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Design of Rockfill Dams

What are dams ? A barrier built across the river.

How dam works? Create a permanent reservoir of water to be used at some later date.

History of Dam Construction

First Thought ???????

BEAVER

History of Dam Construction As per Archaeological evidences 3000 to 5000 yrs. For Irrigation purpose Built out of logs, buttressed with twigs and branches and sealed with mud and stone. Called as Beaver dams.

Classification Of Dams According to Material of Construction Earth dams Rockfill dams Solid Masonry gravity dams Hollow masonry gravity dams (RCC deck and arches) Timber dams Steel dams Roller compacted Concrete dams

Classification of Dams (Contd.) (Contd.) According to Resisting Action Gravity Dam Arch dam Buttress Dam

CLASSIFICATION OF DAMS (contd.) According to Hydraulic Design


Overflow dam designed to pass the surplus water over the crest, often called spillways Non overflow dam Not designed to be overtopped.

Design of & Earth & Rockfill Dams

Definition of Rockfill Dam


A dam that relies on rock, either dumped in lifts or compacted in layers, as a major structural element. An impervious membrane is used as a water barrier and can be placed either within or on the u/s slope of the embankment. An impervious membrane can be either of earth or concrete or asphaltic concrete or Geomembrane

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Choice of Type of Dam


Shape of Valley - Wide Foundation conditions - Weak rock, overburden Construction Material Use of naturally occurring material Material obtained from excavation for other components of the projects like spillway, powerhouse may be used as construction material Preferable in high seismic zones flexible structure Availability of space for flood diversion

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Design of Earth Rockfill Dams

Kol Dam HEPP Main Dam and U/s Cofferdam

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Advantages
Can be constructed on any given foundation condition Soil/rock materials locally available are used with negligible processing. Use of costly manufactured items like cement and steel is eliminated and thus saving in cost. Embankment dam is more resistant to seismic forces and are preferred in areas of high seismicity. Embankment dam can be constructed in stages and the dam height can be increased later on easily, if needed. With modern earth moving machineries, the dam can be completed in less time compared to a rigid dam. Embankment dams are generally much cheaper.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Conditions Deciding Economy in Construction of Rockfill Dams


Availability of large quantity of rock available at site or made available during project excavation works Excessively wet climatic conditions/ monsoon season Tight construction schedule -Round the year construction Earth fill materials require extensive processing Dam is to be raised at a later date Grouting operations required during embankment construction. High cost of diversion structure overtopping of dam is not allowed.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams Failure Categories Two failure categories are given by ICOLD Type 1 (F1): A major failure involving the complete abandonment of the dam Type 2 (F2): A failure which at the time may have been severe, but yet has permitted extent of damage to be successfully repaired and the dam brought into use again.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams Failure Modes Overtopping of embankment Piping through embankment Piping through Foundation Slope failure Erosion of slopes due to water waves or storm water

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams Failure of Large Embankments during Operation Stage (Foster et al. 1998, 2000) Overtopping 34.2% Piping through embankment Piping through embankment into foundation Piping through Foundation Slope failure Other 32.5% 1.7%

15.4% 6% 12.8%

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams Failure of Large Embankments Overtopping Seepage effect, Piping and Sloughing Slope Slides Conduit Leakage Damage to slope Paving Miscellaneous Unknown 30% 25% 15% 13% 5% 7% 5%

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams Cracks in Embankments

Reasons for cracking Unsuitable/poorly compacted fill Different compressibility and stress- strain characteristics of fill material Variation in thickness of fill

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

General Criteria for Design


No risk for overtopping sufficient free board shall be provided No possibility of piping through embankment Adequate filter and transition zones shall be provided. No possibility of cracking of core due to differential settlement Foundation shear strength shall be greater than shearing stresses on foundations Factor of safety against Slope failure for all possible critical conditions.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Alignment
Excessive skewness of dam axis with respect to valley alignment shall be avoided. Divergence of abutment contours with respect to dam axis shall be avoided. In case undesirable contour orientation, abutment shall be excavated in core contact and transitions to get a maximum 90 with the axis.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Foundation
Entire foundation area has to stripped of top soil, roots etc. In shell portion removal of overburden may be necessary, if overburden material is so week that it can slide of cause excessive settlement of shell which may result in cracking of core. Overburden shall be removed down to the material which in physical properties is equal to or better than shell material

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Slope modification to reduce differential settlement & cracking of core For core foundation: to allow compaction of earthfill; to allow maintenance of positive pressure of the earthfill on the abutment; to limit cracking of the earth core due to differential settlement over large discontinuities in the abutments.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Typical Core Abutment Excavation Detail

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams

Kol Dam HEPP Main Dam and U/s Cofferdam Excavation

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Free Board
Vertical Distance between the crest of embankment (excluding camber) and still reservoir water surface. Factors to be considered for freeboard Wave height and wave length Height of wind set-up above still water level Slope of dam and roughness of pitching Analysis to determine extra free board to take care the effect of earthquake, settlement of dam and foundation

