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In our discussion of work and energy we re-expressed Newton's Second Law in an integral form called Work-Energy Theorem (Wtotal = (K) which states that the total work done on a particle equals the change in the kinetic energy of the particle. We will once again re-express N2L in an integral form. However, in this case the independent variable will be time rather than position as was the case for the Work-Energy Theorem. T

T T dv a! dt

T dv d T F ! m dt ! dt (mv )

The linear momentum of a particle of mass m moving with velocity v is a vector quantity defined as the product of particle's mass and velocity:

T T p ! mv

Definition of momentum

Momentum is a vector quantity: it has magnitude (mv) and direction (the same as velocity vector)

Momentum of a car driving North at 20 m/s is different from momentum of the same car driving East at the same speed Ball thrown by a major-league pitcher has greater magnitude of momentum then the same ball thrown by a child because the speed is greater 18-wheeler going 65 mph has greater magnitude of momentum than Geo car with the same speed because the trucks mass is greater

x x y

p z ! mv z

N2L in new form: the net force acting on a particle equals the time rate of change of momentum of the particle:

T T dp F ! dt

T T dp F ! dt

Rapid change in momentum requires a large net force Gradual change in momentum requires less net force

The driver of fast-moving car has a large momentum (the product of the drivers mass and velocity). If car stops suddenly in a collision, drivers momentum becomes zero due to collision with car parts (steering wheel and windshield) Air bag causes the driver to lose momentum more gradually than would abrupt collision with the steering wheel, reducing the force exerted on the driver (and the possibility for injury)

Same principle applies to the padding used to package fragile objects for shipping

Consider a particle acted on by a constant net force 7F during a time interval (t from t1 to t2. The impulse of the net force J is defined to be the product of the net force and the time interval:

T T T J ! F (t 2 t1 ) ! F(t

For constant net force

Its direction is the same as the net force Its magnitude is the product of the magnitude of the net force and the length of time the the net force acts 1 N = 1 kgm/s2 p Ns = kgm/s (same as momentum)

dp p2 p1 F ! const ! dt ! t t 2 1

If the net force is constant, then dp/dt is also constant and equals to the total change in momentum during the time interval t2-t1, divided T by this time interval: T T T

T T T F (t2 t1 ) ! p2 p1

T T T J ! p2 p1

Impulse Momentum Theorem: The change in momentum of a particle during a time interval equals the impulse of the net force that acts on the particle during that interval.

Impulse Momentum Theorem also holds when forces are NOT constant. To see this, lets integrate both sides of N2L t2

T t2 T t 2 dp T T T Fdt ! t dt dt ! t dp ! p2 p1 t1 1 1

T t2 T J ! F dt

t1

We can define an average net force 7F such that even when 7F is NOT constant, the impulse J is given by

The force on soccer ball that in contact with players foot from time t1 to t2

T T J ! Fav (t 2 t1 )

The impulse can be interpreted as the "area" under the graph of F(t) versus t. The x-

component of impulse of the net force curve, which also equals the area under t2 rectangle with height (Fav)x

t1

t2

t1

Fundamental difference between momentum and kinetic energy Impulse - Momentum Theorem:

T T T J ! p2 p1

Changes in a particles momentum are due to impulse, which depends on the time over which the net force acts.

Wtot ! K 2 K1

Kinetic energy changes when work done on the particle. The total work depends on the distance over which the net force acts.

Compared

T T T J ! p2 p1

o

Let a constant net force equal to F act on that particle from time t1 until time t2. During this interval the particle moves a distance S in the direction of the force. From impulse-momentum theorem:

T T T T p2 ! J p1 ! J

T T J ! F (t 2 t1 )

The momentum of a particle equals the impulse that accelerated it from the rest to its present speed The impulse is the product of the net force that accelerated the particle and the time required for the acceleration Kinetic energy of the particle at t2 is K2=Wtot=FS, the total work done on the particle to accelerate it from rest The total work is the product of the net force and the distance required to accelerate the particle

Example

Net force

Displacement in time (t

o

Kinetic energy of a pitched baseball = the work the pitcher does on it (force distance the ball moves during the throw) Momentum of the ball = the impulse the pitcher imparts to it (force time it took to bring the ball up to speed)

o

Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of Momentum

Concept of momentum is particularly important in situations when you have two or more interacting bodies Consider idealized system of two particles: two astronauts floating in the zero-gravity environment

Astronauts touch each other (each particle exerts force on another) N3L: these forces are equal and opposite Hence, impulses that act on two particles are equal and opposite

Internal forces: the forces that the particles of the system exert on each other (for any system) Forces exerted on any part of the system by some object outside it called external forces For the system of two astronauts, the internal forces are FBonA, exerted by particle B on particle A, and FAonB, exerted by particle A on particle B

T T T T T T dp A dpB FAonB ! FBonA FBonA ! FAonB ! dt dt T T T T T T dp A dp B d ( p A p B ) FAonB FBonA ! ! !0 dt dt dt T T T Total momentum of two particles is the vector P ! p A pB sum of the momenta of individual particles T T T T T If system consist of any P ! p A pB ... ! m Av A mB vB ... number of particles A, B,

The time rate of change of the total momentum is zero. Hence the total momentum of the system is constant, even though the individual momenta of the particles that make up the system can change.

