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1

By the end of this lesson you will:

•

Write linear equations using two points or using a point and the slope of the line. Write a linear equation to model the depreciation of capital goods.

•

2

**The following California Standards will be addressed:
**

•

Algebra 5: Students solve multi-step problems, including word problems, involving linear equations and linear inequalities in one variable and provide justification for each step. Algebra 8: Students understand the concepts of parallel lines and perpendicular lines and how their slopes are related. Students are able to find the equation of a line perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point.

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•

**Real World Applications…
**

We can use math to calculate the height of the scrap metal pile using the Pythagorean Theorem, a2+b2=c2. We can calculate the volume of scrap metal that a truck can hold using V = lwh.

4

**Capital Equipment can be Cranes, Trucks, Railways…
**

•

The Port of Long Beach invests millions of dollars in building infrastructure and purchasing equipment. As it ages, infrastructure and equipment loses value, or depreciates.

•

5

Why learn about modeling and linear equations?

•

Mathematics is a symbolic language that we use to represent and study the world around us. In this lesson you will use Algebra to model simple depreciation as used in business. Using math to study real world problems will provide a better understanding of the uses of math outside of the classroom.

•

6

Think of a car…

•

When you buy a car, it loses value in the same way as the equipment and infrastructure at the Port of Long Beach. For example, if you bought a 2007 Nissan and were to sell it in one year, you would not be able to sell it for the price you paid — you would sell it for less because it has depreciated in value.

•

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A little review…

Before we can model using a linear equation, we must remember how to write a linear equation. We will begin by reviewing slope and two ways to use points to write a linear equation.

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**The slope of a line…
**

•

The slope is the rate of change of y with respect to x. Visually we see this as the steepness of the line. (Think of a really steep hill you would have to walk up or down.)

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Y

m =1

On this graph, with each single unit increase in x, there is a single unit increase in y.

St

ss e pn ee

X

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**The larger the slope…
**

m= 2

•

As the absolute value of the slope becomes larger, the line becomes steeper, moving toward vertical.

Y

=1

m

X

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**The smaller the slope…
**

•

As absolute value of the slope becomes smaller, the line becomes flatter, moving toward horizontal.

Y

=1

m

m= ½

X

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Tell a neighbor

•

The slope represents the steepness of a line. As the slope becomes larger, the line steeper, moving toward vertical becomes

•

.

•

True or False: A line with slope of 1/8 will be flatter, moving toward horizontal.

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A Positive Slope

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A line with a positive slope is drawn up and to the right

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A Negative Slope

•

A line with a negative slope is drawn down and to the right.

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Slope of a Line

•

If points (x1, y1) and (x2,y2) are two points on a non-vertical line, then the slope of the line is given by the equation:

y2 − y1 m= x2 − x1

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Y

L1

The slope is the change in the y over the change in the x.

m=

y2 - y1

X

x2 - x1

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**Calculating the Slope
**

•

**Find the slope of the line that passes through the point (5, -7) and (2, 4).
**

y2 − y1 m= x2 − x1

4 − ( −7 ) m= 2−5

11 − 11 11 = = =− −3 3 3

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**What does the slope tell us?
**

•

The slope of the line that passes m = 11 through the given−points is 3 This line is drawn

.

•

down and to the right .

•

Is this line steep –going toward vertical, or is it flatter – going toward horizontal?

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**Calculating the Slope
**

•

Find the slope of the line that passes through the point (3,10) and (-3, 8).

y2 − y1 m= x2 − x1

8 − 10 m= −3 − 3

−2 m= −6

1 m= 3

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**What does the slope tell us?
**

•

Discuss the following questions with your neighbor: Is the line with this slope, m = 1/3, drawn up or down to the right? Is this line steeper – going toward vertical or is it flatter – going toward horizontal?

•

•

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**The Slope of Vertical Lines
**

•

The slope of a vertical line is undefined. If you select two points on a vertical line and solve for the slope, you will end up with a zero in the denominator.

Y

m = undefined

X

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**The Slope of Horizontal Lines
**

Y m=0

•

The slope of a horizontal line is zero. If you select two points on a horizontal line and solve for the slope, you will end up with a zero in the numerator.

X

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Parallel Lines

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**Two lines are parallel if they have the same slope, m1= m2.
**

m1 m2

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Perpendicular Lines

•

**Two lines are perpendicular if the slopes of the two lines are negative reciprocals.
**

m1(m2) = -1

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Parallel, Perpendicular, Neither?

