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CELULLAR BIOLOGY

A. THE HISTORY OF CELULLAR RESEARCH


Based on the number of ist body constituent cell, organism is separated into two groups, those are : 1. Organisms that have single cell (unicelullar) 2. Organisms that have many cell (multicelullar) Based the presence or not nucleus membrane, living organism is separated into two groups, those are : 1. Prokaryotic organism, that is organism that has no nucleus membrane 2. Eukaryotic organism, that is organism that has nucleus membrane

Different between eukaryotic cell and prokaryotic cell


No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Cytoplasm Ribosom Cell wall Vakuola Nucleus Sentriol RE Golgi complex Lisosom Mitokondria Plastida Nucleulus Organel Cell membrane V v V v v V v Prokariotic V v v v v v v v v v V V v Eukariotic v

Different between eukaryotic cell and prokaryotic cell


No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Cytoplasm Ribosom Cell wall Vakuola Nucleus Sentriol RE Golgi complex Lisosom Mitochondria Plastid Badan mikro Organel Cell membrane Prokaryotic eukaryotic

Different between plant cell and animal cell


No 1 2 3 Plant cell Cell wall Plastid Big vacuole Animal cell Sentriol Lisosom Small vacuole

Cell researchers are as follows 1. Antony Van Leewenhoek segmented empty chamber in the cork tissue called cell 2. Mirabel the plant consist of tissue that is composed of cell 3. Robert Brown cell nucleus is the important part of a cell 4. R. J. H. Dutrochet animal and plant consists of cells 5. Lamarck in organism cell has very important function 6. Hertwig cell is the collection of substance that inside contains nucleus and its external is limited by cell wall 7. Hugo Von Mohl process of cell fission

8. Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann all of organisms consist of cell 9. Rudolf Virchow every cell comes from cell 10.August Weismann cell that are now present can show origin of the previous

FUNCTION OF CELL
1. Cell as structural unit 2. Cell as funtional unit 3. Cell as the unit of reproduction 4. Cell as growth unit 5. Cell as unit of property

CELL STRUCTURE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Cell membrane Cell wall Cell nucleus Microbody Cytoplasm Mitochondria Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosom Golgi complex Lysosom Sentriol Plastid Vacuole

1. Cell Membrane
Function cell protector, the controller of molecular transportation and the receptor of stimuli from outside of cell Cell membrane commonly consists of three layers that have structure of : 1. Protein 2. Lipid Lipoprotein water 3. protein

The lipids in the cell membrane consists of two, those are : 1. Hydrophilic phosphate head 2. Hydrophobic lipid tail Based on the physical, protein is separated into two, those are : 1. Integral proteins in/to penetrate the fluid mosaic membrane 2. Peripher protein surface the fluid mosaic membrane

Phosfolipid (fluid mosaic membrane)

2. Cell Wall
Cell wall is composed of cellulose molecule, polysaccharid and proteins (pectin and lignin) It has permeable property Cell was has several function : to give cell s shape, protect the inner parts of cell, and help water movement from outside to inside cell Cell wall have plasmodesmata in terconnecting channels of cytoplasm and protoplast Cell wall is composed of three layers, those are: 1. Prymary wall meristematic property 2. Secondary wall has fixed shape and specific function 3. Middle lamella connector between one cell to another cell

3. Cell Nucleus
Cell nucleus contains chromatin grains that related by very smooth chromatin thread that contains genetic material that is the string of DNA molecules Inside nucleulus is found: 1. Nucleoplasm nucleid acid (DNA/RNA), nucleus protein, and chromatin threads 2. Nucleulus form RNA molecule 3. RNA protein synthesize 4. Chromosome genetic material (DNA genetic information and protein synthesize)

4. Microbody
Microbody consists of : 1. Peroksisom contains much enzyme (catalase) function to oksidasi, fat metabolism and fotorespiration 2. Glioksisom fat metabolism to produce energy by plants

5. Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm plasm cell Contains of : liquid (cytosol sol (endoplasm) and gel (ektoplasm) ex: egg) and solid (water, protein, amino acid, vitamin, nucleotida, fat acid, glucose)

6. Mitochondria
Mitochondrion comes from the word myth (thread) and chondrion (grain) Mitochondria have double membrane: outer membrane (smooth) and inner membrane (chamber) In mitochondria is found matrix (crista) in matrix is found DNA (to produce certain enzymes in cytoplasm), water, protein, respiration enzyme, salt and ions Mitochondria have function as the centre of cell respiration and largest energy producer inside cell, so it is energy source for cell (power house)

7. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)


ER comes from the word reticular is means nets Shapes polimorphic, ER is curved tract ass connector between cell membrane with nucleus membrane Er is divided in ti two based on the presence or not ribosome that sticks, that is: a. Granulated endoplasmic reticulum (rough) b. Endoplasmic reticulum smooth

a. Granulated endoplasmic reticulum (rough) ER that contains or sticks ribosome, function: receive protein that is the made by ribosome b. Endoplasmic reticulum smooth ER that doesn t contain ribosome, function: synthesize the molecules of phospholipid, fat and steroid

8. Ribosome
Ribosome has shapes as the grains that is found freely in cytoplasm or sticks to ER Function synthesize protein in cell In ribosome is found three kinds of RNA, those are mRNA, rRNA and tRNA to read code sent by cell nucleus

9. Golgi Complex
Golgi complex is the first time found in nerve cell by an Italian named Camilo Golgi in 1898 Golgi complex consists of flattened sacs called cisterna Shapes polimorphic Function : secretory organs of protein and mucilage (secretory organs, in plant is called dictyosome)

10. Lysosome
Lysosome comes from the word lyso (digestive) and soma (body) Shape: oval or round that is bordered by single membrane and contains a number of digestive enzyme Lysosome also has function to digest broken or old cells organelles

11. Centriole
Centriole is only found in animal cell Centriole found in centrosome, one centriole consist of one bar that is composed of 9 microtubules Microtubul is composed of the protein molecul of kind of tubulin and forming pipe or tube, function for cells the movement cell, cromosome, the placement and movement of organelles, also keep cells shape

12. Plastid (chomatophore)


Shape ;round, oval or disk It has double membrane is outher membrane and inner membrane in the inner membraneis found membrane system and matrix Plastid is separated into six parts, those are: 1. Chromoplast plastid that contains pigmen red (ficoeretrin), yelow (xantophyll), orange (carotene)

2. Leucoplast plastid that doesn t contain pigment or white pigment 3. Chloroplast plastid that contain photosynthesis pigment (chlorophyll) Shape: net, bowl, pilament, ribbon, oval round