T T T dP FAonB FBonA ! !0 dt

If there are external forces acting on the system, they must be included into equation above along with internal forces. Then the total momentum is not constant in general. But if vector sum of external forces is zero, these forces do not contribute to the sum, and dP/dt=0.

Principle of conservation of momentum:

If the vector sum of the external forces on a system is zero, the total momentum of the system is constant

This principle does not depend on the detailed nature of internal forces that act between members of the system: we can apply it even if we know very little about the internal forces. The principle acts only in internal frame of reference (because we used N2L to derive it!)

Problem-Solving Strategy

Before applying conservation of momentum to a problem, you must first decide whether momentum is conserved! This will be true only if the vector sum of the external forces acting on the system of particles is zero. If this is not the case, you cant use conservation of momentum.

Problem-Solving Strategy SET UP the problem using the following steps:

1.

Define a coordinate system. Make a sketch showing the coordinate axes, including the positive direction for each. Make sure you are using an inertial frame of reference. Most of the problems in this course deal with two-dimensional situations, in which the vectors have only x- and y-components; all of the following statements can be generalized to include z-components when necessary. Treat each body as a particle. Draw before and after sketches, and include vectors on each to represent all known velocities. Label the vectors with magnitudes, angles, components, or whatever information is given, and give each unknown magnitude, angle, or component an algebraic symbol. You may use the subscripts 1 and 2 for velocities before and after interaction, respectively. As always, identify the target variable(s) from among the unknowns.

2.

3.

Problem-Solving Strategy EXECUTE the solution as follows:

1.

Write equation in terms of symbols equating the total initial x-component of momentum (before the interaction) to the total final x-component of momentum (after), using px=mvx for each particle. Write another equation for y-components, using py=mvy for each particle.

Remember that the x- and y-components of velocity or momentum are never added together in the same equation! Even when all the velocities lie along a line (such as the x-axis), components of velocity along this line can be positive or negative; be careful with signs!

2.

3.

Solve these equations to determine whatever results are required. In some problems you will have to convert from the x- and y-components of a velocity to its magnitude and direction, or the reverse. In some problems, energy considerations give additional relationships among the various velocities.

4.

Problem-Solving Strategy

Does your answer make physical sense? If your target variable is a certain bodys momentum, check that the direction of the momentum is reasonable.

A collision

V=30 MPH V=0 VT Vc

Before

After

PCar,i = (1500 lbs) (0 MPH) = (681 kg) (0 m/s) = 0 PTruck,i = (3500 lbs) (30 MPH) = (1,589 kg) (13.4 m/s) = 21,292 kg m/s

How do we determine the velocities?

PTotal,f = Pcivic,f + PBlazer,f ! CONSTANT

There are many possibilities Conservation of Momentum cant tell them apart

Momentum Conservation in

Explosions

Pi=0 Pf=mgvg+mbvb

gun bullet

Pi=Pf

vg= -vb

mb mg

A gun shooting a bullet is a discrete process We can generalize this to continuous processes Rockets operate by shooting out a continuos stream of gas

Rockets

Pi = Mv

PF = PRocket + PFuel ! = ( M-(m)(v+(v) + (m(v-vex ) ! = Mv -(mv M(v (mv (mvex (m(v } } Mv M(v (mvex

M(v = (mvex

Rockets

M v = (mvex

(m p 0

Mdv =vex dm

vex dv = dM M

vf ex Mf

dv = -v

vi Mi

dM M

Mi v f = vi + vex ln M f

Collisions

Collisions

Collision is any strong interaction between bodies that lasts a relatively short time

Cars collision Balls colliding on a pool table Neutrons hitting nuclei in reactor core Bowling ball striking pins Meteor impact with Earth

If the forces between the bodies are much larger than any external forces, we can neglect the external forces entirely and treat the bodies as isolated system Since a collision constitutes an isolated system (where the net external force is zero), the momentum of the system is conserved (the same before and after the collision) Collision types: inelastic and elastic collisions

Inelastic Collisions

In any collision in which external forces can be neglected, momentum is conserved and the total momentum before equals the total momentum after Collisions are classified according to how much energy is "lost" during the collision Inelastic Collisions - there is a loss of kinetic energy due to the collision

