1. Power Fundamentals 2. Power Problems. * Types of Power Problem. * Solutions/Protection. 1. Types Of UPS systems. 2. UPS tech. Specs Fundamentals. 1) Power Factor 2) Crest Factor 3) Voltage Regulation 4) a) Line Interactive specs. b) On Line specs. 1. Battery. 2. Power Drawn by Computer. 3. Comparison Of Line Interactive & On-Line UPS systems.




we get : 220volts Measured in: In our household . ‡ Symbol: V Volts.‡ Voltage : is the source of power that makes the Power Fundamentals current flow and helps the electrical appliances to perform their functions.

VOLTAGE Voltage is the electrical force that moves electrons through a conductor. . Voltage is electrical pressure also known as EMF (Electro Motive Force) that pushes electrons. The greater the difference in electrical potential push (difference between positive and negative). the greater the voltage force potential.

MEASUREMENT A VOLTMETER measures the voltage potential across or parallel to the circuit.Voltage can exist between two points without electron flow. .The Voltmeter measures the amount of electrical pressure difference between two points being measured.

and less pressure means less water flow. . Just like higher pressure makes more water flow. or amps for short. Current flow is also known as amperage. It is similar to flow of water in a pipe. Higher voltage will produce higher current flow. and lower voltage will produce lower current flow.CURRENT (AMPERES) CURRENT is the quantity or flow rate of electrons moving past a point within one second.

Example: Example A water meter counts the gallons of water flowing through it. .MEASUREMENT Of Current An AMMETER measures the quantity of current flow. Ammeters are placed in series (inline) to count the electrons passing through it.

m. .Power Fundamentals ‡ Current : It refers to flow of electric charge.f. or we can simply say it is a flow of electrically charged electrons.Current has been the result of motion of electrons or ions under the influence of an e. ‡ Symbol: I Measured in : Amperes (A).

milli-amp. Amperage measurements can use different value prefixes. AMPERAGE Symbol µA mA Pronounced Microamp milliamp A Multiplier 0.Electrical Fundamentals Units of measurement of Current Current flow is measured in units called Amperes or AMPS. such as micro-amp.001 Amp 1 . and Amp.000001 0.

.RESISTANCE Resistance is the force that reduces or stops the flow of electrons.This causes heating and eventually burning of the wire. Higher resistance will decrease the flow of electrons and lower resistance will allow more electrons to flow. It opposes voltage. That is why a short circuit in an electrical line causes infinite amount of current to flow. as there is zero resistance. Therefore a Load with less resistance will cause more current to flow through it.

No voltage can be applied while the ohmmeter is connected. The greater the pressure placed on the hose.MEASUREMENT An OHMMETER measures the resistance of an electrical circuit or component. Example: Water flows through a garden hose. the greater the hose restriction and the less water flows. . and someone steps on the hose. or damage to the meter will occur.

TYPE of MATERIAL used. Depending on the material.RESISTANCE FACTORS Various factors can affect the resistance. . PHYSICAL CONDITION (DAMAGE) to the material. most will increase resistance as temperature increases. The narrower the conductor. TEMPERATURE of the material. These include: LENGTH of the conductor. The longer the conductor. DIAMETER of the conductor. the higher the resistance. the higher the resistance. Any damage will increase resistance. Various materials have a wide range of resistances.

DIRECT CURRENT (DC) Electricity with electrons flowing in only one direction is called Direct Current or DC. . DC electrical systems are used in cars.

. The electrical appliances in your home use AC power.ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) Electricity with electrons flowing back and forth. or AC. is called Alternating Current.negative. negative .positive.

‡ Symbol : P Measured in : Watts(it is the energy transfer in joules per second).In an electrical system power has been given by V I. where V is the potential difference across a conductor and I the current through it. .Power Fundamentals ‡ Power :It may be defined as the rate of energy transfer (or work done) by or to a system.

