ELEC 121

January 2004

Introduction to FET¶s

Prepared by N.Ramkumar M.E., Lecturer/ECE

Types of FET¶s
‡ JFET ± Junction Field Effect Transistor P- channel JFET N-channel JFET ‡ MOSFET ± Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
± D-MOSFET - Depletion Mode MOSFET ± E- MOSFET - Enhancement Mode MOSFET ± FET is a unipolar device ; the current conduction is by majority carriers only ± Transistor is bipolar device ; the current conduction by both majority and minority carriers ± FET less noisy ± FET is immune to radiation ± Fabrication of FET in IC is simpler and occupy less space ± FET thermal stability
January 2004 ELEC 121 2

Introduction to FET's

1

ELEC 121 January 2004 Comparision of BJT and JFET ‡ FET operation depends only on the flow of majority carriers-holes for P-channel FET and electrons for Nchannel FET. whereas BJT current controlled .e.i. voltage at the input terminals controls the output current.i.so it is called as unipolar device ‡ Bipolar transistor operation depends on both minority and majority current carriers ‡ FET a voltage controlled device . the input current controls the output current ‡ Applications of JFET FET¶s are used in RF amplifiers in FM tuners and communication equipment for the low noise level FET is used as a buffer in measuring instruments.e. receivers since it has input impedance and low output impedance January 2004 ELEC 121 3 Current Controlled vs Voltage Controlled Devices January 2004 ELEC 121 4 Introduction to FET's 2 .

source .gate.drain ‡ SOURCE is the terminal through which majority carriers enter into JFET ‡ DRAIN is the terminal through which majority carriers leave the JFET ‡ GATE is the terminal used to control the flow of majority carriers through JFET ‡ In JFET the source and drain terminals may interchanged January 2004 ELEC 121 5 N-Channel JFET Symbol January 2004 ELEC 121 6 Introduction to FET's 3 .ELEC 121 January 2004 JFET ‡ JFET has three teminals .

ELEC 121 January 2004 JFET Construction There are two types of JFET¶s: n-channel and p-channel. heavily doped p region is formed as shown in the previous slide ‡ The gate jn is normally used in reverse biased condition ‡ The region of semiconductor bar between gate regions is called channel ‡ Majority carriers. January 2004 There are three terminals: Drain (D) and Source (S) are connected to n-channel ELEC 121 Gate (G) is connected to the p-type material 7 ‡ On both sides of the N type semi-conductor bar. The n-channel is more widely used. The channel is N ± type semiconductor for N channel JFET January 2004 ELEC 121 8 Introduction to FET's 4 . electrons move from source to drain through the channel.

ELEC 121 January 2004 N-Channel JFET Operation The nonconductive depletion region becomes thicker with increased reverse bias.) January 2004 ELEC 121 9 Transfer (Transconductance) Curve From this graph it is easy to determine the value of ID for a given value of VGS It is also possible to determine IDSS and VP by looking at the knee where VGS is 0 January 2004 ELEC 121 10 Introduction to FET's 5 . (Note: The two gate regions of each FET are connected to each other.

ELEC 121 January 2004 ‡ When VGS=0. the entire width of the channel is available for the movement of electrons. When VDS is zero the drain current ID is also zero ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ OHMIC region PINCH_OFF region Tran sconductance Drain resistance Amplification factor VGS ¸ ¨ ID = IDSS © 1 ¹ VP º ª 2 January 2004 ELEC 121 11 Case Construction and Terminal Identification This information is found on the specification sheet January 2004 ELEC 121 12 Introduction to FET's 6 .

ID increases uncontrollably if VDS > VDSmax. January 2004 ELEC 121 14 Introduction to FET's 7 .ELEC 121 January 2004 p-Channel JFET¶s p-Channel JFET operates in a similar manner as the n-channel JFET except the voltage polarities and current directions are reversed January 2004 ELEC 121 13 P-Channel JFET Characteristics As VGS increases more positively ‡ the depletion zone increases ‡ ID decreases (ID < IDSS) ‡ eventually ID = 0A Also note that at high levels of VDS the JFET reaches a breakdown situation.

ELEC 121 January 2004 MOSFET¶s MOSFETs(IGFET) MOSFETs have characteristics similar to JFETs and additional characteristics that make then very useful There are 2 types of MOSFET¶s: ‡ Depletion mode MOSFET (D-MOSFET) ‡ Operates in Depletion mode the same way as a JFET when VGS e 0 ‡ Operates in Enhancement mode like E-MOSFET when VGS > 0 ‡ Enhancement Mode MOSFET (E-MOSFET) ‡ Operates in Enhancement mode ‡ IDSS = 0 until VGS > VT (threshold voltage) January 2004 ELEC 121 16 Introduction to FET's 8 .

Because of the very thin SiO2 layer between the external terminals and the layers of the device. such as back-toback Zeners to limit any transient voltage January 2004 ELEC 121 17 D-MOSFET Symbols January 2004 ELEC 121 18 Introduction to FET's 9 .ELEC 121 January 2004 MOSFET Handling MOSFETs are very static sensitive. any small electrical discharge can stablish an unwanted conduction. Protection: ‡ Always transport in a static sensitive bag ‡ Always wear a static strap when handling MOSFETS ‡ Apply voltage limiting devices between the Gate and Source.

