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eleventh edition



stephen p. robbins

Chapter 11

Basic Approaches to Leadership

S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E D I T I O N PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS


After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Contrast leadership and management. 2. Summarize the conclusions of trait theories. 3. Identify the limitations of behavioral theories. 4. Describe Fiedlers contingency model. 5. Explain Hersey and Blanchards situational theory. 6. Summarize leader-member exchange theory.

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O B J E C T I V E S (cont d) LEARNING

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

7. Describe the path-goal theory. 8. Identify the situational variables in the leaderparticipation model.

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What Is Leadership?
Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.

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Mob and its behaviour

Roles of Leaders and Managers

Establish organizational vision

Formulate strategy for implementing vision

Implement organizational strategy

Leaders role

Managers role


 Behavioral Theories  Contingency Theories  Neo-charismatic Theories  Contemporary Issues in Leadership

Trait Theories
Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

Leadership Traits: Traits: Ambition and energy The desire to lead Honest and integrity Self-confidence Self Intelligence High self-monitoring self Job-relevant Jobknowledge

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Trait Theories Limitations:

No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. Traits predict behavior better in weak than strong situations. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
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Behavioral Theories
Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.

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Ohio State Studies

Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
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University of Michigan Studies

Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.

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The Managerial Grid

(Blake and Mouton)

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Scandinavian Studies
Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation, seeking new ideas, and generating and implementing change.
Researchers in Finland and Sweden question whether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employee-orientation) that capture the essence of leadership behavior. Their premise is that in a changing world, effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior.
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Contingency Theories
Fiedlers Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is taskor relationship-oriented.
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Fiedlers Model: Defining the Situation

Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. Position Power Influence derived from one s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
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Findings from Fiedler Model

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Cognitive Resource Theory

Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader. Research Support:
Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.
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Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Theory

Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers readiness.
Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Unwilling Able and Willing

Follower readiness: ability and willingness

Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision
Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Monitoring

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Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard)

Follower Readiness
Able Unwilling Willing

Supportive Participative


Leadership Styles High Task and Relationship Orientations



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LeaderMember Exchange Theory

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.

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Leader-Member Exchange Theory

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Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.

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The Path-Goal Theory

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The Path-Goal Theory  Developed by Robert House

 The leader assists followers in attaining their goals and provides the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the firm

 Identified four leadership behaviors

Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented

Leadership Behaviors
Directive leadership
Lets followers know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives special guidance as to how to accomplish tasks.

 Supportive leadership
Friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers.

 Participative style
Consults with followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision.

 Achievement -oriented leader

Sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.

Predictions based on Path-Goal Theory

 Directive leadership
leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful perceived as redundant among employees with high perceived ability or with considerable experience

 Supportive leadership results in high employee

performance and satisfaction when employees are performing structured tasks

 Employees with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a participative style  Employees high on achievement need will prefer

achievement -oriented leader

Leader-Participation Model
Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.

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Leader Participation Model

Employee Involvement Continuum
Increased Leader Control

Increased Employee Involvement

Vroom & Yetton, 1973

Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model

Importance of the decision Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision How well structured the problem is Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment Whether followers buy into the organizations goals Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternatives 8. Whether followers have the necessary information to make a good decision 9. Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement 10. Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justified 11. Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decision 12. Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Identifies five leadership behaviors:

The leader makes the decision alone. The leader asks for information from group members but makes the decision alone.
Group members may or may not be informed about the decision.

The leader shares the situation with each group member and asks for information and evaluation.
Members do not meet as a group, and the leader makes the decision.

The leader and group members discuss the situation, but the leader makes the decision. The leader and group members discuss the situation, and the group makes the decision.

Leadership may not always be important

 Individuals  Job  Organizational variables can act as substitutes for leadership or neutralize the leaders effect.

Neo-charismatic Theories

 Visionary leadership  Charismatic leadership  Transformational leadership

Charismatic leadership

Followers make attribution of heroic or extraordinary abilities when they observe certain behaviors.

Vision and Articulation

Personal Risk

Charismatic Leaders

Sensitivity to Environment

Sensitivity to Followers

Unconventional Behavior

How Charismatic leaders influence followers ?

 State the vision  Communicate  Conveys new set of values  Makes self sacrifices

Can people learn to be charismatic leaders?  Individuals can be trained to exhibit

charismatic behaviors.
needs to develop the aura of charisma by maintaining an optimistic view. draws others in by creating a bond that inspires others to follow. brings out the potential in followers by tapping into their emotions.