•

L1 passes through the points (1,-2) and (4,2), L2 passes through the points (-1,-2)and (3,6). Determine whether lines are parallel, perpendicular or neither.

y2 − y1 m1 = x2 − x1

m2 m2 m2 m2

2 − ( −2) m1 = 4 −1 4 m1 = 3

y2 − y1 = x2 − x1 6 − ( −2 ) = 3 − ( −1) 8 = 4 =2

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**Are they parallel?
**

•

The slope of L1 is 4/3 and the slope of L2 is 2. Are these lines parallel? Raise your right hand if you think the answer is yes and your left if you think the answer is no. No, the slopes are not the same.

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• •

•

**Are they perpendicular?
**

• • •

The slope of L1 is 4/3 and the slope of L2 is 2. Are these lines perpendicular? Raise your right hand if you think the answer is yes and your left if you think the answer is no. 8 4

3

•

×2 =

3

No, their product is not negative 1.

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Neither

•

• •

Lines L1 and L2 are neither parallel nor perpendicular. To have been parallel, the slopes would have to have been equal. To have been perpendicular, the slopes would have to have been negative reciprocals (the product of the two slopes will equal -1).

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**Parallel, Perpendicular, Neither?
**

•

L1 passes through the points (-2,5) and (4,2), L2 passes through the points (-1,-2)and (3,6). Determine whether lines are parallel, perpendicular or neither. Write your answer on your response board.

y2 − y1 m1 = x2 − x1

m2 m2 m2 m2

2−5 m1 = 4 − ( −2 ) −3 m1 = 6 1 m1 = − 2

y2 − y1 = x2 − x1 6 − ( −2) = 3 − ( −1) 8 = 4 =2

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**Are they parallel?
**

•

The slope of L1 is -1/2 and the slope of L2 is 2. Are these lines parallel? No. Why? The slopes are not the same.

• • • •

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**Are they perpendicular?
**

• •

The slope of L1 is -1/2 and the slope of L2 is 2. Are these lines perpendicular?

1 − × 2 = −1 2

• • •

**Yes Why? The product of the two slopes in -1. They are negative reciprocals.
**

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Tell a friend…

•

Explain to your neighbor how you determine whether a line is perpendicular or parallel.

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Find the Equation of a Line Using Point-Slope Form.

•

We can write the equation of a line if we know two points on the line or a point on the line and the slope of the line. We can use the Point–Slope Form which is given by the equation

•

y – y1 = m(x – x1)

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**Given two points…
**

Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (4, 5) and (6, -1). Step 1: Find the slope.

y2 − y1 m= x2 − x1

−1 − 5 m= 6−4 −6 m= 2

m = −3

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Example Continued…

Step 2: Using point (4,5) and m= -3, substitute the values into the equation. y – y1 = m(x – x1). y – 5=-3(x – 4) y – 5=-3x +12 y =-3x + 17

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**Find the equation…
**

Find the equation of the line that passes through the point (2,3) and (-4, -6) using the Point-Slope equation, y – y1 = m(x – x1)

Step 1

−6 − 3 −4 − 2 −9 m= −6 3 m= 2 m=

Step 2

y − y1 = m( x − x1 )

3 y − 3 = 2 ( x − 2) 3 y −3 = 2 x −3 3 y=2x

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Given a point and the slope…

Find the equation of the line that passes through the point (6, -2) and has a slope of 2. y – (-2) = 2(x – 6) y + 2 = 2x – 12 y = 2x - 14

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Tell a friend…

•

Explain to your neighbor how you found the equation of the line.

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Practice

1. Write the equation of the line passing through the points (5,1) and (-6, -4). 2. Write the equation of the line with a slope of 0 and passing through the point (6,9).

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Solution to Practice #1

1. Write the equation of the line passing through the points (5,1) and (-6, -4).

−4 − 1 m= −6 − 5 −5 m= −11 5 m= 11

y − y1 = m( x − x1 )

5 y − 1 = 11 ( x − 5) 5 25 y − 1 = 11 x − 11 5 25 y = 11 x − 11 + 1 5 25 y = 11 x − 11 + 11 11 5 y = 11 x − 14 11

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Solution to Practice #2

1. Write the equation of the line with a slope of 0 and passing through the point (6,9).

y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y −9 = 0( x −6) y −9 = 0 y =9

**Is this line vertical or horizontal? Why? It is horizontal because the slope is 0.
**

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Finding the equation of a line using slope-intercept form.