Power ( P ) = Volts X Amp. ( VA) Another unit for power is Watts. What is the relation between VA and watts ? There are two types of electrical loads 1. Purely resitive 2. Inductive or Capacitive collectively called reactive loads.

In purely resistive


VA = Watts or VA is same as watts. Examples of purely resistive loads are Electric Bulbs, heaters, toasters etc. What it means is that the load is consuming and converting all electrical energy into heat and/or light energy.

There are other types of loads which behave in a different manner, when a voltage is applied to them a current flows through them but they do not consume all the current passing through. Examples of such loads are Motors like in Fans, Air conditioners, transformers, elevators etc. Some amount of current keeps flowing in the system without being consumed. In this case Watts { VA and VA > watts The ratio of VA to Watts in such types of loads is called Power factor. factor Ø = watts / VA

Voltage = 220 V Average Voltage = 207 V T = 20 msec. Voltage as it comes in our households One Cycle Frequency (f ) = 1/ T Peak Voltage = 320 V R.M.S.A. f = 1/20 m sec = 50 Hz T Sine Wave Form .C.

which is then repeated again and again. This is known as frequency. Time taken to complete one cycle is 20 milisecond. The peak AC voltage is 320 Volts .The common voltage which comes in our households is known as Sine Wave. As is clear from the diag. It then again starts increasing to Zero Volts. It starts from Zero. continuously increases to reach a peak of about 320 Volts. And it traverses 50 cycles in one second. . This voltage keeps alternating between positive and negative. then starts decreasing to zero again and continues the reducing trend to reach a negative peak of -320 V. This is one complete cycle. and RMS voltage is 220 Volts.

The ratio of the voltages in the primary and secondary circuits. V1/V2 has been approx. equal to the ratio of the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils .The voltage gets reduced in stages by STEP DOWN transformers nearer the user. the Secondary winding.which forms part of a separate electrical circuit. ‡ STEP UP transformers are used to increase voltage and reduce the current of the output from power stations so that losses in transmisssion lines are minimised. electromagnetically inducing a current in another . the Primary winding. Transformers are not having moving parts and operate by the current in one coil.Transformer ‡ A device which is used for changing the voltage of an alternating supply. .

Types Of Transformer Transformer Isolated Automotive Step Up Step Down Step Up Step Down .

‡What are power problems ? ‡How do they affect working of computers ? ‡What are the ways to cure them ? .

(dips) Spikes Sags Surges Line noise Continuous Low and High Voltages .       Black Out Brown Outs.

BLACK OUTS * Implies total power failure Cause : Excessive demand on the power grid. Effects : * Loss of data stored on the hard drives due to sudden switching off of the computer systems. Resulting in loss of Many Man hours and delays in meeting deadlines. snapping of power cables. * Loss of work due to non functioning of Computers. * Frequent corruption in Operating system and application softwares which need to be loaded again and again. . load shedding by electricity supply boards.

* Effects : Possibilities of frozen keyboards and unexpected system crashes.BROWN OUTS/ DIPS * Implies a significant drop in voltage . Resulting in Hanged motherboards. elevators etc). compressors. . * Cause :(i) Start up power demands of many electrical devices (Like motors. (ii)Electric utilities lowering voltage levels to cope with extra ordinary power demands which are in excess of the generating capacity.

causes extra voltage to be dissipated through the power line. . when switched off.SURGES * Implies a short term increase in voltage typically lasting 1/120th of a second. *Cause : High powered electrical motors in air conditioners. *Effects: Delicate components can get stressed and this can cause system failure. house hold appliances etc.


* Cause :Typically caused by a nearby lightning strike or by power lines being broken in a storm etc. * Effect : Catastrophic damage to hardware.SPIKES * Implies an instantaneous increase in voltage of a very high orders. Loss of data` Upto 2000 .


LINE NOISE * Implies Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) & Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) in the line. * Cause : Electrical noise is caused by lightning. load switching. radio transmitters & industrial equipment. generators. * Effect : Noise introduces glitches & errors into executable programs and data files. .

