You are on page 1of 36

Bridge Engineering

(SE(SE-507)

Lecture 1
Dr. Azhar
Spring 2012

Department of Civil Engineering


University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan

Bridge Engineering

IntroductionIntroduction-1
Instructor Lectures Home Works Design Project Examination Marks Sessionals Honor Code Dr. M. Azhar Saleem (msale005@fiu.edu) Two meeting per week. A field visit to bridge under construction (TBD) Home works are due at the beginning of the lecture for which they are assigned Not this time. Two quizzes, Final Exam Theory = 100, Sessional = 60, Viva Voce = 40 Quizzes, Home works, class attendance/participation All homework assignments should be individual work. Consultation with classmates is acceptable as long as it is limited to a discussion of solution techniques.

Bridge Engineering

IntroductionIntroduction-2
Outline of Course
Introduction Bridge Types Limit states, AASHTO LRFD and loads Moving loads effects Deck analysis and design CIP Reinforced concrete bridges: slab and girder Review of Prestress Concrete Prestressed girder bridges Substructures Bridge load rating

Bridge Engineering

IntroductionIntroduction-3
References
y y y y y y y y y y y

Barker M. and Puckett J., Design of Highway Bridges, An LRFD Approach, 2nd Ed, Wiley & Sons, 2007. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification, 5th Edition, 2010. The Manual for Bridge Evaluation, AASHTO, January 2009. Tonias D. and Zhao J., Bridge Engineering, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw-Hill, 2007. Leonardo Fernndez Troyano, Bridge Engineering: a global perspective, Thomas Telford, Ltd, 2003. Menn, Christian, Prestress Concrete Bridges, Birkhuser Verlag, 1990. Nigel R. Hewson, Prestressed Concrete Bridges: Design and Construction, Thomas Telford, Ltd, 2003. Schlaich J. and Scheef H., Concrete Box Girder Bridges, IABSE, 1982. Publications by FHWA, www.fhwa.org Publications by AASHTO, lrfd.aashtoware.org Publications by the National Steel Bridge Alliance, www.steelbridge.org

Bridge Engineering

BridgesDefinition
y

Bridges are structures that connect and/or cross two points separated by a road, river or valley. In social terms they connect communities, nations, races, etc. and are sign of friendship and peace. In structural terms, bridges are fascinating structures, a source of challenge to engineers and builders. In many respects, bridge engineers can express their talent through these art forms and sculptures.

Bridge Engineering

BridgesDesign
y

Bridges are essential elements of a transportation network since they control the capacity of the system, and as such they should be carefully planned and engineered. Unlike other structural systems, bridge design depends on how the different bridge components (deck, girders, etc) are put together or built. In some cases, loads generated during bridge construction control the member sizes. Hence, special attention shall be given on how a bridge is built and shall be clearly expressed or described in contractual documents.

Bridge Engineering

Transportation Project
y y y y y y

Planning Design Financing Procurement Construction Maintenance

Bridge Engineering

Design Process-1 ProcessPhase 1: Owners Requirements

Functional

Aesthetics

Budget

Design Criteria

Bridge Engineering

Design Process-2 ProcessPhase 2: Design Development


Preliminary Designs

Development of Alternatives
Selection of Recommended Alternative

Adequate Constructible and Maintainble

Cost Effective

Bridge Engineering

Design Process-3 ProcessPhase 3: Contract Plans


Structural Analysis

Structural Design

Plan Production

Specifications and Bid Documents


10

Bridge Engineering

Construction Process
y

Construction Engineering Shop drawings production Construction analysis Falsework design Construction Crew efficiency Geometry control Storage Equipment staging Temporary bracing Maintenance of Traffic (MOT) Erection sequence Casting
11

Bridge Engineering

Types of Bridges
y y y y y y

Slab-on-stringer (95% of all types) Steel and Concrete Box Girders Steel and Concrete Arch Trusses Moveable (Lift, bascule and swing etc.) Suspension

