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**Numerical Shape Optimisation Numerical Shape Optimisation
**

in Blow Moulding in Blow Moulding

Hans Groot Hans Groot

2

Overview Overview

1. 1. Blow molding Blow molding

2. 2. Inverse Problem Inverse Problem

3. 3. Optimization Method Optimization Method

4. 4. Application to Glass Blowing Application to Glass Blowing

5. 5. Conclusions & future work Conclusions & future work

3

Inverse Problem Glass Blowing Conclusions Blow Molding Optimization Method

Blow Molding Blow Molding

glass bottles/jars

plastic/rubber

containers

mould

pre-form

container

4

Example: Jar Example: Jar

Inverse Problem Glass Blowing Conclusions Blow Molding Optimization Method

5

Problem Problem

Forward problem

Inverse problem

pre-form container

Blow Molding Glass Blowing Conclusions Inverse Problem Optimization Method

6

Forward Problem Forward Problem

1

2

i

m

Surfaces

1

and

2

given

Surface

m

fixed (mould wall)

Surface

i

unknown

Forward problem

Blow Molding Glass Blowing Conclusions Inverse Problem Optimization Method

7

1

Inverse Problem Inverse Problem

Surfaces

i

and

m

given

Either

1

or

2

unknown

Inverse problem

2

i

m

Blow Molding Glass Blowing Conclusions Inverse Problem Optimization Method

8

Construction of Pre Construction of Pre--Form by Pressing Form by Pressing

1

2

Blow Molding Glass Blowing Conclusions Inverse Problem Optimization Method

9

Optimization Optimization

Find pre-form for approximate

container with minimal distance

from model container

mould wall

model container

approximate container

Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions

10

Optimization Optimization

mould wall

model container

approximate container

Minimize objective function

2

2

2

i

d d d

+

* ! ! +

´

i

d

Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions

11

Computation of Objective Function Computation of Objective Function

Objective Function:

Composite Gaussian quadrature:

m+1 control points (

ط

) ړ m intervals

n weights w

i

per interval (

)

2

i

d d

+

* ! +

´

2 2

i

d ( )

m n

i nj i

j i

d w d

+

+

+ !

§§

´

x

Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions

12

Parameterization of Pre Parameterization of Pre--Form Form

P

1

P

5

P

4

P

3

P

2

P

0

O

R,ĳ

1. Describe surface by

parametric curve

e.g. spline, Bezier curve

2. Define parameters as radii

of control points:

3. Optimization problem:

Find p as to minimize

1 2 5

P P P

( , ,..., ) R R R ! p

) ( p *

Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions

13

iterative method to minimize objective function

J: Jacobian matrix

ì: Levenberg-Marquardt parameter

H: Hessian of penalty functions:

¸

i

!w

i

/c

i

, w

i

: weight, c

i

>0: geometric constraint

g: gradient of penalty functions

Ap: parameter increment

d: distance between containers

Modified Levenberg-Marquardt Method

¸ )

T T

i i i i i i i i

ì + + A ! + J J I H p J d g

Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions

14

Function Evaluations per Iteration

Distance function d:

o one function evaluation

Jacobian matrix:

1. Finite difference approximation:

o p function evaluations (p: number of parameters)

2. Broyden¶s method:

o no function evaluations, but less accurate

function evaluation = solve forward problem

Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions

15

Neglect mass flow in azimuthal

direction (u

f

§0)

Given R

1

(f), determine R

2

(f)

Volume conservation:

R(f) radius of interface

Approximation for Initial Approximation for Initial Guess Guess

streamlines

3 3 3 3

2 1 m

i

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

R R R R

N N N N ! +

f

r

Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions

16

Initial Initial Guess Guess

approximate

inverse problem

initial guess

of pre-form

model

container

17

Glass Blowing Glass Blowing

Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions Glass Blowing Optimization Method

18

Forward Problem Forward Problem

1)Flow of glass and air

Stokes flow problem

2)Energy exchange in glass and air

Convection diffusion

problem

3)Evolution of glass-air interfaces

Convection problem

Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions Glass Blowing Optimization Method

19

Level Set Method Level Set Method

glass

air

air

ș > 0

ș < 0 ș < 0

ș = 0

motivation:

fixed finite element mesh

topological changes are

naturally dealt with

interfaces implicitly defined

level sets maintained as signed

distances

Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions Glass Blowing Optimization Method

20

Computer Simulation Model Computer Simulation Model

Finite element method

One fixed mesh for

entire flow domain

2D axi-symmetric

At equipment

boundaries:

no-slip of glass

air is allowed to ³flow

out´

Blow Molding Inverse Problem Conclusions Glass Blowing Optimization Method

21

Comparison Approximation with Comparison Approximation with

Simulation Model Simulation Model

forward problem

pre-form

container

simulation

approximation (u

f

§0)

