Lean Manufacturing

History of Lean 
After World War II Japanese manufactures were faced with the dilemma of vast shortages of material, financial and human resources.  Toyota Motor Company, led by its president Toyoda recognized that American automakers of that era were outproducing their Japanese counterparts.  In order to make a move toward improvement early Japanese leaders such as Toyoda, Shigeo and Taiichi devised a new, disciplined process-oriented system, which is known today as the ³Toyota Production System (TPS),´ or ³Lean Manufacturing.´  The basic underlying idea of TPS is to minimize the consumption of resources that add no value to a product.

What is Lean? 
The basic ideas behind the lean manufacturing system are waste elimination, cost reduction, and employee empowerment.  The term ³lean´ as Womack et al. define it denotes a system that utilizes less, in term of all inputs, to create the same outputs as those created by a traditional mass production system, while contributing increased varieties for the end customer. 

³Lean´ focuses on reducing wastes (or ³muda´, the Japanese word for waste) and maximizing the activities that add value (equivalent to anything that the customer is willing to pay for a product or the service) from the customer¶s perspective.

Lean Principles

Types of Waste
For industrial companies, waste could involve any of the following (Womack et al., 1990; Monden, 1998; Shingo, 1997; Mid-America Manufacturing Technology Center, 2000): 1) Material: Convert all raw materials into end products. Try to avoid excess raw materials and scrap. 2) Inventory: Keep constant flow to the customer and to not have idle material. 3) Overproduction: Produce the exact quantity that customers need and when they need it. 4) Labor: Get rid of unwarranted movement of people. 5) Complexity: Try to solve problems the uncomplicated way rather than the complex way. Complex solutions tend to produce more waste and are harder for people to manage.

Types of Waste
6) Energy: Utilize equipment and people in the most productive ways. Avoid unproductive operations and excess power utilization. 7) Space: Reorganize equipment, people, and workstations to get a better space arrangement. 8) Defects: Make every effort to eliminate defects. 9) Transportation: Get rid of transportation of materials and information that does not add value to the product. 10) Time: Avoid long setups, delays, and unexpected machine downtime.

Tools of Lean Manufacturing

The 7 Wastes

5S or 5C (Feld, 2000)
Clear Out (Seiri): Moving those items that are not currently being used on a continuous basis (e.g., items that will not be used for the next month or so) away from those that are. Moving those items and tossing away needless items will make material flow smoothly and workers move and work easily. Configure (Seiton): Having the right items in the right area. Items that do not belong to a given area must not be in that area. For a given workplace area tools must be marked and arranged as belonging in that area. This will make it easier to move those items that are not labeled from that area. Arranging items in the right place will make tools, jigs, fixtures, and resources noticeable, detectable, and easy to use. Clean and Check (Seiso): Cleaning and sweeping the work place systematically. The workplace should look neat and clean and ready to use for the next shift. The work place should be maintained on a regular basis (e.g., daily). All tools and items should be in the right place and nothing should be missing. A well-maintained workplace creates a healthy environment to work with.

5S or 5C (Feld, 2000)
Conformity (Seiketsu): Maintaining a high standard of housekeeping and workplace arrangement. A regular audit should be run and duties should be assigned for areas of responsibilities. If every area has people assigned to it then everyone has responsibility to maintain a high standard of housekeeping and cleaning. Custom and Practice (Shitsuke): To train people to follow housekeeping rules. Management should implement the housekeeping rules in a practiced fashion so that their people can buy into it. Management should walk the shop floor, explain what they want from people, reward those who follow and instruct those who do not.

5S or 5C

Takt Time
Takt is a German word meaning rhythmic time. Takt Time is the pace of production (e.g. manufacturing one piece every 34 seconds) that aligns production with customer demand. In other words, it is how fast you need to manufacture product in order to fill your customer orders. Takt Time is calculated as: Takt Time = Production Time Available / Customer Demand

Takt Time, Cycle Time & Lead Time
Takt Time is how often a piece must be produced to meet customer demand. It is often used to pace a production line and it is a calculated number. Cycle Time is the actual time to produce one piece. It is often used to gain an understanding of variations in production and it is a measured number. Lead Time is the amount of time between the placing of an order and the receipt of the goods ordered.

How to determine Takt Time?
Takt time relates the customer demand to the time available. It cannot be measured, it can only be calculated using the following formula; Takt = Production Time Available / Customer Demand Time is deducted for: ‡ Lunch and tea breaks ‡ Team briefing times ‡ TPM breaks ‡ Clean down time E.g 8hrs x 60 = 480 minutes Time Available = 480 ± 20 mins breaks ± 10 mins TPM = 450mins

How to determine Takt Time?
If the customer demand is 500 units per week; Demand = 500 / 5 = 100 products a day Takt Time = Time Available / Customer Demand = 450 mins / 100 = 4.5 mins or 270 secs

Takt Time Benefits
Integrating the use of Takt Time into manufacturing operations will:  Help to achieve a steady and continuous flow of production.  Encourage the development of standardized work instructions, promoting quality and efficiency.  Make it easier to establish what-if scenarios for customer demand.  Producing faster than Takt Time results in overproduction ± the most fundamental form of waste.  Producing slower than Takt Time results in bottlenecks ± and customer orders that may not be filled on time.