12

Bridge Engineering

Types of Bridges

Slab on Stringer

Box Girder

Arch

Truss

13

Bridge Engineering

Types of Bridges

Bascule

Lift

Moveable Bridge

Swing

14

Bridge Engineering

Types of Bridges
Golden Gate Bridge

Suspension Bridge
15

Bridge Engineering

Span Rang

16

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Selection

17

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

The stone clapper Darth River (Dartmoor) bridge, built in 111 BC by Celtic tribes of Scotland is shown above. It has the same fundamental elements of a modern highway bridge: a super-structure and a substructure. The stones are quality grade granite. 18

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components
y

Julius Caesars temporary bridge across the Rhine in 56 BC, was built in 3 days, and then dismantled in one day after a successful campaign in Germany.

(The Conquest of Gaul, by J. Caesar, 50 BC).


y

Note the basic elements still present in todays bridges.

19

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

The Roman aqueduct/bridge Pont du Gard in France is over 19 20 centuries old

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

21

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

22

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

End Bent

23

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

Typical Components of Box Girder Bridge

24

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

Typical Components of Composite I-girder Bridge

25

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

A modern slab-on-stringer highway bridge, with steel stringers and lateral bracing

26

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

Welded curved steel stringers.

27

Bridge Engineering

Bridge Components

Elements of Substructure

28

Bridge Engineering

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (AASHTO)


AASHTO is a nonprofit, nonpartisan association highway and transportation representing departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. It represents all five transportation modes: air, highway, public transportation, rail, and water. Its primary goal is to foster the development, operation, and maintenance of an integrated national transportation system

29

Bridge Engineering

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (AASHTO)

30

Bridge Engineering

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications


The provisions of these specifications are intended for the design, evaluation, and rehabilitation of both fixed and movable highway bridge. Horizontally curved concrete girders are not fully covered and were not part of calibration data. These specifications are not intended to supplant proper training or exercise of judgment by designer, and state only minimum requirements necessary to provide for public safety.
AASHTO 1.1
31

Bridge Engineering

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications


Bridge: Any structure having an opening not less than 20 ft. that forms part of a highway or that is located over or under a highway Design Life: Period of time on which the statistical derivation of transient load is based: 75 years for these specification. Ductility: Property of a component or connection that allows inelastic response. Extreme Event Limit States: Limit states relating to events such as earthquakes, ice load, and vehicle and vessel collision, with return periods in excess of the design life of the bridge
AASHTO 1.2
32

Bridge Engineering

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications


Factored Load: The nominal loads multiplied by the appropriate load factors specified for the load combination under consideration. Factored Resistance: The nominal resistance multiplied by the resistance factor. Limit State: A condition beyond which the bridge or component ceases to satisfy the provisions for which it was designed. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD): A reliability-based design methodology in which force effects caused by factored loads are not permitted to exceed the factored resistance of components
AASHTO 1.2
33

Bridge Engineering

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications


Load Factor: A statistically-based multiplied applied to force effects accounting primarily for variability of loads, the lack of accuracy in analysis, and probability of simultaneous occurrence of different loads, but also related statics of the resistance through the calibration process. Nominal Resistance: Resistance of a component or connection to force effects, as indicated by the dimensions specified in the contract documents and by permissible stress, deformations, or specified strength of materials. Resistance Factor: A statistically-based multiplier applied to nominal resistance accounting primarily for variability of material properties, structural dimensions and workmanship, and uncertainty in the prediction of resistance, but also related to statistics of the loads through the calibration process.
AASHTO 1.2
34

Bridge Engineering

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications


Regular Service: Condition excluding the presence of special permit vehicles, wind exceeding 55 mph, and extreme events, including scour. Service Life: The period of time that the bridge is expected to be in operation. Service Limit States: Limit states relating to stress, deformation and cracking under regular operating conditions. Strength Limit States: Limit states relating to strength and stability during the design life.
AASHTO 1.2
35

Bridge Engineering

Concluded

36