If apply a +ve voltage to gate.ELEC 121 January 2004 Depletion Mode MOSFET Construction The Drain (D) and Source (S) leads connect to the to n-doped regions These N-doped regions are connected via an n-channel This n-channel is connected to the Gate (G) via a thin insulating layer of SiO2 The n-doped material lies on a p-doped substrate that may have an additional terminal connection called SS January 2004 ELEC 121 19 Basic MOSFET (n-channel) ‡ ‡ ‡ The gate electrode is placed on top of a very thin insulating layer. January 2004 ELEC 121 20 Introduction to FET's 10 . There are a pair of small n-type regions just under the drain & source electrodes. will push away the µholes¶ inside the ptype substrate and attracts the moveable electrons in the n-type regions under the source & drain electrodes.

As a result increases the amount of current which can go from source to drain ² this is why this kind of transistor is called an enhancement mode device.ELEC 121 January 2004 Basic MOSFET (n-channel) ‡ Increasing the +ve gate voltage pushes the p-type holes further away and enlarges the thickness of the created channel. ‡ January 2004 ELEC 121 21 Basic Operation A D-MOSFET may be biased to operate in two modes: the Depletion mode or the Enhancement mode January 2004 ELEC 121 22 Introduction to FET's 11 .

ELEC 121 January 2004 p-Channel Depletion Mode MOSFET The p-channel Depletion mode MOSFET is similar to the n-channel except that the voltage polarities and current directions are reversed January 2004 ELEC 121 23 Enhancement Mode MOSFET¶s Introduction to FET's 12 .

ELEC 121 January 2004 n-Channel E-MOSFET showing channel length L and channel width W January 2004 ELEC 121 25 Enhancement Mode MOSFET Construction The Drain (D) and Source (S) connect to the to n-doped regions These n-doped regions are not connected via an n-channel without an external voltage The Gate (G) connects to the p-doped substrate via a thin insulating layer of SiO2 The n-doped material lies on a p-doped substrate that may have an additional terminal connection called SS January 2004 ELEC 121 26 Introduction to FET's 13 .

‡ January 2004 ELEC 121 28 Introduction to FET's 14 . will push away the µholes¶ inside the ptype substrate and attracts the moveable electrons in the n-type regions under the source & drain electrodes. January 2004 ELEC 121 27 Basic MOSFET (n-channel) ‡ Increasing the +ve gate voltage pushes the p-type holes further away and enlarges the thickness of the created channel. As a result increases the amount of current which can go from source to drain ² this is why this kind of transistor is called an enhancement mode device.ELEC 121 January 2004 Basic MOSFET (n-channel) ‡ ‡ ‡ The gate electrode is placed on top of a very thin insulating layer. If apply a +ve voltage to gate. There are a pair of small n-type regions just under the drain & source electrodes.

ELEC 121 January 2004 E-MOSFET Symbols January 2004 ELEC 121 29 Basic Operation The Enhancement mode MOSFET only operates in the enhancement mode. ID increases If VGS is kept constant and VDS is increased. VDSsat is reached. January 2004 ELEC 121 30 Introduction to FET's 15 . VGS is always positive IDSS = 0 when VGS < VT As VGS increases above VT. then ID saturates (IDSS) The saturation level.

January 2004 ELEC 121 32 Introduction to FET's 16 .VT)2 January 2004 ELEC 121 31 p-Channel Enhancement Mode MOSFETs The p-channel Enhancement mode MOSFET is similar to the n-channel except that the voltage polarities and current directions are reversed.ELEC 121 January 2004 Transfer Curve ID = k (VGS .VT) 2 k= ID(on) (VGS(ON) .

ELEC 121 January 2004 Summary Table JFET D-MOSFET E-MOSFET January 2004 ELEC 121 33 Comparision of BJT with MOSFET ‡ The input impedance of FET is very high when compared with transistor ‡ Transistor is a current controlled device.FET is a voltage controlled device ‡ Transistor is more affected by temperature.FET is less affected by temperature January 2004 ELEC 121 34 Introduction to FET's 17 .

base current and reverse saturation current of a transistor are related to the thermal runaway of transistor ‡ Because of the flow of collector current. ‡ Increase in temp will increase the drain current ‡ The increased packaging density of MOSFET on an integrated circuit creates localized heat that can affect circuit operation ‡ The sio2 layer in MOSFET is very thin.it can be damaged by heat January 2004 ELEC 121 36 Introduction to FET's 18 .the heat at the junction increases and burn the transistor ‡ This process of self destruction of transistor is called thermal runway January 2004 ELEC 121 35 Thermal effect on MOSFET ‡ In MOSFET the oxide layer has a much lower thermal conductivity than bulk silicon ‡ The heat generated in the channel will modify the device characteristics if it is not properly dissipated ‡ If temperature increases.ELEC 121 January 2004 Thermal run away ‡ Collector current.increases the reverse saturation current. heat is produced in the collector junction ‡ The heat in the collector junction. The increase in reverse saturation current increases the junction heat ‡ This process goes in a cumulative way. it will create electron ± hole pair in the channel.therefore the conductivity of the channel increases.

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