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CELL

An animal cell typically contains several types of membranemembrane-bound organs, or organelles. The nucleus organelles. directs activities of the cell and carries genetic information from generation to generation. The mitochondria generate energy for the cell. Proteins are manufactured by ribosomes, which are bound to the rough endoplasmic reticulum or float free in the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus modifies, packages, and distributes proteins while lysosomes store enzymes for digesting food. The entire cell is wrapped in a lipid membrane that selectively permits materials to pass in and out of the cytoplasm. 



Nucleus of a Cell The nucleus, present in eukaryotic cells, is a discrete structure containing chromosomes, the genetic blueprint of the cell. Separated from the cytoplasm of the cell by a double-layered membrane called the nuclear envelope, the nucleus contains a cellular material called nucleoplasm. Nuclear pores, around the circumference of the nuclear membrane, allow the exchange of cellular materials between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm.

Cytoplasm  This freeze-fracture freezetransmission electron micrograph of a yeast cell, Rhodosporidium toryloides, shows a number of organelles suspended in its cytoplasmic matrix: a dark, round lipid body occupies the bottom of the cell, with the large nucleus above and to the right, and a curved mitochondrion at the top of the cell. High-voltage magnification Highreveals that the cytoplasm, here a viscous gel, contains a threethreedimensional lattice of protein fibres. Called the cytoskeleton, these filaments interconnect and support the solid substances mentioned above. 



Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton, a network of protein fibers, crisscrosses the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, providing shape and mechanical support. The cytoskeleton also functions as a monorail to transport substances around the cell. 

Mitochondria Mitochondria, minute sausage-shaped structures found in the hyaloplasm (clear cytoplasm) of the cell, are responsible for energy production. Mitochondria contain enzymes that help to convert food material into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which can be used directly by the cell as an energy source. 



Adenosine Triphosphate Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the primary energy source found in all living things. ATP fuels most cell activities, including muscle movement, protein synthesis, cell division, and nerve signal transmission. In this computer graphic representation of an ATP molecule, the three phosphate groups are shown in orange. ATP s chemical energy is stored in its phosphate bonds.  

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum The major site of protein synthesis within the cell is on the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Characterized by a stacked, sheet-like appearance dotted with small dark structures called ribosomes, the RER synthesizes proteins on its outer surface, then secretes these proteins to the outside of the cell. The ribosomes dotting the surface of the RER are also sites of protein synthesis, however these proteins are retained within the cell to perform metabolic functions. 



Golgi Apparatus The golgi apparatus, a minute cellular inclusion in the cytoplasm, is a series of smooth, stacked membranous sacs. The golgi apparatus directs newly synthesized proteins to the correct destination in the cell.

Smooth Muscle  Human smooth muscle, also called visceral or involuntary muscle, is composed of slender, spindlespindleshaped cells. Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, smooth muscle cells help to form the structure of the skin, blood vessels, and internal organs.

Nerve Cells  This photomicrograph shows a number of multipolar nerve cells. The central cell body is clearly visible in each of the cells, as are the dendrites, which are short extensions of the nerve cell body that function in the reception of stimuli. 



Lymphocytes Lymphocytes, or white blood cells, are produced in the marrow of bones. The cells are largely responsible for controlling infection within the body, directly attacking antigens, or foreign substances, in the tissues or circulatory system. Following organ transplants, lymphocytes often attack transplanted tissues, causing the transplant to b rejected. 

Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, are the primary carriers of oxygen to the cells and tissues of the body. The biconcave shape of an erythrocyte is an adaptation for maximizing the surface area across which oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Its shape and flexible plasma membrane allow the erythrocyte to penetrate the smallest of blood capillaries. 



First Cell Divisions As a fertilized egg goes through its first divisions, the daughter cells become progressively smaller. When there are a hundred or more cells, they form a hollow ball of cells, called a blastula, surrounding a fluid-filled fluidcavity. Later divisions produce three layers of cells endoderm (inner), mesoderm (middle), and ectoderm (outer) from which the principal features of the animal will differentiate.

During the third preembryonic phase, the blastocyst mass differentiates into 3 layers: 1. Endoderm digestive system, respi tract (except nose) 2. Mesoderm muscles, bones, connective tissue, circulatory system, repro organs, urinary system 3. Ectoderm skin, nervous system, special sense organs (eyes, ears, nose & mouth)

4 weeks old embryo nestles inside a mass of feathery tissue called the chorion, which in turn is implanted in the uterus

At 26 days, marks the areas of head and heart. The swelling at the top will become the forebrain; the smaller ones beneath them that look like cheeks are actually the lower jaw. The depression between these two sets of bulges will become the mouth. At the very top, a tiny hole is the end of a tube that forms the brain and the spinal cord.

Eyes, ears and limbs have appeared by the 6th week, the latter as arm and leg buds . The eye looks like a dark-rimmed circle; just in front of it is a bulge part of which will form the nose. The series of little folds that look like a mouth are actually the beginning of the outer ear. These features will take their correct position when the embryo acquires a neck and begins to uncurl. The embryo is about an inch from crown to rump.

The yolk sac of an embryo at six weeks produces red blood cells in the first two months of growth, but soon loses this function. It is rarely present at birth. Beneath the head, the arm can be seen with its developing hand.