 Followers of these leaders have

higher task performance task adjustment adjustment to the leader and to the group

 Charisma appears to be most appropriate when

the follower s task has an ideological component or when the environment involves a high degree of stress and uncertainty

Visionary Leadership Visionary Leadership

Express the Vision Extend the Vision

Live the Vision

 Visionary leadership requires a vision which is realistic credible attractive that grows out of and improves upon the present  A vision is not a dream. It is a reality that has not come to pass  A vision offers means as well as ends

 Qualities of visionary leaders

can communicate the vision to others verbally express the vision by their behavior extend the vision to different situations

 A vision that does not propose a future that is clearly better for the organization is likely to fail

Transformational Leadership
Transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own selfinterests for the good of the organization and are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers.

Transformational Leadership
A conception that leadership is the process of inspiring a group to pursue goals and attain results.


Transformational Leadership
 Transformational leaders behave in ways to achieve superior results by using one or more of the four components of transformational leadership.
Idealized Influence. Inspirational Motivation. Intellectual Stimulation. Individualized Consideration.


Transformational Leadership
 Idealized Influence
The transformational leaders behave in ways that make them role models for their followers. The leaders are admired, respected and trusted. Followers identify with the leaders and want to emulate them; leaders are endowed by their followers with extraordinary capabilities, persistence and determination.


Transformational Leadership
 Inspirational Motivation
Transformational leaders behave in ways that motivate and inspire those around them by providing meaning and challenge to their followers' work Leaders get involved in envisioning attractive future states; they create clearly communicated expectations that followers want to meet.


Transformational Leadership
 Intellectual Stimulation
Transformational leaders stimulate their followers efforts to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions, reframing problems and approaching old situations in new ways. New ideas and creative problem solutions are solicited from followers, who are included in the process of addressing problems and finding solutions.


Transformational Leadership
 Individualized Consideration
Transformational leaders pay special attention to each individual follower s need for advancement and growth by acting as a coach or mentor. Followers and colleagues are developed to successively higher levels of potential. Individuals differences in needs and desires are recognized, and the leaders own behavior demonstrates acceptance of those differences.


Contemporary Leadership Roles: Providing Team Leadership

Team Leadership Roles

Act as liaisons with external constituencies Serve as troubleshooters Managing conflict Coaching to improve team member performance

Contemporary Leadership Roles: Mentoring

Mentoring Activities

Present ideas clearly Listen well Empathize Share experiences Act as role model Share contacts Provide political guidance

A senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee

Contemporary Leadership Roles: SelfLeadership

Self-Leadership Creating Self-Leaders

A set of processes through which individuals control their own behavior.

Model self-leadership Encourage employees to create self-set goals Encourage the use of self-rewards Create positive thought patterns Create a climate of selfleadership Encourage self-criticism

Online Leadership
 Leadership at a Distance: Building Trust The lack of face-to-face contact in electronic communications removes the nonverbal cues that support verbal interactions. There is no supporting context to assist the receiver with interpretation of an electronic communication. The structure and tone of electronic messages can strongly affect the response of receivers. An individual s verbal and written communications may not follow the same style. Writing skills will likely become an extension of interpersonal skills

A consultant estimates
probably another theres

15% of managers are natural team leaders

15% could never lead a team

that huge group in the middle, but they can

learn it

How to become an effective team leader

Learning skills such as:
share information trust others give up authority understand when to intervene

Effective leaders have mastered the balancing act of knowing when to leave their teams alone and when to intercede

The 21 Indispensable Leadership Laws by John Maxwell



21 Qualities of a Leader
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Character Charisma Commitment Communication Competence Courage Discernment


21 Qualities of a Leader
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Focus Generosity Initiative Listening Passion Positive Attitude Problem Solving


21 Qualities of a Leader
15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Relationships Responsibility Security Self-disciplined Servanthood Teachability Vision


#1. Character
 Character Is More than Talk
Your character determines who you are. Who you are determines what you see. What you see determines what you do.

 Talent Is a Gift, but Character Is a Choice

We have no control over a lot of things in life. But we do choose our character. In fact, we create it every time we make choices.


#1. Character

 Character Brings Lasting Success with People

Followers do not trust leaders whose character they know to be flawed, and they will not continue to following them.

 Leaders Cannot Rise Above the Limitations of their Character

Have you ever seen highly talented people suddenly fall apart when they achieved a certain level of success? The key to that phenomenon is character.