•

Another way to find the equation of a line is by using the slope intercept form:

y = mx + b

• • •

Given two points we can find the slope of the line. With the slope and a point we solve for b. Once we have m and b we substitute the values in to the equation.

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**Slope-Intercept Form
**

Write the equation of the line that passes through point (1,3) and point (4, -6).

**1. Find the slope. 2. Find b
**

( y2 − y1 ) ( x2 − x1 ) −6 − 3 m= 4 −1 −9 m= 3 m = −3 m=

3. Substitute

y = mx + b y = −3x + 6

y = mx + b 3 = −3(1) + b 3 = −3 + b 6 =b

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Slope-Intercept

Using the slope-intercept form the linear equation, find the equation of the line that passes through the point (4,1) and (5,-3). Write your solutions on your response board.

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Solution

Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (4,1) and (5,-3).

1. Slope 2. Find b 3. Substitute

y2 − y1 m= x2 − x1 −3 − 1 m= 5−4 m = −4

y = mx + b 1 = −4( 4) + b 1 = −16 + b 17 = b

y = mx + b y = −4 x + 17

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Practice

•

Find the equation of the line passing through the given points, use the specified method. A) Point-Slope, (4,7) and (-2, -3). B) Slope – Intercept for (-4, -6) and (5, 8).

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•

•

Solution to A

Point-Slope, (4,7) and (-2, -3).

1. Slope 2. Substitute and simplify

y2 − y1 m= x2 − x1 −3 − 7 m= −2 − 4 −10 m= −6 5 m= 3

y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 7 = 5 ( x − 4) 3 y − 7 = 5 x − 20 3 3 y = 5 x − 20 + 7 3 3 y = 5 x − 20 + 7( 3 ) 3 3 3 y = 5 x − 20 + 21 3 3 3 y= 5x+1 3 3

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Solution to B

Use slope – intercept for (-4, -6) and (5, 8).

2. Find b 3. Substitute

y2 − y1 x2 − x1

1. Slope

m=

y = mx + b −6 = 14 ( −4) + b 9 −6 =

−56 9

y = mx + b y = 14 x + 2 9 9

8 − ( −6) m= 5 − ( −4 ) 14 m= 9

+b

−6 + 126 = b 9 −6( 9 ) + 56 = b 9 9

−54 9 2 9

+ 56 = b 9

49

=b

Mathematical Modeling

•

Mathematics is simply a symbolic language used to study the world around us. Mathematical Modeling is the process of formulating real-world situations into the language of mathematics.

50

•

Mathematical Modeling

•

Some mathematical models are very precise. For example, finance equations will give you an exact calculation of interest or the future value of an investment.

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Compound Interest

• • • •

Principal= 10,000 Interest Rate= 7% Compounding Period =12 Years=30

r A = P (1 + m ) ( m)( t ) 07 A = 10,000(1 + .12 ) (12 )( 30)

A = 10,000(1.0058) 360 A = 10,000(8.116) A = $81,164.97

If you were to deposit $10,000 at 7% interest for 20 years compounded monthly, it would accumulate to $81,164.97.

52

**Models for Estimating
**

Some mathematical models will provide only an estimate. For example, using an exponential function can predict global warming.

53

Simple Depreciation

•

We will be writing linear equations for the straight line method of linear depreciation to study the depreciation of capital investments made by the Port of Long Beach. Depreciation is the decrease or loss in value of capital due to age, wear or market conditions. In accounting it is the allowance made for a loss in the value of capital.

•

54

**The Port of Long Beach
**

•

Located in our own backyard, the Port of Long Beach is the second-busiest port in the United States.

55

**Port of Long Beach
**

•

Over $100 billion dollars with of cargo passes through the Port each year.

56

**Port of Long Beach
**

•

Long Beachgenerated trade supports 1.4 million jobs throughout the U.S. and generates about $15 billion in annual traderelated wages.

57

The Port

•

The Port of Long Beach manages the facilities of the Port.

58

The Port

•

It is responsible for infrastructure.

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The Port

•

Its revenue comes from tariffs that shipping companies and importers pay for the cargo received and shipped out of Long Beach.