SMED
³Only make what can be sold. Ideally produce only goods that have already been ordered.´ Shigeo Shingo Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) = Quick change overs

Change over time or Setup time: The time from the last good piece of Batch A to the first good piece of Batch B.

Internal and External Operations 
INTERNAL ± can only be carried out when the machine or process has stopped  EXTERNAL ± could be done whilst the machine or process is still running

Key to Remember
Set-ups are roadblocks to flow...

We want to eliminate the hurdles

The SMED Process 
       Reduce inventory Reduce batch sizes Reduce changeover time Reduce impact on equipment utilization Improve quality after changeover Improve repeatability Improve throughput Improve flexibility

Observe and record

Separate internal and external activities.

Convert internal activities to external activities

Streamline all activities

Document internal and external procedures

The SMED Process
1. OBSERVE AND RECORD 

Identify internal and external elements  waste/lost time  Remove all discrepancies from the standard process

The SMED Process
1. OBSERVE AND RECORD

The SMED Process
2. SEPARATE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ACTIVITIES

All Setup

Activities

Run

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

Run

Externals Post-setup externals

Internals

Run Externals

The SMED Process
3. CONVERT INTERNALS TO EXTERNALS ACTIVITIES

Externals

Internals

Run

Externals

Internals

Run

Externals

Internals

Run

The SMED Process
3. CONVERT INTERNALS TO EXTERNALS ACTIVITIES

Convert as much internal work as possible to external Work

The SMED Process
How to convert externals to internals ? 

Eliminate search-and-find work  Arrange tools & materials beforehand  Complete prep work before starting changeover  Standardize settings  Eliminate trial runs

The SMED Process
4. STREAMLINE ALL ACTIVITIES
Last good piece of product A Machine running First good piece of product B Machine running

Internal and external elements Total setup
Last good piece of product A External elements Machine running First good piece of product B External elements

BEFORE

Internal elements Total setup
Last good piece of product A
Streamlined External elements

Machine running

AFTER CHANGE OVER

First good piece of product B
Streamlined External elements

STREAM LINE
Machine running

Machine running

Streamlined internal elements

Total setup

The SMED Process
5. DOCUMENT INTERNAL & EXTERNAL PROCEDURES
Document who will do what and when Practice quick changeover (QCO) before doing it Run pilot of new process Document steps of new process Time steps of new process Videotape and look for additional opportunities Create new work sheets that include all the steps of the new process  Get all needed approvals  Train all workers  Post the standardized work sheets (STW)       

What is TPE ?

Total Productive Effectiveness (TPE)

Ideas for quick change over«

SET-UP TOOL CARTS

Ideas for quick change over«

Slot address

Model

Slide value

ORGANIZE & STORE IN PROXIMITY

Cover Slot address labels

Block gauge # Part Line #

Ideas for quick change over«
Socket wrench removes screw

4-piece clamp
Die heights vary

4 3

Socket head cap screw 2

Die Bolster Plate

1

Spring

AFTER Streamlined 1-Piece Clamp
Nut is not removed for setup!

BEFORE
L clamp
Standardize clamp heights on dies

Spring Die

Bolster Plate

Ideas for quick change over«
Before
Mold Cam lock Stopper

After
Eliminate bolts QUICK RELEASE CAM LOCK TOGGLE LOCK DOWN CLAMP

Ideas for quick change over«

What is ³World-Class´ in Quick Changeovers?
SMED:
Single Minute Exchange of Die Concept that says all setups should and can take less than 10 minutes

OTED:
One Touch Exchange of Die Concept that says all setups should and can take less than 100 seconds!

SMED ´Simulationµ
Situation: You leave work, after a long day, you¶re tired and anxious to get home to dinner with your family. It¶s raining (or snowing) out, the traffic is heavy, and you¶re late.

You are driving along the interstate, and suddenly discover your have a flat tire.

Exercise: As a group, list the detailed steps you must go through to change your flat tire and get back on the road again.

SMED ´Simulationµ
Situation: You leave work, after a long day, you¶re tired and anxious to get home to dinner with your family. It¶s raining (or snowing) out, the traffic is heavy, and you¶re late.

You are driving along the interstate, and suddenly discover your have a flat tire.

Exercise: Ask the group how long this process typically takes. Get several answers.

SMED ´Simulationµ

Situation: Now we ll take a look At how professionals change tires, And how long it takes them.

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