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Floods

( Causes , Effects and Remedies )

Presented By: Group # 5


Muhammad Usman Saeed Muhammad Zubair Idrees Waleed Ejaz Muhammad Zeeshan Roll No. 44 Roll No. 51 Roll No. 53 Roll No. 62

What is a Flood?
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. A flood may be defines as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. Channel-size approx. sufficient to carry normal max. discharge UNLESS V. high discharge Flooding event

Principle Types Of Flood


1. Riverine:
Slow kinds: Runoff from sustained rainfall or rapid snow melt exceeding the capacity of a river's channel. Fast kinds: include flash floods resulting from convective precipitation (intense thunderstorms) or sudden release from an upstream impoundment created behind a dam, landslide, or glacier. 2. Estuarine: Commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by storm-force winds.
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Principle Types Of Flood (Cont.)


3. Coastal:
Caused by severe sea storms, or as a result of another hazard (e.g. tsunami or hurricane).

4. Catastrophic:
Caused by a significant and unexpected event e.g. dam breakage, or as a result of another hazard (e.g. earthquake or volcanic eruption).

5. Human-induced:
Accidental damage by workmen to tunnels or pipes.

Principle Types Of Flood (Cont.)


6. Muddy:
A muddy flood is produced by an accumulation of runoff generated on cropland. Sediments are then detached by runoff and carried as suspended matter or bed load.

Why do Rivers Flood?


Rivers flood naturally People live near rivers from both a historical as well as a cultural perspective Floods are a natural hazard Many rivers flood consistently Humans alter natural landscapes, flood risk can increase.

Flood Frequency
How to calculate flood frequency: Size of largest flood for each year is ranked with 1 being the largest for all available records for any given year T = n+1 m
T = Recurrence intervals n = The number of years of observation m = The rank Order

What does this tell us?


It indicates the number of years within which a flood of this size can be expected What problems can you see in this equation?
Its based on historical data It doesnt mean floods cant occur less or more frequently

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CAUSES

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Causes of Flooding

PHYSICAL
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Physical Causes
Flooding occurs when a rivers discharge exceeds the capacity of its channel to carry the discharge Excessive levels of precipitation over a prolonged period of time. Leads to soil

saturation when water table reaches ground surface there is an increase in overland flow.
Intensive Precipitation over a long period of time especially on hard sun baked ground.

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Physical Causes
Snowmelt especially when subsoil is still frozen as there is limited infiltration capacity. Climatic Hazards Cyclones in Bangladesh, Hurricanes in Gulf of Mexico. Deep low pressure systems in mid latitude climates Vegetation Can help increase infiltration and thus reduce surface run off

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Physical Causes
Geology Rock type both impervious and nonporous Soil Type Sand to clay type soils and changes in infiltration Drainage Density Amount of surface streams within the basin

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Example of Floods
Physical causes of floods have caused floods such as: Boscastle August 2004 Bangladesh 1998

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Causes of Flooding

HUMAN
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Human Causes
Urbanisation Reduces infiltration and increases runoff Deforestation Reduces interception River Management Dams can cause issues along with other techniques Climate Change Heavier storms, more frequent, melting of ice caps

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EFFECTS

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EFFECTS
The damage due to flood may vary with respect to the magnitude of the flood. Thus we can classify the effects as: 1. Primary effects 2. Secondary effects 3. Tertiary/long-term effects

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Primary Effects
Physical damage - Can range anywhere from bridges, cars, buildings, sewerage systems, roadways, canals and any other type of structure. Casualties - People and livestock die due to drowning. It can also lead to epidemics and diseases.

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Secondary Effects
Water supplies - Contamination of water. Clean drinking water becomes scarce Diseases - Unhygienic conditions. Spread of waterborne diseases Crops and food supplies Shortage of food crops can be caused due to loss of entire harvest. Trees Non-tolerant species can die from suffocation.
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Tertiary/long-term effects
Economic -Economic hardship, due to: temporary
decline in tourism, rebuilding costs, food shortage leading to price increase etc.