The face of an 8th week old embryo reveals an eyelid forming over the lens, and the iris beginning to develop pigment. In the 9th week, the upper and lower lids meet, fuse, and do not reopen until the 7th month. The ear can be seen at the left.

Nine weeks old the embryo has developed wellformed fingers; its eye is assuming an oval shape. It measures about 1 ¼ inches from crown to rump. The kidneys have begun functioning at this stage, adding fetal urine to amniotic fluid.

The rib cage of an 11th week fetus can be seen in the chest region just below the elbows. The ribs & spinal column develop from cartilage cells, which begin to be replaced by bone cells.

3rd month the developing form of life is not just a human but an individual, and has begun to show sign of distinctive physical characteristic. No longer called an embryo, it is now a fetus measuring 2 ½ in. from crown to rump. Growth proceed from the head down. Feet have acquired fanned-out toes

12 weeks old, the fetus raises its hand to its mouth and makes mouth movements suggestive of sucking. It also contracts the other hand. The substitution of bone for cartilage in the long bones of the arms and legs is now well under way.

Sucking its thumb at 4 ½ months. Some babies are born with thumb calluses from too much sucking in the womb. The movements of the fetus intensify and are felt by the mother as quickening . Measures nearly 6 inches from crown to rump. It has almost fully developed ears and eyes. The blood vessels show through its translucent skin.

Floating in its sac, the 5 month fetus has settled into a favorite lie or resting position. The umbilical cord is kept from getting kinked by the pressure of blood flowing though it. It also reveals curling of fingers and the emerging fingernails. Fingerprints also begin to appear by 6th months.

7 month olf fetus has acquired certain immunities and accumulated fat for warmth in preparation for the outer world. Its digestive and respiratory systems become remarkably efficient.

Full born at nine months, a baby emits a cry of life on being thrust into a cold bright world.  

Abnormal Cells and Cancer Cancerous cells usually become much different from the tissue from which they arise. The ovarian tumor pictured here bears no resemblance to the normal tissue of the ovary. 



DNA Strands Nucleic acids are complex molecules produced by living cells and are essential to all living organisms. These acids govern the body s development and specific characteristics by providing hereditary information and triggering the production of proteins within the body. This computer-generated computermodel shows two strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the double-helical doublestructure typical of this class of nucleic acids. 



DNA Molecule A DNA molecule consists of a ladder, formed of sugars and phosphates, and four nucleotide bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). The genetic code is specified by the order of the nucleotide bases, and each gene possesses a unique sequence of base pairs. 



Human Male Karyotype This karyotype of a human male shows the 23 pairs of chromosomes that are typically present in human cells. The chromosome pairs labeled 1 through 22 are called autosomes, and have a similar appearance in males and females. The 23rd pair, shown on the bottom right, represents the sex chromosomes. Females have two identical-looking sex chromosomes that identicalare both labeled X, whereas males have a single X chromosome and a smaller chromosome labeled Y. 



Down Syndrome Down syndrome is often called Trisomy 21 because most people with this condition have three copies of the number 21 chromosome one of the smallest of the human autosomes. In this karyotype, the sex chromosomes marked with letters instead of numbers are XX rather than XY, showing that these chromosomes belong to a female. Down syndrome almost always results in mental retardation, though the severity of the retardation varies. 



Recessive Gene Transmission Some genes that cause genetic diseases interact in a dominantdominantrecessive pattern. In these cases, two copies of the recessive gene are required for the disease to occur. A person who has just one copy of the recessive gene is termed a carrier, since he or she carries the gene but is not affected by it. In the illustration above, the dominant gene is represented in green, and the recessive in blue. For the couple on the left, the father has one copy of the dominant gene and one copy of the recessive gene. The mother has two copies of the dominant gene. Each parent can contribute just one gene to the child. The four children shown on the lower left represent the probabilities (not the actual children) for the combinations that can result from their parents. The children on the far left received the recessive gene from their father and the dominant gene from their mother, and are therefore carriers. For any child born to these parents, there is a 50 percent chance that the child will be a carrier. Since none of the children can inherit two copies of the recessive gene, none of the children will develop the disease. When both parents are carriers, however, as shown by the couple on the right, there is a 25 percent chance that any child born has the disease, a 50 percent chance that a child is a carrier, and a 25 percent chance that a child does not have the disease and is not a carrier.

GENETIC TESTING 



Prenatal Testing Both procedures remove cells surrounding the developing fetus. The cells obtained have the same genetic makeup as the fetus and can be tested for genetic abnormalities. In chorionic villus sampling, a doctor removes tissue from the chorionic villi, fingerlike projections that are part of the developing placenta, between 10 and 12 weeks of pregnancy. Using ultrasound guidance, the doctor inserts either a needle through the woman s abdominal wall or a thin, hollow tube called a catheter through her cervix to reach the chorionic villi. The doctor suctions out cells using a syringe. Amniocentesis is usually performed between 15 and 17 weeks of pregnancy. In this procedure, a doctor uses ultrasound guidance to insert a needle through the abdominal wall into the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus. Cells from the amniotic fluid are removed using a syringe. Both procedures pose a slight risk for the developing fetus, and health professionals recommend these tests only in cases in which a mother or father has a family history of a genetic disorder or a known risk for chromosomal abnormalities.