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Nobel Prize Laureates

Physiology medicine - 2005

J. Robin Warren Prize motivation: "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pyloriand its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

Barry J. Marshall: NHMRC Helicobacter pyloriResearch Laboratory, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands, Australia, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia Prize motivation: "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pyloriand its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

Physics - 2005
(i) Roy J. Glauber, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA (ii) John L. Hall University of Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO, USA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, USA (iii) Theodor W. Hnsch

Max-Planck-Institute for Quantamoptics, Garching, Germany, Ludwig-MaximiliansUniversitt, Munich, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005 was divided, one half awarded to Roy J. Glauber"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence",the other half jointly to John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hnsch "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique".

Peace - 2005
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Founded: 1957 in Vienna, Austria Mohamed ElBaradei Director General of IAEA

The Nobel Peace Prize 2005 was awarded "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"

Chemistry - 2005
(i) Yves Chauvin: French Institute of petroleum, IFP, Rueil-Malmaison, France (ii) Robert H. Grubbs California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA (iii) Richard R. Schrock : Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005 was awarded"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis".

Thank you !

discovery that inflammation in the stomach (gastritis) as well as ulceration of the stomach or duodenum (peptic ulcer disease) is the result of an infection of the stomach caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Robin Warren (born 1937), a pathologist from Perth, Australia, observed small curved bacteria colonizing the lower part of the stomach (antrum) in about 50% of patients from which biopsies had been taken. He made the crucial observation that signs of inflammation were always present in the gastric mucosa close to where the bacteria were seen. Barry Marshall (born 1951), a young clinical fellow, became interested in Warren's findings and together they initiated a study of biopsies from 100 patients. After several attempts, Marshall succeeded in cultivating a hitherto unknown bacterial species (later denoted Helicobacter pylori) from several of these biopsies. Together they found that the organism was present in almost all patients with gastric inflammation, duodenal ulcer or gastric ulcer. Based on these results, they proposed that Helicobacter pylori is involved in the aetiology of these diseases. By using technologies generally available (fibre endoscopy, silver staining of histological sections and culture techniques for microaerophilic bacteria), they made an irrefutable case that the bacteriumHelicobacter pylori is causing disease .

This year's Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded to three scientists in the field of optics. Roy Glauber is awarded half of the Prize for his theoretical description of the behaviour of light particles. John Hall and Theodor Hnsch share the other half of the Prize for their development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, that is, the determination of the colour of the light of atoms and molecules with extreme precision. Roy Glauber has established the basis of Quantum Optics, in which quantum theory encompasses the field of optics. He could explain the fundamental differences between hot sources of light such as light bulbs, with a mixture of frequencies and phases, and lasers which give a specific frequency and phase. The important contributions by John Hall and Theodor Hnsch have made it possible to measure frequencies with an accuracy of fifteen digits. Lasers with extremely sharp colours can now be constructed and with the frequency comb technique precise readings can be made of light of all colours. According to quantum theory, light may be considered not only as an electromagnetic wave but also as a "stream" of particles called photons which travel with c, the vacuum speed of light Another quantum state of light with certain advantages over any classical state, squeezed light, was soon proposed. At the same time, development of short and ultrashort laser pulses created by Q switching and modelocking techniques opened the way to the study of unimaginably fast ("ultrafast") processes. Applications for solid state research (e.g. Raman spectroscopy) were found, and mechanical forces of light on matter were studies.