22

Optimization of Pre-Form

inverse problem

initial guess

23

Optimization of Pre-Form

initial guess

inverse problem

24

Optimization of Pre-Form

optimal pre-form

inverse problem

25

Signed Distance between

Approximate and Model Container

26

Summary

Shape optimization method for pre-

form in blow molding

describe either pre-form surface by

parametric curve

minimize distance from approximate

container to model container

find optimal radii of control points

use approximation for initial guess

Application to glass blowing

average distance < 1% of radius

mold

Blow Molding Inverse Problem Glass Blowing Conclusions Optimization Method

27

Short Term Plans

Extend simulation model

improve switch free-stress to no-slip

boundary conditions

one level set problem vs. two level set

problems

Well-posedness of inverse problem

Sensitivity analysis of inverse problem

Blow Molding Inverse Problem Glass Blowing Conclusions Optimization Method

28

Parison Optimization for Ellipse

model container optimal container initial guess

29

Blow Molding Blow Molding

mould

ring

parison

container

e.g. glass bottles/jars

30

Approximation Approximation

Initial guess

pre-form

model

container

31

Incompressible medium:

R(f) radius of interface G

Simple example ړaxial symmetry:

If R

1

is known, R

2

is uniquely determined and vice

versa

1 1

2 2

3 3 3 3

2 1 m

i

0 0

( ) ( ) sin( )d ( ) ( ) sin( )d ) ) ( (

R R R R

!

´ ´

T T

N N N N N N N N

Initial Guess Initial Guess

3 3 3 3

2 1 m

i

R R R R

!

R(f)

32

Inverse Problem Inverse Problem

1

given (e.g. plunger)

m

,

i

given

determine

2

2

1

Optimization:

Find pre-form for container with minimal difference in

glass distribution with respect to desired container

33

Inverse Problem

1

2

i

m

i

and

m

given

1

and

2

unknown

Inverse problem

34

1 1

2 2

3 3 3 3

2 1 m

i

0 0

( ) ( ) sin( )d ( ) ( ) sin( )d ) ) ( (

R R R R

!

´ ´

T T

N N N N N N N N

Volume Conservation

(incompressibility)

R

1

R

2

R

i

R

m

35

1 1

2 2

3 3 3 3

2 1 m

i

0 0

( ) ( ) sin( )d ( ) ( ) sin( )d ) ) ( (

R R R R

!

´ ´

T T

N N N N N N N N

Volume Conservation

(incompressibility)

R

m

fixed

R

i

variable

with R

1

and R

2

R

1

, R

2

??

R

i

R

m

R

1

R

2

36

Blow Moulding

preform

container

Forward problem

Inverse problem

37

Hybrid Broyden Method

Optimisation Results Introduction Simulation Model Conclusions

¸ )

¸ )

i i i

i i

i i

i i i

i i i i

i i i

i i

i i

i i

i i

i i i i

r r r

J J

J J

p J r

r p J r

p J r

r r

p p

p p

p p

p p J r

! A

+ !

+ !

+

A A

A × A A

+

A A

A A

A A

A A

A A

A × A A

+

1

1

1

1 1

with

otherwise ,

: method bad s Broyden'

if ,

: method good s Broyden'

[Martinez, Ochi]

38

Example (p = 13)

Optimisation Results Introduction Simulation Model Conclusions

Method # function evaluations # iterations *

Hybrid Broyden 32 8 1.75

Finite Differences 98 9 1.36

Conclusions:

similar number of iterations

similar objective function value

Finite Differences takes approx. 3 times longer

than Hybrid Broyden

39

Optimal preform

Preform Optimisation for Jar

Model jar

Initial guess

Results Level Set Method Introduction Simulation Model Conclusions

40

Preform Optimisation for Jar

Model jar

Results Level Set Method Introduction Simulation Model Conclusions

Approximate jar

Radius: 1.0

Mean distance: 0.019

Max. distance: 0.104

41

Conclusions

Conclusions Optimisation Introduction Simulation Model Results

Glass Blow Simulation Model

finite element method

level set techniques for interface tracking

2D axi-symmetric problems

Optimisation method for preform in

glass blowing

preform described by parametric curves

control points optimised by nonlinear least

squares

Application to blowing of jar

mean distance < 2% of radius jar

42

Thank you for your attention

43

Comparison Comparison

Inverse problem Forward problem

two unknown intefaces one unknown interface

Inverse problem

Forward problem

1

2

i

m

Inverse problem under-determined or forward

problem over-determined?

