MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials

CHAPTER 2

Institute of Materials Science

Type I superconductors: pure metals. superconductors can carry large amounts of current with little or no loss of energy. the resistivity vanishes at some low temperature: they become superconducting. Thus. have low critical field Type II superconductors: primarily of alloys or intermetallic compounds. Institute of Materials Science . Superconductivity is the ability of certain materials to conduct electrical current with no resistance.MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 WHAT IS SUPERCONDUCTIVITY?? For some materials.

MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 MEISSNER EFFECT When you place a superconductor in a magnetic field. Institute of Materials Science . i x B on the superconductor produces repulsion. to cancel B. B B T >Tc T < Tc Magnet Superconductor Currents i appear. the field is expelled below TC.

and acquire a polarization OPPOSITE to an applied magnetic field. If the temperature increases the sample will lose its superconductivity and the magnet cannot float on the superconductor. That is. they have a negative susceptibility. This is the reason that superconducting materials and magnets repel one another.MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 A superconductor displaying the MEISSNER EFFECT Superconductors have electronic and magnetic properties. Institute of Materials Science .

MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 Record TC versus Year Discovered 180 160 140 120 HgBa2Ca2Cu2O8 Pressure HgBa2Ca2Cu2O8 Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O8 TC (K) 100 YBa2Cu3O7 80 60 40 20 Hg NbN La-Sr-Cu-O La-Ba-Cu-O Nb3Ge 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1986 1980 1990 2000 Year Institute of Materials Science .

MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 Institute of Materials Science .

In addition. a wave of electric current sweeps down these outside coils and propels the train forward. As the train passes each coil. the motion of the superconducting magnet on the train induces a current in these coils. The electromagnets on the train and outside produce forces that levitate the train and keep it centered above the track. The wire in these coils is not a superconductor. The Yamanashi MLX01MagLev Train Institute of Materials Science . making them electromagnets.MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 APPLICATIONS: Superconducting Magnetic Levitation The track are walls with a continuous series of vertical coils of wire mounted inside.

MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 APPLICATIONS: Medical MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scans produce detailed images of soft tissues. Institute of Materials Science . The superconducting magnet coils produce a large and uniform magnetic field inside the patient's body.

Liquid nitrogen flows through the core. Superconducting Transmission Cable From American Superconductor Institute of Materials Science . cooling the HTS wire to the zero resistance state. The conductor is surrounded by conventional dielectric insulation.MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 APPLICATIONS: Power The cable configuration features a conductor made from HTS wires wound around a flexible hollow core. The efficiency of this design reduces losses.

MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 Institute of Materials Science .

MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 Institute of Materials Science .

MMAT 317 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Materials CHAPTER 2 Institute of Materials Science .

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