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Deadliest Floods
Death Toll 1)2,500,0003,700,000 2)900,000 2,000,000 3)500,000 700,000 Event China floods China Location 1931 Date Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887

1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood

China

1938

4)231,000

Banqiao Dam failure, result of Typhoon Nina. China Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease.

1975

5)145,000 6)More than 100,000 7)100,000 8)100,000

Yangtze river flood St. Felix's Flood, storm surge

China

1935

Netherlands

1530

Hanoi and Red River Delta flood Yangtze river flood

North Vietnam China

1971 1911

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REMEDIES

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Remedies
There are two ways of managing floods to reduce their impact Soft engineering and hard engineering It is a balance of how valuable the land is, how many people will be affected, how costly the management scheme is, and how effective + sustainable the management scheme will be

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Hard Engineering
These are traditional methods of stopping floods and require complicated engineering. The Environment Agency has three options available: 1. Build flood defenses like dams, embankments and flood walls 2. Straighten and deepen the river and cut off meanders 3. Make storage areas for extra water
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1. Dams
These trap and store water so reduce surface runoff as water is released in a controlled way. Dams are very expensive but effective.

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2. Embankments
These are raised banks along the river, they effectively make the river deeper so it can hold more water before it floods. They are very expensive and do not last long (unsustainable). Rivers can now Flood without causing much damage.

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3. Flood Walls
Flood walls are built around settlements and important factories or roads. They're quite expensive and don't look very natural. These are very effective at stopping flooding. Flood walls are also used in places where there are a lot of people living.

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3. Flood Walls

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4. Straightening and deepening the river


This is when the river is made straighter to make the river flow and channel flow faster so there is less chance of river flooding. It keeps the water levels to a minimum so it is less likely to flood. We can use it to make high levels of electricity. It is very expensive to dig out and straighten the whole river, especially if it is a very long river. The result is often not natural looking.

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5. Storage Areas
Water can be pumped out of the river and stored in temporary lakes. Then it is pumped back in after the water in the river has gone down a bit. Effective but we do need to have a large area of free land that isn't used, so that you can flood it.

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Soft Engineering
Soft engineering techniques work with the river and use natural processes.

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1. Wash lands
These are parts of the floodplain that are allowed to flood. They can't be built on. They're usually used for sports pitches or nature reserves.

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2. Land-use zoning
This is where the land has different building controls depending on how far from the river the buildings lie. The land next to the river is un-used land and as the distance from the river increases so does the quality and the value of land rises. Important factories, schools, and most homes should be away from the river.

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3. Afforestation
Afforestation is the deliberate and planned planting of various greenery (more specifically trees). By doing this you can increase interception and prevent the ground from becoming saturated with water. However, doing this takes up a lot of room and cannot prevent serious flooding.

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4. Warning Systems
Warnings are issued by the Environment Agency so that local people can put sand bags by their homes, take furniture upstairs, or even evacuate the area. People do not always listen to warning systems. Warnings are given on tv, radio and the internet.

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Non-Structural Measure Structural Measure

Flood Control

Storage Reservoir Detention Reservoir Levees Floodways Channel Improvement Watershed Management

Flood Plain zoning Flood forecasting and Warning Evacuation and relocation

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Recent Flooding In Pakistan (2010)

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Extent of Flooding

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FLOOD ROUTE

THE HEAVIEST FLOODING MOVED SOUTHWARD ALONG THE INDUS RIVER FROM SEVERELY-AFFECTED NORTHERN REGIONS TOWARD WESTERN PUNJAB AND THE

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SINDH.

Current Facts
The flood is Pakistans worst natural disaster since the countrys creation 63 years ago. Districts Affected: 71 (24 KPK, 8 Punjab, 19 Sind, 6 Baluchistan, 7 AJK, 7 GB) 14 million affected (about 8 percent of the population), in terms of the number of people who have lost their homes or livelihoods, and will need short or long-term help. 1,600 dead. Over 300,000 homes destroyed. 10,000 + square kilometers of Pakistan under water.
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Conclusion
-Flood is on of deadliest natural disaster. -Preventive measures to be taken in time. -Better engineering structures to prevent flood control -Stringent government steps. -Awareness on flood disaster is required.
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Thank you for your kind attention!!

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