CVTs .Servo Stabilizers .UPS Systems .Spikebusters .Types of Protection -Stabilizers .

SERVO STABILIZERS * Maintains a stable output in the presence of an erratic fluctuating input but has a slow response. * It is not so suitable as the only protection device for computers because of their slow response and they are useless during a power failure. .

Operation is achieved by the help of auto transformer and electromechanical relays. .STABILIZERS *It is a machine which gives stabilize /regulated output for a particular input range.

* But they can neither provide a regulated output nor provide power in the event of a power failure. .SPIKEBUSTERS * It reduce the severity of voltage spikes on the mains line.

. * But CVTs are expensive and noisy. * It can remove voltage sags & surges from the mains voltage quite effectively. * They are useless in the event of a power failure.CVTs * It produce a very stable out-put voltage.

. * Ensures a regulated stable output and additional filtering during spikes and surges.UPS SYSTEMS * Protect the computer & other power sensitive equipments incase of power failure.

Off-line On-line Line-Interactive UPS .

Off-Line AC Input AC Output AC AC Charger Battery . ‡ The main drawbacks of offline UPSs are that they offer only limited regulation and have a comparatively larger switchover time.‡ Off-Line DATEX UPS systems have a battery power conversion circuit with a switch that senses power irregularities and automatically switches to battery.

even in the presence of mains. the computer is always powered by the battery/inverter circuit. ‡ There s no switchover involved. ‡ Online are more complex. On-Line By Pass Switch AC Input AC AC DC AC Output Battery . ‡ Another charger circuit keeps charging the battery.‡ In Datex Online UPS system. bulkier and more expensive but offer a better Voltage regulation and pure sine wave output.

Datex UPSs also switch to battery whenever input voltage hits predetermined levels. ‡ They provide better protection against spikes and switching transients. Line Interactive AC Input AC DC Buck/ Boost Regulator AC Output Discharge Charge  Battery .‡ Similar to the offline units. ‡ Line-interactive models provide voltage regulation features and have lesser switchover time and better performance than the offline models.

K EXPENSIVE EXCELLENT (220s 2%) EXCELLENT REMARKS LI is more economical as compared to Online ups. Online¶s voltage regulation is much superior than LI. There are some voltage sensitive devices which require pure sine wave which can be only provided by online ups. WAVE FORM QUASI SINEWAVE (MOSTLY) PURE SINEWAVE TRANSFER TIME 5 ±10 Millisecond ZERO SERVICEABILITY EASY TO SERVICE LITTLE DIFFICULT TO SERVICE Because of compact size and simple design LI is easy to service and replace as and when required and online is little difficult to service bcz of its complicated design. LI takes typically 20 to 50 ms to correct a voltage and also some amount of transition always passed on the load. But online UPS output is completely isolated from input hence. LI is small and relatively more user-friendly.COMPARISON BETWEEN LINE INTERACTIVE AND ONLINE UPS SYSTEM ON LINE UPS FEATURES LINE INTERACTIVE UPS COST VOLTAGE REGULATION TRANSIENT RESPONSE ECONOMICAL ADEQUATE (220s 10%) O. Online ups provides purely uninterrupted and regulated supply to the load. no transient is carried to the load. SIZE COMPACT BULKY .

.Comparison on the basis of cost Line-Interactive On-Line Remarks Economical Expensive LI is more economical as compared to Online UPS.

Comparison on the basis of Voltage Regulation. Line-Interactive On-Line Remarks Adequate Excellent Online¶s voltage regulation is much superior than LI. .

But Online UPS output is completely isolated from input hence .no transition is carried to the load .K On-Line Excellent Remarks LI takes typically 20 to 50ms to correct a voltage and also some amount of transition is always passed on the load .Comparison on the basis of Transient Response Line-Interactive O.

Quasi Sine wave Pure Sinewave (Mostly) .which can be only provided by On-Line UPS.Comparison on the basis of Wave Form Line-Interactive On-Line Remarks There are some voltage sensitive devices which require pure sine wave.