60

**The Port of Long Beach
**

•

Toward that end, the Port of Long Beach makes large capital investments in in infrastructure for improvements, expansion and safety. The following examples illustrate some of those investments.

61

Linear Depreciation

•

In 2002 the Port of Long Beach purchased a ZPMC Crane for Pier T for the amount of $6,811,461.73. The crane is to be depreciated over 15 years with a scrap value of $0.

62

Linear Depreciation

•

In 2002 the Port of Long Beach purchased a ZPMC Crane for Pier T for the amount of $6,811,461.73. The crane is to be depreciated over 15 years with a scrap value of $0. Write an expression that will calculate the value of the crane at the end of year (t). What is the value of the crane in 2007?

•

•

64

Simple Depreciation

•

Write an expression that will calculate the value of the crane at the end of year (t). We will need two coordinates of the form (time, value). Time is the independent variable. Value is the dependent variable.

65

• • •

Linear Depreciation

In 2002, (this will be t = 0) the Port of

Long Beach purchased a ZPMC Crane for Pier T for the amount of $6,811,461.73. The crane is to be depreciated over 15 years with a scrap value of $0.

(0, $6,811,461.73) & (15, $0)

66

**Finding the Coordinates
**

•

First coordinate: The crane was worth $6,811,461.73 at the time of purchase (t=0). Our first coordinate is (0, $6,811,461.73) Second coordinate: After 15 years, the crane will have a value of $0, so the second coordinate is (15, $0)

•

67

**Given the coordinates we can solve the problem…
**

•

**Using (0, $6,811,461.73) and (15,0), we can find the equation.
**

Find the slope Substitute and Simplify

( 0 − 6,811,461.73) m= (15,0) −6,811,461.73 m= 15 m = −454,097.45

y − y1 = m(x − x1) y − 0 = −454,097.45(x − 15) y = −454,097.45x + 6,811,461.73

68

**The linear equation…
**

The linear equation expressing the cranes value at the end of t years is given by y = -454,097.45x + 6,811,461.73

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Rate of Depreciation

•

Given, y = - 454,097.45x + 6,811,461.73 the slope is the rate of depreciation or $454,097.45 per year. Note the y-intercept is the original value of the crane.

70

• •

What is the value of the crane in 2007?

The crane was purchase in 2002, so 2007 would be t=5. To solve, substitute 5 in for x. y=-454,097.45x+6,811,461.73 y=-454,097.45(5)+6,811,461.73 y=4,540,974.48 At the end of 2007, the book value of the crane was $4,540,974.48.

71

**Check for Understanding
**

In 1984, a tractor/loader was purchased for use at the Port of Long Beach for a price of $29,041.01. The tractor/loader was depreciated using the straight-line method over 8 years. Find the linear equation expressing the tractor’s book value at the end of t years. What is the rate of depreciation? Check your answer with your neighbor.

72

Solution

•

Your two coordinates are (0,$29,041.01) and (8,$0)

1. Find the slope 2. Find the equation 0 − 2904101 , . y − y1= m x − x1) ( m= 8− 0 y − 0 = −363013x − 8) . ( m= −363013 .

y = −363013 + 2904101 . x , .

73

Rate of Depreciation?

•

The linear equation expressing the crane’s value at the end of t years is given by y = -3,630.13x + 29,041.01

• •

What is the rate of depreciation? $3,630.13 per year What was the value of the crane in 1987? y = -3,630.13x + 29,041.01 y = -3,630.13(3)+ 29,041.01 y = 18,150.62 The value of the crane was $18,150.62.

74

Practice

A truck scale purchase at a cost of $151,999.75 in 1986 has a scrap value of $0 at the end of 10 years. If the straightline method of depreciation is used,

• •

•

A) Find the B) Find the book value years. C) Find the years.

rate of depreciation. linear equation expressing the of the scale at the end of t book value at the end of 7

75

**Check Your Work
**

A) The rate of depreciation is the slope.

0 −151,999.75 10 −0 m =− ,199.98 15 B) The linear equation is m=

y = −15,199.98 x + 151,999.75

C) Find the book value at the end of 7 years.

y = $45,600.03

76

Closure

•

Write a brief paragraph explaining the method for writing simple depreciation equations. Include an explanation of depreciation. Share your paragraph with your neighbor.

•

77

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