44

Inverse Problem

Optimisation Results Introduction Simulation Model Conclusions

preform container

Unknown surfaces

45

Forward Problem

Optimisation Results Introduction Simulation Model Conclusions

preform container

R

m

known

R

i

unknown

46

Incompressible medium:

R(f) radius of interface G

Simple example ړaxial symmetry:

If R

1

is known, R

2

is uniquely determined and vice

versa

1 1

2 2

3 3 3 3

2 1 m

i

0 0

( ) ( ) sin( )d ( ) ( ) sin( )d ) ) ( (

R R R R

!

´ ´

T T

N N N N N N N N

Volume Conservation Volume Conservation

3 3 3 3

2 1 m

i

R R R R

!

R(f)

47

Incompressible medium:

R(f) radius of interface G

Simple example ړaxial symmetry:

If R

1

is known, R

2

is uniquely determined and vice

versa

1 1

2 2

3 3 3 3

2 1 m

i

0 0

( ) ( ) sin( )d ( ) ( ) sin( )d ) ) ( (

R R R R

!

´ ´

T T

N N N N N N N N

Volume Conservation Volume Conservation

3 3 3 3

2 1 m

i

R R R R

!

R(f)

2

Overview

1. Blow molding 2. Inverse Problem 3. Optimization Method 4. Application to Glass Blowing 5. Conclusions & future work

3

Blow Molding

container mould

pre-form

**glass bottles/jars plastic/rubber containers
**

Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method Glass Blowing Conclusions

4

Example: Jar

Blow Molding

Inverse Problem

Optimization Method

Glass Blowing

Conclusions

5 Problem Forward problem Inverse problem pre-form Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method container Glass Blowing Conclusions .

6 Forward Problem Surfaces 1 and 2 given Surface m fixed (mould wall) Surface i unknown Forward problem 1 m i 2 Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

7 Inverse Problem Surfaces i and m given Either 1 or 2 unknown 1 m i 2 Inverse problem Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

8 Construction of Pre-Form by Pressing Pre- 2 1 Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

9 Optimization mould wall model container approximate container Find pre-form for approximate container with minimal distance from model container Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

10 Optimization mould wall model container approximate container Minimize objective function * ! d 2 ! ´ d d+ 2 2 +i d Blow Molding Inverse Problem i Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

11 Computation of Objective Function Objective Function: * ! ´ d d+ 2 Composite Gaussian quadrature: +i ´d + i 2 d+ ! §§ wi d ( xnj i ) j i m n 2 m+1 control points ( ) m intervals n weights wi per interval ( ) Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

P0 P1 2... RP5 ) 3. Optimization problem: Find P2 P5 Glass Blowing p as to minimize * ( p ) Optimisation Method P4 P3 Conclusions Blow Molding Inverse Problem .. Bezier curve OR..g. Describe surface by parametric curve e.12 Parameterization of Pre-Form Pre1. Define parameters as radii of control points: p ! ( RP1 . RP2 . spline.

13 Modified Levenberg-Marquardt Method iterative method to minimize objective function .

ci >0: geometric constraint g: gradient of penalty functions (p: parameter increment d: distance between containers Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .J T i J i Pi I Hi (pi ! J di gi T i J: Jacobian matrix P: Levenberg-Marquardt parameter H: Hessian of penalty functions: ^i !wi /ci . wi : weight.

14 Function Evaluations per Iteration function evaluation = solve forward problem Distance function d: o one function evaluation Jacobian matrix: 1. Broyden¶s method: o Blow Molding no function evaluations. Finite difference approximation: o p function evaluations (p: number of parameters) 2. but less accurate Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Conclusions Inverse Problem .

15 Approximation for Initial Guess Neglect mass flow in azimuthal direction (uf§0) Given R1(f). determine R2(f) Volume conservation: 3 (N ) ! R 1 (N ) R 3 (N ) R i3 (N ) R m 3 2 f r R(f) radius of interface streamlines Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimisation Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

16 Initial Guess approximate inverse problem initial guess of pre-form model container .

17 Glass Blowing Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

18 Forward Problem 1)Flow of glass and air Stokes flow problem 2)Energy exchange in glass and air Convection diffusion problem 3)Evolution of glass-air interfaces Convection problem Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

19 Level Set Method =0 motivation: fixed finite element mesh topological changes are naturally dealt with interfaces implicitly defined level sets maintained as signed distances Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method air <0 air <0 >0 glass Conclusions Glass Blowing .

20 Computer Simulation Model Finite element method One fixed mesh for entire flow domain 2D axi-symmetric At equipment boundaries: no-slip of glass air is allowed to ³flow out´ Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

21 Comparison Approximation with Simulation Model simulation approximation (uf§0) forward problem pre-form container .

22 Optimization of Pre-Form inverse problem initial guess .

23 Optimization of Pre-Form inverse problem initial guess .

24 Optimization of Pre-Form inverse problem optimal pre-form .

25 Signed Distance between Approximate and Model Container .

26 Summary Shape optimization method for preform in blow molding describe either pre-form surface by parametric curve minimize distance from approximate container to model container find optimal radii of control points use approximation for initial guess Application to glass blowing average distance < 1% of radius mold Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .

two level set problems Well-posedness of inverse problem Sensitivity analysis of inverse problem Blow Molding Inverse Problem Optimization Method Glass Blowing Conclusions .27 Short Term Plans Extend simulation model improve switch free-stress to no-slip boundary conditions one level set problem vs.