Comparison on the basis of Transfer Time Line-Interactive 5-10 Millisecond On-Line Zero Remarks Online UPS provides purely uninterrupted and regulated supply to the load. .

.Comparison on the basis of Serviceability Line-Interactive Easy to Service On-Line Remarks Little Because of compact difficult to size and simple Service design LI is easy to service and replace as and when required and online is little difficult to service because of its complicated design.

Comparison on the basis of Size Line-Interactive Compact On-Line Bulky Remarks LI is small and relatively more userfriendly. .

Comparison on the basis of Weight Line-Interactive Light On-Line Heavy Remarks LI occupies less space and can be conveniently moved around. .

.Comparison on the basis of Capacity Line-Interactive Maximum Rating upto 3KVA On-Line Any rating Remarks Customer gets wider choice in On-Line UPS system.

Rating (VA & Watt) Transfer Time Input Voltage Window AVR (Voltage Regulation) Backup Time Crest Factor Transient response .

0) (For Datex Clarrion power factor is 0.7 to unity) .UPS RATING VA = V x I (volt ampere) Watts = V x I x Power factor (watts is the actual energy consumed per unit time by an electrical load) Power factor = Cosø (the ratio of actual power to reactive power is called power factor) (For Datex Accure power factor is 0.8/>4.

TRANSFER TIME Switch over time in case of power failure from mains mode to the battery mode. (For Datex Accure it is typically 2-3msec.) (For Datex Clarrion it is Zero as in this case there is no transfer time. .) .

(For Datex Accure input voltage window is 150-270 V ) (For Datex Clarrion input voltage window is 160-280 V) .INPUT VOLTAGE WINDOW Input voltage range within which the UPS continues to be in the mains mode.

AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulation) This is a feature which provides a regulated output voltage to the load & protects the load from voltage fluctuations. (Datex Accure regulates output voltage within 220V ± 8%) (Datex Clarrion regulates output voltage within 220V ± 1%) .

BACKUP TIME The time period for which the UPS can supply power to the recommended load in the battery mode is known as backup time. .

CREST FACTOR It is defined as the ratio of Peak power load to average power load. In case of DATEX it is >3 .

(In case of Datex Accure it is 20 to 50 ms).TRANSIENT RESPONSE It is a sudden fluctuation in voltage lasting from 100th of a second to few seconds. . (In case of Datex Clariion it is zero).

Battery Fundamentals .

and through a chemical process electricity is produced.THE AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY A lead-acid storage battery is an electrochemical device that produces voltage and delivers electrical current. The battery is the primary "source" of electrical energy used in vehicles today. This electrochemical reaction changes chemical energy to electrical energy and is the basis for all automotive batteries . but rather it stores a series of chemicals. two different types of lead in an acid mixture react to produce an electrical pressure called voltage. Basically. It's important to remember that a battery does not store electricity.

regardless of the quantity or size of the plates.6 volts. which produces a total voltage of 12.1 volts. . Automobile batteries have six cells that are connected in series.Battery Basics CELL VOLTAGE Each cell element of the battery produces approximately 2.

BATTERY Specifications:(1) Voltage 12V 6V & 2V Cells (2) Ampere Hour (AH) .


. cordless phones etc. mobile phone.Ni Cd Batteries Used for low power applications like.

Telephone exchange. like UPS. Automobiles. There are two types of Lead Acid Batteries -Sealed Maintenance free (SMF) -Automotive .Lead Acid Batteries Used for high power applications.

.DIFFERENT BATTERIES GENERALLY IN USE -12V 7AH -12V 17AH -12V 28AH -12V 45AH -12V 65AH -Automotive 150Ah (trucking battery) exide.

TYPES OF BATTERIES Lead Acid Choice for UPS Sealed Maintenance free (SMF) Automotive Ni cd High Power Low Power .

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