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# Quantum Computing

by.. T.Prasanth Kumar Under the guidance of.. Mrs. M.Rajya Lakshmi

This has held true ««. .. Moore predicted that this trend would continue for the foreseeable future. So far The Microprocessor Industry was getting closer to the limits of the current technology.Origin.. In 1965 Gordon Moore predicted that number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits had doubled every year since the integrated circuit was invented.

Quantum mechanics is the theory that describes the behavior of microscopic systems. to perform operations on data. and photons . such as superposition and entanglement. molecules.Introduction A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena. such as atoms.

. 1985 . 1997 .Feynman proposed the idea of creating machines based on the laws of quantum mechanics instead of the laws of classical physics.History in brief.Feynman 1982 .David Deutsch developed the Quantum Turing Machine.Peter Shor came up with a quantum algorithm to factor very large numbers in polynomial time. 1994 .Lov Grover develops a quantum search algorithm with O(¥N) complexity . ´I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanicsµ . showing that quantum circuits are universal.

Data Representation A bit of data is represented by a single atom that is in one of two states denoted by |0> and |1>. An excited state representing |1> and a ground state representing |0>. . A single bit of this form is known as a qubit A physical implementation of a qubit could use the two energy levels of an atom.

Superposition A single qubit can be forced into a superposition of the two states denoted by the addition of the state vectors: Where and are complex numbers and .

Imagine two qubits.Entanglement Entanglement is the ability of quantum systems to exhibit correlations between states within a superposition. .) We can entangle the two qubits such that the measurement of one qubit is always correlated to the measurement of the other qubit. each in the state |0> + |1> (a superposition of the 0 and 1.

e. their original input state can be derived from their output state. uniquely. Quantum Gates are similar to classical gates. They must be reversible. the destruction of information in a gate will cause heat to be evolved which can destroy the superposition of qubits. i.Quantum Gates Due to the nature of quantum physics. but do not have a degenerate output. .

Hadamard Gate Simplest gate involves one qubit and is called a Hadamard Gate (also known as a square-root of NOT gate.) Used to put qubits into superposition. .

If the bit on the control line is 1. invert the bit on the target line. .Controlled-Not Gate Controlled A gate which operates on two qubits is called a Controlled-NOT (CN) Gate.

then the target bit is inverted. Iff the bits on both of the control lines is 1. .Controlled Controlled NOT Gate A gate which operates on three qubits is called a Controlled Controlled NOT (CCN) Gate.

1.+. and continue with b2N outcomes for which the same basis was used Alice and Bob verify the measurement outcomes on random (size N) subset of the 2N bits Remaining N outcomes function as the secrete key 4) 5) .-} to Bob Bob measures each qubit randomly in 0/1 or +/basis Alice and Bob compare their 4N basis.Quantum Cryptography 1) 2) 3) Alice sends 4N random qubits {0.

BAABAABAAAABBBBA Thus the following states are sent to Bob: +10-10+0101+--+0 . Alice encodes her information randomly in one of the two bases« For example. Alice prepares 16 bits 0101100010101100 in the following bases.

Alice¶s bits Alice¶s bases States sent 0101100010101100 BAABAABAAAABBBBA +10-10+0101+--+0 Bob receives the stream of qubits and measures each one in a random basis: ABAABAAABABBBBAB Alice¶s bits Alice¶s bases States sent Bob¶s bases 0101100010101100 BAABAABAAAABBBBA +10-10+0101+--+0 ABAABAAABABBBBAB So Bob gets 1-00-0+0+0-+--1+ By comparing Bob and Alice will be left out with 8 bits of 16 which can be filled by the secret key .

4. Military uses of quantum computer. This is still science--but it may become technology sooner than we expect. Various researchers are actively looking for new algorithms and communication protocols to exploit the properties of quantum systems.Conclusion Quantum computing technology will only continue to improve. 1. 3. . Quantum computer can be used in area of finance. Google image search. 2. It can be used to solving complex Mathematical problems.

Future computer. ..

..Thank you.