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Top Width
Fixed as per requirement of working space. Shall not be less than 6m W=3.6H1/3-3(m)

Height of Dam (m) Top Width (m) 30 50 100 200 8 10 13 18

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Settlement Allowance
Settlement in the Rock fill dam depends upon many factors: - Foundation characteristics - Core and shell material characteristics - layer thickness, - rate of construction, - methodology for construction, - dam height - quality control exercised during execution.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Settlement Allowance
Settlement of 14 rockfill dams were found to range 0.25% to 1% of dam hieght. (Sowers et.al.) Settlement from a number of rock fill dams, (Lawton et. al, 8th ICOLD) s= 0.001h3/2 (Kol Dam 2.15m.) IS:8826-1978, total settlement equal to 1 to 2% of height. As per Norwegian practice, expected settlement including a certain margin of safety is about 1% of height for well compacted fill founded on rock.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Type


Upstream Core  More stable under the water load, because the downward force of the water produces frictional resistance to sliding  The permeable rock embankment develops no uplift  The impermeable deck can easily be inspected and repaired if necessary.  During construction the height of the dam can be increased by dumping only on the downstream side and extending the membrane upward on the sloping surface.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Type


Upstream Core  The deck is vulnerable to weather and wave attack.  If constructed of earth, sudden drawdown greatly reduces its stability and may cause it to slide.  Settlement of the rock embankment tends to produce tensile cracks in the membrane.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Type


Sloping core  Less Clay requirement  Can be constructed after placement of rockfill.  Reduced pore pressures in downstream portion of the dam - Resulting in higher safety of downstream slopes  More quality control required less thickness

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Type


Central core  Gives higher pressures at foundation contact Reduces the possibility of leakage and piping at foundation contact.  Less quality control required Large thickness of core  Better performance under earthquakes.  Simultaneous construction of rockfill, filters and core

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Width depends on  tolerable seepage loss;  minimum width which will allow proper construction;  the type of material chosen for the core and shoulders of the dam  design of proposed filter layers

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Width of 30% to 50% of the head of water have proved satisfactory on many dams under diverse conditions. Cores of this width are adequate for any soil type and dam height. Width of 15% to 20% of the head of water are considered thin. However, when adequately designed and constructed filter layers are used, then the core is satisfactory under most circumstances. Widths of less than 10% of the head of water are not used widely and should only be used when a large leak through the core would not lead to failure of the dam.

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Minimum top width of the core 3m Top level of core should be 1 m higher than MWL Material  Clay, Sandy Clay, Silty Clay, Clayey Silt  With some Gravels

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Material  Inorganic clay, Gravelly clay, Sandy Clay, Silty Clay, with medium to low plasticity  High plasticity clay, Clayey or Silty gravel, poorly graded gravels- sand silt mixture  Inorganic silts with low, medium or high plasticity  Organic soils and Peat Not Sutable

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Material  Dispersive soils  Dispersive soils by nature of mineralogy and the chemistry of water in the soil are susceptible to separation of the individual clay particles and subsequent erosion.  Different from erodible soils like silt or sand which erode by physical action

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Earth Core Material  ICOLD (1990) suggested that dams can be built with dispersive soils also but with  Properly designed and constructed filters  Proper compaction of soil  Lime or Gysum modification of soil  Sealing of crack in the abutment and cut-off trenches  High turbidity of reservoir water

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Rockfill
Material  Hard, sound and durable  Resistance to excessive break down during handling, placement and compaction  Un-weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks are most suitable  Shales are not suitable.  Angular and bulky rocks preferred over flat elongated rocks and rounded boulders

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Rockfill
Material  Well graded gravels or Gravel sand mixtures; with little or no fines.  Silty gravel, poorly graded gravels- sand silt mixture  Poorly graded gravel or gravel sand mixture; with little or no fines

Design of Rockfill Dams Seepage Control Measures            Zoning of Materials Chimney drain Blanket Drain Collector drain Toe drain Grout Curtain Core Trench Cut off Surry Trench Cut-off Upstream Blanket Gallery Pressure relief Wells and Trenches

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams

Intermediate & Surface Grouting

EL. 648 1
Spillway PI Dam

11 10 9 4
Grout Curtain

3 8 5 6 7

12

Projected L-Section (Through Dam Axis) L-

Grout Curtain through DT

Diversion Tunnels

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams

SP- 2

15

Diversion Tunnels 14
1 3

Plugs

13

2 1

D -2 A

SP- 1

4 3
D -1 A

12 5 8 9 10 16 11

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Filter Design Functional Requirements


No segregation during processing, handling, placing, compaction. No change in gradation during processing, handling, placing, compaction or wetting and drying during seepage flow. No chance of cementation due to chemical, physical or biological action. Does not have any apparent or real cohesion Internally stable fine particles of filter should not migrate under seepage flow Have sufficient permeability Have ability to control and seal the erosion of base soil

