Duke Ellington/Stride Piano

10 things we will cover today
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 1. Ellington in the 20 s 2. Ellington in the 30 s 3. Ellington in the 40 s 4. Ellington in the 50 s 5. Ellington in the 60 s 6.Ellington in the 70 s 7. James P. Johnson 8. Willie The Lion Smith (Fats Waller) 9. Earl Hines 10. Art Tatum

Dreaming .
‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sg7_Bd4x Tl4&feature=related

Wynton Marsalis:Foreword to Beyond Category;The Life and Genius Of Duke Ellington by John Edward Hasse

‡ Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29, 1899 May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist, and big band leader. ‡ 50 year career ‡ Wrote 1000 pieces ‡ Considered important in elevating jazz to serious music ‡ Preferred to call his music American Music rather than jazz ‡ Composed for his musicians, although some say he stole their ideas and called them his own

‡ Grew up in Washington D.C. ‡ When Ellington was 7, His first piano teacher(TRUE!):Marietta CLINKSCALES!!!!! ‡ While working as a soda jerk, wrote his first piece called Soda Fountain Rag ‡ Was studying art in school, but was also checking out the stride and ragtime pianists of the day

‡ Moved with other musicians to New York for a gig, but the gig ended and the musicians moved back to D.C., feeling discouraged ‡ Had a four year gig at the Hollywood Club from 1923 to 1927 ‡ King Oliver turned down a spot at the Cotton Club, which gave Ellington huge exposure from 1932 to 42 ‡ In 1927 Ellington made a career-advancing agreement with agent-publisher Irving Mills, giving Mills a 45% interest in Ellington's future.

Ellington tunes that Jazz musicians play
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Take The A Train(actually a Billy Strayhorn tune) Sophisticated Lady Caravan Do Nothin Til You Hear from Me It Don t Mean A Thing If It Aint Got That Swing In A Mellow Tone In A Sentimental Mood Prelude To A Kiss

Duke said:
‡ "The writing and playing of music is a matter of intent.... You can't just throw a paint brush against the wall and call whatever happens art. My music fits the tonal personality of the player. I think too strongly in terms of altering my music to fit the performer to be impressed by accidental music. You can't take doodling seriously."

Ken Burns Excerpts
‡ Ken Burns Jazz 02 34:44-38:21 ‡ Ken Burns Jazz 02 1:07:19-1:14:59

Ellington in The 20 s
‡ The Mooche 1928 ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_-IpeU2Su4 ‡ Johnny Hodges (as); Fred Guy (bj); Harry Carney (bars); Wellman Braud (b); Barney Bigard (cl); Sonny Greer (d); Lonnie Johnson (g); Duke Ellington (ldr); Duke Ellington (p); Joe "Tricky Sam" Nanton (tb); Arthur Whetsol, Bubber Miley, Louis Metcalf (tp); Baby Cox (vcl);


‡ Paul Samuel Whiteman (March 28, 1890 December 29, 1967) was an American bandleader and orchestral director. ‡ Whiteman in the history of early jazz is somewhat controversial. ‡ Cons:Whiteman's ornately-orchestrated music was jazz in name only and co-opted the innovations of black musicians. ‡ Pro: Whiteman's fondness for jazz was genuine (he worked with black musicians as much as was feasible during an era of racial segregation) ‡ bands included many of the best white jazz musicians ‡ In his autobiography, Duke Ellington[3] declared, "Paul Whiteman was known as the King of Jazz, and no one as yet has come near carrying that title with more certainty and dignity."

My Blue Heaven
‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFurKUxaf Rk

‡ Jazz? ‡ IMO, having great jazz musicians in your band doesn t make you a great jazz musician. By that logic, Sting would be a jazz musician ..

Ellington in The 30 s
‡ Caravan(1937) ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jkqu5RtVXhw &feature=related ‡ Reminiscing in Tempo Parts 1 and 2 ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsT4XLcrg4 Q&feature=fvsr ‡ Parts 3 and 4 ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qvjuy6CIckU &feature=related

Billy Strayhorn

‡ William Thomas "Billy" Strayhorn (November 29, 1915 May 31, 1967) was an American composer, pianist and arranger, best known for his successful collaboration with bandleader and composer Duke Ellington lasting nearly three decades. His compositions include "Chelsea Bridge", "Take the "A" Train" and "Lush Life

Great Strayhorn tunes
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Lush Life Chelsea Bridge Isfahan Take The A Train Blood Count Upper Manhattan Medical Group Star Crossed Lovers

Lush Life sung by Andy Bey
‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPEkIrgNS iM ‡ Written by Strayhorn when he was 16! ‡ Note this song has a verse and chorus like many of the Tin Pan Alley Tunes

Ellington in The 40 s
‡ Ko Ko (1940) ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clJb8mC4 WzA ‡ Tricky Sam Nanton trombone ‡ Baritone sax-Harry Carney ‡ Bass Jimmy Blanton

