Presented by: Mr.Vijesh V Mohan 1st M.

Sc Nursing CNA

POLIOMYELITIS

-"grey" myelós -"spinal cord" .POLIO MYELITIS Poliomyelitis/ polio/ infantile paralysis Greek poliós.

It is primarily an infection of the human alimentary tract but the virus may infect CNS resulting in varying degrees of paralysis.DEFINITION Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection caused by an RNA virus. and possibly death .

Risks include: Lack of immunization against polio and then exposure to polio.CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS Agent ² polio virus RNA virus The virus spreads by direct person-to-person contact by contact with infected mucus or phlegm from the nose or mouth by contact with infected faeces. † . † Travel to an area that has experienced a polio outbreak.

Immune deficiency. pregnancy etc are also risk factors MODE OF TRANSMISSION feaco oral route Incubation 7-14 days .

.PV multiplies in the intestines. regional lymph nodes & reticuloendothelial structures Viremia act at extraneural proliferation site of PV specific type Ab in the blood & gut the virus involves the nervous system.

vomiting. . sore throat.Clinical Features: Manifested in 3 different forms Abortive illness /Inapparent infection state of silent infection no neurological signs or symptoms. loss of appetite & vague abdominal pain. nausea. headache. The illness lasts for 1 to 4 days Symptoms -moderate fever.

Non paralytic illness Headache. nausea and vomiting pain and stiffness of the back and legs Neck rigidity Tripod sign /"Amoss's Sign" Head drop sign Csf ²increase cells & protein .

tremors and diminished deep tendon reflexes precede the flaccid paralysis. Transitory urinary retention and constipation due to autonomic involvement. .Paralytic poliomyelitis Spinal form: sudden paralysis of spinal muscles Muscle pains. hyperesthesia. asymmetrical muscles paralysis Involvement of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles respiratory difficulty.

pharynx and vocal cords. The paralysis of vagus nerve causes the weakness of soft palate. Breathing and swallowing are difficult. . Pooled secretions aspirated into the lungs causing atelectasis and pneumonia. Voice has a nasal tone becomes hoarse.Bulbar and Bulbospinal forms.

respiration become shallow & irregular Spo2 below 92% Damage to vasomotor center cause change in pulse[rapid . BP[ rise & then fall to shock] Skin red & mottled Confused.thready.Respiratory center involved.comatose .weak.delerious.restless anxious.

Diagnosis: History clinical manifestations of asymmetrical flaccid paralysis. Lumbar puncture Viral Isolation .

. Inactivated (Salk) polio vaccine.PREVENTION 1. 2. Oral (Sabin) polio vaccine.

The vaccine should be pink or red in colours. . Opened multiple-dose vials of vaccine can be used for up to 7 days if stored at 2°-8°C.VACCINE STORAGE AND HANDLING It should be maintained at a temperature of O°C (32°F) or lower and may be in either a frozen or liquid state. Unopened vaccine may be used for up to 30 days if stored between 2°-8°C (35°-46°F).

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Scribner's. 1999. Fraiberg S: The Magic Years. 1959. Encounters with Children: Pediatric Behavior and Development. Avon. Faber A. Banarsidas publishers. New York. 1999. Fraiberg. Suraj Gupta (2004) ´Short text book of paediatricsµ. 1959. Faber and Mazlish. Jaypee publishers. . St Louis: Mosby. revised. 2000. K. McIntosh (1998) ´Textbook of Paediatricsµ 5th edition. Pp 71-96. 2000:300-326. 1848-1873. 10th edition. Pp 151-152.BIBLIOGRAPHY: Dixon. Campbell. Mazlish E: How to Talk So Kids Will Listen & Listen So Kids Will Talk. Churchill Livingstone Pp 337-347. Park (2007) ´Textbook of preventive and social medicineµ 19th edition. New York.

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