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Filter Design Filter material should satisfy the following criteria  Shall be more pervious than base material  Gradation shall be such that base material do not totally migrate through and clog the filter Category of Base Soil Category 1 2 3 4 % Finer than 75 > 85 40-85 15-39 <15

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams Filters Criteria (IS 9429)


Base Soil Description and Percent Finer than 75 microns Fine Silts and Clays, More than 85% finer Sands, Silts,Clays and silty and clayey sands; 40% to 85% finer Silty and Clayey Sands and Gravels, 15% to 39% Finer Sands and Gravels; less than 15% Finer Filter Criteria

D15(F) 9D85(B) 0.2mm D15(F) 0.7 mm

D15(F) {(40-A)/(40-15)}x{4x D15(B)0.7mm}+0.7mm D15(F) 4D85(B)

Permeability criteria D15(F) 5 D15(B) > 0.1

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Filter Design -

D15(F) 5 D15(B) > 0.1


To minimize segregation D10(F) min. (mm) <0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-2.0 2.0-5.0 5.0-10.0 10.0-50.0 D90(F) max. (mm) 20 25 30 40 50 60

75

75mm

D15(F) {(40-A)/(40-15)}x{4x D15(B)-0.7mm}+0.7mm = 2.2 mm

Design of Earth & Rockfill Dams

Placement of Filter -

Specified Filter Width Placement of filter ahead of other zones

Specified Filter Width Placement of filter ahead of other zones

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams Stability Analysis Limit Equilibrium Method Circular Arc Method Sliding Wedge Method

Numerical Methods
Finite Element Method Finite Difference Method

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams Stability Analysis Critical Cases Construction condition with or without partial pool (for upstream and downstream slopes) Reservoir partial pool (for upstream slope) Sudden Drawdown (for upstream slope) Steady seepage (downstream slope) Steady Seepage with sustained rain fall (for downstream slope) Earthquake condition (upstream and downstream slope)

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams Stability Analysis

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams Stability Analysis Shear Strength for Analysis Design Condition End of Construction Sudden Drawdown Steady Seepage Earthquake Shear Strength UU or CU CU and CD CU or CD Min. F.S. 1.3 1.0 1.5 1.0

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams Stability Analysis

Situations Loads
Reservoir Earthquake

Conditions
Normal Extreme

FWL
(OWL)

HWL O.B.E.

MDE

Design of Rockfill Dams Earth and Rockfill Dams Kol Dam HEPP

Design of Rockfill Dams Earth and Rockfill Dams Kol Dam HEPP

Design of Rockfill Dams Earth and Rockfill Dams Kol Dam HEPP
225 cm 80 cm 60 cm

20 cm

20 cm 35 cm

35 cm

50 cm

Design of Rockfill Dams Earth and Rockfill Dams Kol Dam HEPP

Design of Rockfill Dams Earth and Rockfill Dams Kol Dam HEPP

Maximum shear strains < 5%

Design of Rockfill Dams Earth and Rockfill Dams Kol Dam HEPP

Design of Rockfill Dams Earth and Rockfill Dams Kol Dam HEPP
85 cm 175 cm 20 cm 70cm

20 cm 35 cm 85 cm

75 cm 20 cm

Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams


690 680 670

343086 M D D TO D O IFIE P AM LE L VE FO SE R TTLE E T ALLO AN E MN W C 1 50 D 1 500 A B C E F

D A- 1

700

(L- SE TIO TH UG D AXIS SHO IN SE C N RO H AM W G TTLE E ALLO ANC ) M NT W E


( SC - A ) ALE 1 1 79 11 (D SIG E D E N D AM 648.00 TO LE L) P VE

650

660

325

655

985

753

1 480

640 630 620 61 0 600 590 580 570 560 550 540 530 520 51 0 500 490 480 470 460

626.00

1 63630

65273

1 500

1 52 1

225362

(SE TTLE E T ALLO ANC VARIE FR M 1 m TO 0.1 m MN W E S O .5 5 ) 81 80 5996 620.00 61 5.00

(SE TTLE E T ALLO AN E = 1 m MN W C .5 )

(SE TTLE E T ALLO ANC VARIE FR M 1 m TO 0.0 m MN W E S O .5 )

61 5.00 2871 5
1

353

5288

580.00
1 0.73

1 .20

557.00

42297
G E D XC SU G STE E AVATIO LIN N E

421 0 1
1 1 .08 1 1 .29 500.00

495.00 73949
1 1 .75

481 .00
1

91 645

33360

65540

4.45 62436

. D M 450 M ATU

Kol Dam HEPP Dam: Settlement Allowance

MAIN DAM
El. 648 M (163 m High)

Clay core Gravel


D/s Coffer Dam

El. 558 M

UPSTREAM

Rock fill Up stream Coffer Dam


El. 485 M

CLAY 20.62

QUARTZITE 7.89

GRAVEL 32.61

All Quantities in Lac M3 ROCK FILL RIP RAP 59.02 1.84

TOTAL QTY. : 122.17 Lac M3