Ellington in The 50 s
‡ Duke Ellington at Newport 1956 ‡ From Ken Burns ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNBpMRP fw0A

Ellington in The 60 s
‡ Very Special-from Money Jungle, with Charles Mingus and Max Roach ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cuH6VW82X nM ‡ Angelica-from John Coltrane and Duke Ellington http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nCdYElUaTDE

‡ Ellington wrote many larger works and film scores. Anatomy of a Murder(1959) is one of the best remembered film scores. In the last decade of his life, Duke Ellington wrote three Sacred Concerts: ‡ 1965 - A Concert of Sacred Music ‡ 1968 - Second Sacred Concert ‡ 1973 - Third Sacred Concert ‡ Ellington called these concerts "the most important thing I have ever done". He said many times that he was not trying to compose a "mass." (liturgy). Critic Gary Giddins has characterized these concerts as Ellington bringing the Cotton Club revue to the church.

Excerpt from Sacred Concert 1
‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5j_oK2ocK 0w&feature=related

Ellington in the 70 s
‡ Interview from 1973 ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q9F_hRp wL4M ‡ Alvin Ailey s The River ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwbXZLnPKw

Stride Piano

‡ Harlem Stride Piano, Stride Piano, or just Stride, is a jazz piano style that was developed in the large cities of the East Coast, mainly in the New York, during 1920s and 1930s. The left hand may play a four-beat pulse with a single bass note, octave, seventh or tenth interval on the first and third beats, and a chord on the second and fourth beats. Unlike earlier "St. Louis" pianists, stride players' left hand often leapt greater distances on the keyboard, and they played faster and improvised.

James P Johnson

‡ James P. Johnson; February 1, 1894 November 17, 1955) was an American pianist and composer. A pioneer of the stride style of jazz piano, he along with Jelly Roll Morton, were arguably the two most important pianists who bridged the ragtime and jazz eras, and the two most important catalysts in the evolution of ragtime piano into jazz. As such, he was a model for Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Art Tatum and his more famous pupil, Fats Waller. Johnson composed many hit tunes including the theme song of the Roaring Twenties, "Charleston".

Carolina Shout 1921
‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ENhEVM1 aQNk&feature=related ‡ Johnson retired to St. Albans in Queens and spent the last part of his life writing serious music. He submitted many of his works to major orchestras, but was rejected.

Willie The Lion Smith

‡ William Henry Joseph Bonaparte Bertholoff Smith (23 November 1893 ‡ 18 April 1973), a.k.a. "The Lion", was an American jazz pianist and one of the masters of the stride style, usually grouped with James P. Johnson and Thomas "Fats" Waller as the three greatest practitioners of the genre from its Golden Age, c. 1920 1943.

‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDMOkgS dy3E

Earl Hines

‡ Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl "Fatha" Hines, (December 28, 1903[2] April 22, 1983) was an American jazz pianist. Hines was one of the most influential figures in the development of modern jazz piano and, according to one major source, is "one of a small number of pianists whose playing shaped the history of jazz"

Weatherbird w Louis Armstrong 1929
‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyb_wr40po g Lover Come Back To Me ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z9E4XrY28qg &feature=related ‡ Earl Hines discussing influences with Ralph J Gleason on Jazz Casual ‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hgWvggDY2q A

Art Tatum

‡ Arthur "Art" Tatum, Jr. (October 13, 1909 November 5, 1956) was an American jazz pianist and virtuoso who played with phenomenal facility despite being nearly blind. ‡ Tatum is widely acknowledged as one of the greatest jazz pianists of all time. Critic Scott Yanow wrote, "Tatum's quick reflexes and boundless imagination kept his improvisations filled with fresh (and sometimes futuristic) ideas that put him way ahead of his contemporaries ... Art Tatum's recordings still have the ability to scare modern pianists."

‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNAJlqn0 nO4

Art Tatum .
‡ Was originally from Toledo ‡ Cataracts left him mostly blind, had surgery to improve his condition but an assault made his vision worse ‡ Perfect pitch, could pick out tunes at age 3, had a photographic memory for baseball statistics ‡ Studied classical music

‡ Played mostly standards and arrangements of classical music ‡ Incredible technique and innovative harmonies which influenced many of the bebop musicians ‡ According to Teddy Wilson, Earl Hines was Tatum s favorite

‡ A major event in his meteoric rise to success was his appearance at a cutting contest in 1933 at Morgan's bar in New York City that included Fats Waller, James P Johnson and Willie "The Lion" Smith. Standard contest pieces included Johnson's "Harlem Strut" and "Carolina Shout" and Fats Waller's "Handful of Keys." Tatum triumphed with his arrangements of "Tea for Two" and "Tiger Rag", in a performance that was considered to be the last word in stride piano. James P. Johnson, reminiscing about Tatum's debut afterward, simply said, "When Tatum played Tea For Two that night I guess that was the first time I ever heard it really played."

I Got Rhythm
‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLYT3cPA 5T8&feature=related

Tea For Two
‡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxadblDT 6zI&feature=related

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