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Anush (08S11A0402)

Plasma Antenna

A small plasma antenna

Plasma generator

CONTENTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduction Features of Plasma antenna Working Comparison between Plasma antenna and Traditional antenna Advantages Disadvantages Applications Conclusion References .

If further energy is added to a gas it becomes ionized and passes over into the Plasma state ² a fourth state of matter.  Plasma is a gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized.What is Plasma ?  By supplying energy the states of matter changes: from solid to liquid and from liquid to gas. The presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields.  Plasma ² the fourth aggregate state of matter was identified by an English physicist Sir William Crooks in 1879. .

solid liquid gas plasma Energy / Temperature Ions Molecule Molecule (excited) Molecular fragment (high energy) Free electron . or gases and is considered be a distinct state of matter.Contd««  Plasma has properties quite unlike those of solids. liquids.

When these Plasma tube is energized. they become conductor and can transmit and receive radio Signal . In this plasma discharge tubes are used as the antenna element. . decreasing interference and boosting the functionality. It uses ionized gas instead of metal conducting element of conventional antenna to transmit and receive signals.What is a Plasma Antenna? Plasma antennas are Radio frequency antenna that employ plasma as a guiding medium for electromagnetic radiation.

Plasma can only exist while the gas is kept very hot. as soon as the heat source is shut off. but the signal emitted or received by the antenna disappears only when the plasma cools down.When they are degenergized they revert to non conducting element and do not reflect radio probing signals. in which cold gas is non conductive. Plasma antenna can be controlled electronically. . the plasma antenna returns to its previous state.

.  This is a fundamental change from traditional antenna design that generally employs solid metal wires as the conducting element.What is plasma antenna technology?  Plasma antenna technology is that which employs ionized gas enclosed in a tube as conducting element. ringing and associated effects of solid wire antenna design are eliminated. Since the gas is ionized only for the time of transmission or reception.  This technology has advanced to provide unique antenna designs for applications ranging from general broadcast of radio frequency signals for public use to complex weapon systems.  Ionized gas is an efficient conducting element with a number of important advantages.

Features Of Plasma Antenna  Plasma antenna has the ability to focus a signal beam easily and to communicate signals in very short pulses. eliminating the ringing associated with traditional metal elements.  One important feature of Plasma antenna is that the gas ionizing process can manipulate resistance. Ringing and the associated noise of a metal antenna can severely limit capabilities in high frequency short pulse transmissions. . which could prove extremely useful in the areas of digital communications and radar.  A second fundamental distinguishing feature is that after sending a pulse the plasma antenna can be deionized.

radius of glass tube. length of plasma column. .Contd««  Changes in the ion density can result in instantaneous changes in bandwidth over wide dynamic range.  Plasma Antenna can transmit and receive from same aperture provided the frequencies are widely separated.  Plasma Antenna are reconfigurable for frequency. gain. bandwidth.

 An ionized region.  The plasma can be freely moved by switching groups of plasma diodes on and off that follow the desired geometry of the reflector. can be generated in silicon using electronically controlled devices (plasma diodes) that are positioned between closely spaced metalized surfaces. or solid state plasma. .How does Plasma antenna works?  A plasma antenna generates localized concentrations of plasma to form a plasma mirror which deflects an RF beam launched from a central feed located at the focus of the mirror.

This enables the beam to be steered quickly without the need for mechanical motion. to form a lens or reflector system that enables the RF energy to be collimated...  In some realizations. reflecting) at any one time.e..Contd. Working of Plasma antenna is shown in the figure . the silicon disc (ie Si wafer) can act as a cylindrical lens.  The resulting pattern of plasma diodes forms a rosette of overlapping reflectors only one of which is active (i.

Diagram showing working of Plasma antenna .

. Plasma antenna greatly or interference that bounce reduces the effects of of the surrounding metal interference. Traditional Antenna Electronic movement is 1. 2.How Plasma Antennas are different from Traditional Antenna? Plasma Antenna 1. Solid metal antenna can made even more easily function because electrons inside the plasma move freely in the metal antenna. 2. because of conductor. Conventional metal antennas can pick up various noises. electrons are in a free state inside the hot gas. objects.

low in weight and smaller in size. Plasma antenna can be switched on and off easily. Traditional antennas can·t be easily switched on and off. more in weight and larger in size. Contd«.. Traditional antenna are less efficient. 4. . 3. 4. Plasma antenna are efficient.3.

Some types of Plasma antenna Selectable Multibeam Antenna Multiple Tube Plasma Antenna .

Advantages of Plasma antenna  High gain  Low interference  Low latency  Wide bandwidth  Affordable  Compact and light weight  Maintainace free .

Ionizer increases power consumption. Higher ionization energy.Disadvantages of Plasma antenna Plasma volumes must be stable and repeatable. . Ionizer adds weight and volume.

. space and home appliances.Applications of Plasma Antenna       Plasma antenna has a number of applications in defense. Network Equipment Providers and Systems Integrators Network Operator Public Safety Networks Sensing Defense In Microwave Communication Plasma Antenna Provide Ease for realignment of long range bi-directional antennas.

Conclusion Antennas constructed of metal can be big and bulky. . the research has produced many novel antennas using standard fluorescent tubes and these have been characterized and compare favourably with their metal equivalents. Once energized. To date. The fact that metal structures cannot be easily moved when not in use limits some aspects of antenna array design. and are normally fixed in place. the plasma column can be made to exhibit many of the same characteristics of a metal whip antenna . There are many potential advantages of plasma antenna. This can be ionized by the application of a strong RF field at the base of the column. The plasma antenna is constructed using a hollow glass column which is filled with plasma.

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