28 Parison Optimization for Ellipse model container optimal container initial guess .

g.29 Blow Molding ring container mould parison e. glass bottles/jars .

30 Approximation Initial guess pre-form model container .

R2 is uniquely determined and vice versa .31 Initial Guess Incompressible medium: 1 2 T 1 2 T 3 ( R 3 (N ) R 1 (N ) )sin(N )dN ! ´ ( R 3 (N ) R i3 (N ) )sin(N )dN m ´ 2 0 0 R(f) radius of interface G R(f) Simple example 3 2 axial symmetry: 3 R1 ! R 3 R 3 R m i If R1 is known.

32 Inverse Problem 1 given (e. i given determine 2 2 1 Optimization: Find pre-form for container with minimal difference in glass distribution with respect to desired container .g. plunger) m.

33 Inverse Problem i and 1 and 1 m 2 i m given 2 unknown Inverse problem .

34 Volume Conservation (incompressibility) 1 2 T 1 2 T 3 ( R 3 (N ) R 1 (N ) )sin(N )dN ! ´ ( R 3 (N ) R 3 (N ) )sin(N )dN m i ´ 2 0 0 R1 Rm R2 Ri .

R2?? .35 Volume Conservation (incompressibility) 1 2 T 1 2 T 3 ( R 3 (N ) R 1 (N ) )sin(N )dN ! ´ ( R 3 (N ) R 3 (N ) )sin(N )dN m i ´ 2 0 0 R1 R2 Rm Ri Rm fixed Ri variable with R1 and R2 R1.

36 Blow Moulding Forward problem Inverse problem preform container .

37 Hybrid Broyden Method Broyden' s good method : J i 1 ! J i .

if (p i (p i 1 (p i (p i (r i (r i 1 (r i J i (p i Broyden' s bad method : J i 1 ! J i . (r i J i (p i (p i (p i (p i .

Ochi] Introduction Simulation Model Optimisation Results Conclusions . otherwise with (r i ! r i 1 r i [Martinez. (r i J i (p i (r i (r i J i (p i .

36 Conclusions: similar number of iterations similar objective function value Finite Differences takes approx.38 Example (p = 13) Method Hybrid Broyden Finite Differences # function evaluations # iterations 32 98 8 9 * 1.75 1. 3 times longer than Hybrid Broyden Introduction Simulation Model Optimisation Results Conclusions .

39 Preform Optimisation for Jar Model jar Introduction Simulation Model Level Set Method Initial guess Optimal preform Results Conclusions .

0 Mean distance: 0.104 Model jar Approximate jar Introduction Simulation Model Level Set Method Results Conclusions .019 Max.40 Preform Optimisation for Jar Radius: 1. distance: 0.

41 Conclusions Glass Blow Simulation Model finite element method level set techniques for interface tracking 2D axi-symmetric problems Optimisation method for preform in glass blowing preform described by parametric curves control points optimised by nonlinear least squares Application to blowing of jar mean distance < 2% of radius jar Introduction Simulation Model Optimisation Results Conclusions .

42 Thank you for your attention .

43 Comparison Inverse problem two unknown intefaces Forward problem one unknown interface Forward problem 1 m i 2 Inverse problem Inverse problem under-determined or forward problem over-determined? .

44 Inverse Problem Unknown surfaces preform Introduction Simulation Model Optimisation container Results Conclusions .

45 Forward Problem Rm known Ri unknown preform Introduction Simulation Model Optimisation container Results Conclusions .

46 Volume Conservation Incompressible medium: 1 2 T 1 2 T 3 ( R 3 (N ) R 1 (N ) )sin(N )dN ! ´ ( R 3 (N ) R i3 (N ) )sin(N )dN m ´ 2 0 0 R(f) radius of interface G R(f) Simple example 3 2 axial symmetry: 3 R1 ! R 3 R 3 R m i If R1 is known. R2 is uniquely determined and vice versa .

47 Volume Conservation Incompressible medium: 1 2 T 1 2 T 3 ( R 3 (N ) R 1 (N ) )sin(N )dN ! ´ ( R 3 (N ) R i3 (N ) )sin(N )dN m ´ 2 0 0 R(f) radius of interface G R(f) Simple example 3 2 axial symmetry: 3 R1 ! R 3 R 3 R m i If R1 is known. R2 is uniquely determined and vice versa .

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