#1. Character
 Look for patterns.
Examine is there a particular area where you have a weakness, or do you have a type of problem that keeps surfacing?

 Face the music.

The beginning of character building comes when you face your flaws, apologize, and deal with the consequences of your actions.


#2. Charisma

To make yourself the kind of person who attracts others, you need to personify these pointers:  Love Life
If you want to attract people, you need to be like the people you enjoy being with.

 Share Yourself
Leaders who think about others and their concerns before thinking of themselves exhibit charisma.

#2. Charisma

Roadblocks to Charisma:
Pride Insecurity Moodiness Perfectionism Cynicism

To improve your charisma, do the following:

Change your focus Play the first impression game Share yourself

#3. Commitment
What is the true nature of commitment? Take a look at three observations:  Commitment Starts in the Heart  Commitment Is Tested by Action  Commitment Opens the Door to Achievement


#3. Commitment
 When it comes to commitment, there are really only four types of people:
Cop-outs. People who have no goals and do not commit. Holdouts. People who don t know if they can reach their goals, so they re afraid to commit. Dropouts. People who start toward a goal but quit when the going gets tough. All-outs. People who set goals, commit to them, and pay the price to reach them.

 To improve your commitment, do the following:

Measure it. Know what s worth dying for. Use the Edison method.


#4. Communication

You can be a more effective communicator if you follow four basic truths.
Simplify Your Message See the Person Show the Truth Seek a Response

To improve your communication, do the following:

Be clear as a bell Refocus your attention Live your message

#5. Competence
 Competence goes beyond words. Its the leaders ability to say it, plan it, and do it in such a way that others know that you know how- and know that they want to follow you. -John C. Maxwell

We all admire people who display high competence. If you want to cultivate that quality, heres what you need to do:
Show Up Every Day Keep Improving Follow Through with Excellence Accomplish More than Expected Inspire Others

#5. Competence
 To improve your competence, do the following:
Get your head in the game. Redefine the standard. Find three ways to improve.

#6. Courage
Courage is rightly esteemed the first of human qualitiesbecause it is the quality which guarantees all others. Winston Churchill

#6. Courage
 To improve your courage, do the following:
Face the music Talk to that person Take a giant step

#7. Discernment
Smart leaders believe only half of what they hear. Discerning leaders know which half to believe. John C. Maxwell

Discernment is an indispensable quality for any leader who desires to maximize effectiveness. It helps to do several important things:
Discover the Root Issues Enhance Your Problem Solving Evaluate Your Options for Maximum Impact Multiply Your Opportunities

#7. Discernment
    To improve your discernment, do the following: Analyze past successes Learn how others think Listen to your gut

#8. Focus
What people say, what people do, and what they say they do are entirely different things. Margaret Mead, Anthropologist
 How should you focus your time and energy? Use these guidelines to help you:
Focus 70 Percent on Strengths Focus 25 Percent on New Things Focus 5 Percent on Areas of Weakness

#8. Focus
 To improve your focus, do the following:
Shift to strengths Staff your weaknesses Create an edge

#9. Generosity
No person was ever honoured for what he received. Honour has been the reward for what he gave. Calvin Coolidge, American President

 Cultivate the quality of generosity in your life. Heres how:

Be Grateful for Whatever You Have Put People First Don t Allow the Desire for Possessions to Control You Regard Money as a Resource Develop the Habit of Giving

#9. Generosity
 To improve your generosity, do the following:
Give something away Put your money to work Find someone to mentor

#10. Initiative
Success seems to be connected with action. Successful people keep moving. They make mistakes, but they dont quit. Conrad Hilton, Hotel Executive

 What qualities do leaders possess that enable them to make things happen? I see at least four.
They Know What They Want They Push Themselves to Act They Take More Risks They Make More Mistakes

#10. Initiative
 To improve your initiative, do the following:
Change your mind-set Don t wait for opportunity to knock Take the next step

#11. Listening
 Keep in mind that you have two purposes for listening; to connect with people and to learn. For that reason, you should keep your ear open to these people:
Your followers Your customers Your competitors Your mentors

 To improve your listening, do the following:

Change your schedule Meet people on their turf Listen between the lines

#12. Passion

 Take a look at four truths about passion and what it can do for you as a leader:
Passion is the First Step to Achievement Passion Increases Your Willpower Passion Changes You Passion Makes the Impossible Possible

 To increase your passion, do the following:

Take your temperature Return to your first love Associate with people of passion

#13. Positive Attitude

 To learn more about what it means to be positive, think on these things:
Your Attitude Is a Choice The average person wants to wait for someone else to motivate him. Your Attitude Determines Your Actions Your People Are a Mirror of Your Attitude Maintaining a Good Attitude Is Easier Than Regaining One

 To improve your attitude, do the following:

Feed yourself the right food Achieve a goal every day Write it on your wall

#14. Problem Solving

 Leaders with good problem-solving ability demonstrate five qualities:
They They They They They anticipate problems accept the truth see the big picture handle one thing at a time don t give up a major goal when they re down

#14. Problem Solving

 To improve your problem solving, do the following:

Look for trouble Develop a method. Try using the TEACH process: Time spend time to discover the real issue Exposure find out what others have done Assistance have your team study all angles Creativity brainstorm multiple solutions Hit It implement the best solution Surround yourself with problem solvers

#15. Relationships
Have a Leaders Head Understand People  As you work with others, recognize that all people, whether leaders or followers, have some things in common:
They like to feel special, so sincerely compliment them. They want a better tomorrow, so show them hope. They desire direction, so navigate for them. They are selfish, so speak to their needs first. They get low emotionally, so encourage them. They want success, so help them win.

 Have a Leaders Heart - Love People  Extend a Leaders Hand Help People

#15. Relationships
 To improve your relationships, do the following:
Improve your mind Strengthen your heart Repair a hurting relationship

#16. Responsibility
 Take a look at the following characteristics of people who embrace responsibility:
They They They They get the job done are willing to go the extra mile are driven by excellence produce regardless of the situation

#16. Responsibility
 To improve your responsibility, do the following:
Keep hanging in there Admit what s not good enough Find better tools

#17. Security
 Insecure leaders have several common traits:
They They They They don t provide security for others take more from people than they give continually limit their best people continually limit the organization

 To improve your security, do the following:

Know yourself Give away the credit Get some help

#18. Self-Discipline

 If you want to become a leader for whom self-discipline is an asset, follow these action points:
Develop and follow your priorities Make a disciplined lifestyle your goal Challenge your excuses Remove rewards until the job is done Stay focused on results

 To improve your self-discipline do the following:

Sort out your priorities Get rid of excuses

#19. Servanthood
 What does it mean to embody the quality of servanthood? A true servant leader:
Puts others ahead of his own agenda Possesses the confidence to serve The Law of Empowerment says that only secure leaders give power to others. It s also true that only secure leaders exhibit servanthood. Initiates service to others Is not position-conscious

#19. Servanthood

 Serves out of love

Stop lording over people, and start listening to them Stop role-playing for advancement, and start risking for others benefit Stop seeking your own way, and start serving others

 To improve your servanthood, do the following:

Perform small acts Learn to walk slowly through the crowd Move into action

#20. Teachability
 Leaders face the danger of contentment with the status quo. Why should he keep growing? The answer is simple:
Your growth determines who you are. Who you are determines who you attract. Who you attract determines the success of your organization.

#20. Teachability

 Five guidelines to help you cultivate and maintain a teachable attitude:

Cure your destination disease Overcome your success Swear off shortcuts Trade in your pride Never pay twice for the same mistake

 To improve your teachability, do the following:

Observe how you react to mistakes Try something new Learn in your area of strength

#20. Teachability
 To improve your teachability, do the following:
Observe how you react to mistakes Try something new Learn in your area of strength

#21. Vision
 To get a handle on vision and how it comes to be a part of a good leaders life, understand these things:
Vision Vision Vision Vision starts within draws on your history meets others needs helps you gather resources

#21. Vision
 Where does vision come from? You must listen to several voices.
The The The The Inner Voice Unhappy Voice Successful Voice Higher Voice

#21. Vision
 To improve your vision, do the following:
Measure yourself Write it down Do a gut check

 Consider what really impacts you at a gut level:

What makes you cry? What makes you dream? What gives you energy?

Chapter Check-up: Leadership

Julie spends time with each subordinate and knows their development plans for the next five years. Julie exhibits _.

Inspirational Motivation Unconventional Behavior Individualized Consideration Full Range Leadership Charismatic Leadership

Chapter Check-up: Leadership

If your leader skips down the hall, which theory suggests the type of leader she or he is?

Transformational Transactional Level 5 Full Range Charismatic

Your leader is exhibiting unconventional behavior, which is something charismatic leaders do.