Automobile

collision is inelastic: the structure of the car absorbs as much of the energy of collision as possible. This absorbed energy cannot be recovered, since it goes into a permanent deformation of the car

Completely Inelastic Collisions - the loss of kinetic energy is the maximum possible. The objects stick together after the collision. Elastic collisions - the kinetic energy of the system is conserved

Elastic Collision

Elastic collision:

Glider A and glider B approach each other on a frictionless surface Each glider has a steel spring bumper on the end to ensure an elastic collision

Elastic Collision

Elastic 1-D collision of two bodies A and B, B is at rest before collision

2 2 2 mB vB 2 x ! m A (v A1x v A 2 x ) ! m A (v A1x v A 2 x )(v A1x v A 2 x )

mB vB 2 x ! m A (v A1x v A 2 x )

Divide equations

vB 2 x ! v A1x v A 2 x

mB (v A1x v A 2 x ) ! m A (v A1x v A 2 x )

vB 2 x 2m A v A1x ! m A mB

v A2 x

m A mB v A1x ! m A mB

Elastic Collision

v A2 x

Interpretation of results

m A mB v A1x ! m A mB

vB 2 x

2m A ! v A1x m A mB

Suppose body A is a ping-pong ball, and body B is bowling ball We expect A to bounce of after the collision with almost the same speed but opposite direction, and speed of B will be much smaller What if situation is reversed? Bowling ball hits ping-pong ball?

Elastic Collision

v A2 x

Interpretation of results

m A mB v A1x ! m A mB

vB 2 x

2m A ! v A1x m A mB

Suppose masses of bodies A and B are equal Then mA=mB, and VA2x=0, VB2x=VA1x

Elastic Collision

v A2 x m A mB ! v A1x m A mB

vB 2 x

2m A ! v A1x m A mB

vB 2 x ! v A1x v A 2 x

vB 2 x v A2 x ! v A1x

VB2x-VA2x is relative velocity of B to A after the collision, and it is negative of the velocity of B relative to A before the collision In a straight-line elastic collision of two bodies, the relative velocities before and after collision have the same magnitude, but opposite sign General case (when velocity of B is not zero):

vB 2 x v A2 x ! (vB1x v A1x )

Inelastic Collision

Glider A and glider B approach each other on a frictionless surface Each glider has a putty on the end, so gliders stick together after collision

Center of Mass

Center of Mass

Atemi (Striking the Body): Strike directed at the attacker for purposes of unbalancing or distraction. Atemi is often vital for bypassing or short-circuiting'' an attacker's natural responses to aikido techniques. The first thing most people will do when they feel their body being manipulated in an unfamiliar way is to retract their limbs and drop their center of mass down and away from the person performing the technique. By judicious application of atemi, it is possible to create a window of opportunity'' in the attacker's natural defenses, facilitating the application of an aikido technique.

Center of Mass

Consider several particles with masses m1, m2 and so on.

(x1, y1) are coordinates of m1, (x2, y2) are coordinates of m2 Center of mass of the system is the point having the coordinates (xcm, ycm) given by i i 1 1 2 2 3 3 i cm 1 2 3 i i

m x m x m x m x ... ! ! m m m ... m

1 1 2 2 3 3 i

ycm

m y m y m y m y ... ! ! m m m ... m

i 1 2 3 i i

Center of Mass

The center of mass of a system of N particles with masses m1, m2, m3, etc. and positions, (x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2), (x3, y3, z3), etc. is defined in terms of the particle's position vectors using

T mi ri

i

m

i

Center of mass is a mass-weighted average position of particles If this expression is differentiated with respect to time then the position vectors become velocity vectors and we have

T mi vi

i

m

i

Center of Mass

T T T T m1v1 m2 v2 m3v3 ... vcm ! ! m1 m2 m3 ...

Total mass

T mi vi

i

m

i

Total moment is equal to total mass times velocity of the center of mass For a system of particles on which the net external force is zero, so that the total momentum is constant, the velocity of the center of mass is also constant

Spinning throwing knife on ice: center of mass follows straight line

Motion

If we differentiate once again, then the derivatives of the velocity terms will be accelerations Further, if we use Netwon's Second Law for each particle then the terms of the form miai will be the net force on particle i. When these are summed over all particles any forces that are internal to the system (i.e. a force on particle i caused by particle j) will be included in the sum twice and these pairs will cancel due to Newton's Third Law. The result will be

It states that the net external force on a system of particles equals the total mass of the system times the acceleration of the center of mass (Newton's Second Law for a system of particles) It can also be expressed as the net external force on a system equals the time rate of change of the total linear momentum of the system.

Center of Mass ?

Center of Mass ?

The segmental method involves computation of the segmental CMs The whole body CM is computed based on the segmental CMs

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