X / CA0 = xA / -rA
X / CA0

PFR x X / C A0 ! dx A /  rA
A

X / CA0 1 /-rA

xA
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CSTR
V / FA0 = xA / -rA

PFR x V / FA0 ! dx A /  rA
A

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CSTR
X = (CA0 CA) / -rA

xA

PFR

X !  dC A /  rA
0

X 1 /-rA 1 /-rA

CA

CA0

CA

CA0

(Constant Density)

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CSTR

(Constant Density)

PFR
X

1 /-rA X 1 /-rA CA CA0

CVBR
CA CA0 1 /-rA t

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CA

CA0

CSTR
1 /-rA

PFR
X / CA0

X / CA0

xA

1 /-rA

VVBR
1  rA (1  I A x A )
xA
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t / CA0

xA

CSTR

(Constant Density)

CA

PFR

X = (CA0 CA) / -rA

X !  dC A /  rA
C A0 CA

Zero Order
X = (CA0 CA) / k kX = CA0 CA kX = CA0 xA

X !  dC A / k
C A0

kX = CA0 CA kX = CA0 xA
Constant Density BR

kt = CA0 CA

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CSTR

(Constant Density)

CA

PFR

X = (CA0 CA) / -rA

X !  dC A /  rA
C A0 CA

First Order
X = (CA0 CA) / kCA kX = (CA0 CA)/CA kX = xA /(1-xA)

X !  dC A / kC A
C  ln !  ln(1  x A ) ! kX C A0
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C A0 A

Constant Density BR

CA  ln ! kt C A0

CSTR

(Constant Density)

CA

PFR

X = (CA0 CA) / -rA

X !  dC A /  rA
C A0 CA

Second Order
X = (CA0 CA) / kCA2

X !  dC A / kC A
1 1  ! kX C A C A0
C A0

kX = (CA0 CA)/CA2 kX CA0 = xA /(1-xA)2

Constant Density BR

1 1  ! kt C A C A0

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Constant Density

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For constant density: The performance of the Batch reactor is


similar to that of PFR for all orders The performance of all the three reactors is the same in case of zero order reaction The performance of PFR is superior to that of a CSTR for all orders > 0

For all reaction orders > 0 The volume of a CSTR required for obtaining a
given conversion is larger than that of PFR For the same volumes of PFR & CSTR, the conversion obtained is larger in the case of PFR
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CSTR
X = CA0xA / -rA

(Variable Density)
CA 1  xA ! C A0 1  I A x A

PFR xA

X ! C A0 dx A /  rA
0 xA

Zero Order
X = CA0 xA / k kX = CA0 xA

X ! C A0 dx A / k
0

kX = CA0xA
Variable Density BR:

C A0 ln(1  I A x A ) ! kI At

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CSTR
X = CA0xA / -rA

(Variable Density)
CA 1  xA ! C A0 1  I A x A

PFR x
A

X ! C A0 dx A /  rA
0 xA

First Order
X = CA0 xA / kCA kX = CA0 xA/CA

X ! C A0 dx A / kC A
0

kX ! (1  I A ) ln(1  x A )  I A x A

Variable Density BR:

 ln(1  x A ) ! kt

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CSTR
X = CA0xA / -rA

(Variable Density)
CA 1  xA ! C A0 1  I A x A

PFR xA

X ! C A0 dx A /  rA
0 xA

Second Order
X = CA0 xA / kCA2

X ! C A0 dx A / kC A
0
2 A A 2

kX = CA0 xA / CA2

C A0 kX ! 2I A (1  I A ) ln(1  x A )
 I x  (I A  1) x A /(1  x A )

Variable Density BR:

x A (1  I A ) /(1  x A )  I A ln(1  x A ) ! kC A0t

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Variable Density

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Relative performance of plug flow and continuous-flow stirred tank reactors

Fraction unreacted is larger in CSTR for a given Da

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Comparison of reactor volume required for a given conversion for a first-order reaction in a PFR and a CSTR

For small conversions VCSTR/VPFR = 1 (selection of reactor not very critical). For large conversions, VCSTR/VPFR is very large (selection of 46 reactor very critical).

For Variable density:


The performance of CSTR & PFR is similar in case of zero order (irrespective of constant / variable density) The performance of BR is different from the performance of PFR (the performance was similar in the case of constant density) The performance of PFR is superior to that of a CSTR for all orders > 0 (same as constant density)
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Comparison of possible advantages (+) and Disadvantages (-) for Batch, CSTR and PFR Reactors Criteria
Reactor size for given conversion Simplicity and Cost Continuous operation Large throughput Cleanout On-line analysis Product quality

Batch + + + -

CSTR + + + + + +

PFR + + + + +

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ANY CLARIFICATIONS ?

Abbey, Edward That which today calls itself science gives us more and more information, an indigestible glut of information, and less and less understanding.
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