Velocity
Resistance
Time
Time
t
U
2
R
1
U
1
R
2
0.63 (R
1
R )
2
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Dynamic response, CCA V
The hotwire response characteristic is specified by:
For a 5 m wire probe in CCA mode t ~ 0.005s, typically.
(Frequency response can be improved by compensation circuit)
(From P.E. Nielsen
and C.G. Rasmussen,
1966)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Dynamic response, CTA I
CTA keeps the wire at constant
temperature, hence the effect of
thermal inertia is greatly reduced:
Time constant is reduced to
t
CTA
= t
CCA
/(2aSRw)
where
a = overheat ratio
S = amplifier gain
Rw = wire hot resistance
Frequency limit:
fc defined as 3dB amplitude
damping
(From Blackwelder 1981)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Dynamic response, CTA II
Typical frequency response of 5 mm wire probe (Amplitude
damping and Phase lag):
Phase lag is reduced by frequency dependent gain (1.2 dB/octave)
(From Dantec MT)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Velocity calibration (Static cal.)
Despite extensive work, no
universal expression to describe
heat transfer from hot wires and
films exist.
For all actual measurements,
direct calibration of the
anemometer is necessary.
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Velocity calibration (Static cal.) II
Calibration in gases (example low turbulent free jet):
Velocity is determined from
isentropic expansion:
P
o
/P = (1+(K )/2M
2
)
K /K )
a
0
= (K P1
0
)
0.5
a = a
o
/(1+(K )/2M
2
)
0.5
U = Ma
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Velocity calibration (Static cal.) III
Film probes in water
 Using a free jet of liquid
issuing from the bottom of
a container
 Towing the probe at a
known velocity in still
liquid
 Using a submerged jet
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Typical calibration curve
Wire probe calibration with curve fit errors
Curve fit (velocity U as function of output voltage E):
U = C
0
+ C
1
E + C
2
E
2
+ C
3
E
3
+ C
4
E
4
(Obtained with Dantec 90H01/02)Calibrator)
4.076
1.731
11.12 18.17
U velocity
25.22 32.27 39.32
1.853
1.975
2.096
2.218
2.340
E1 (v)
E1 v.U
4.076
0.500
11.12 18.17
U velocity
25.22 32.27 39.32
0.300
0.100
0.100
0.300
0.500
Error (%)
Error (%)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Dynamic calibration/tuning I
Direct method
Need a flow in which sinusoidal velocity variations of known
amplitude are superimposed on a constant mean velocity
 Microwave simulation of turbulence (<500 Hz)
 Sound field simulation of turbulence (>500 Hz)
 Vibrating the probe in a laminar flow (<1000Hz)
All methods are difficult and are restricted to low frequencies.
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Dynamic calibration/tuning II
Indirect method, SINUS TEST
Subject the sensor to an electric sine wave which simulates an
instantaneous change in velocity and analyse the amplitude
response.
10
3
10
2
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
10 1
Frequency (Hz)
3 dB
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
m
V
r
m
s
)
1
10
3
10
2
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
10
Frequency (Hz)
3 dB
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
m
V
r
m
s
)
1
Typical Wire probe response Typical Fiber probe response
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Dynamic calibration/tuning III
Indirect method
SQUARE WAVE TEST
Subject the sensor to an
electric sine wave which
simulates an instantaneous
change in velocity and
analyse the shape of the
anemometer output
(From Bruun 1995)
h
0.97 h
0.15 h
t
f
c
=
1.3 t
w
t
w
1
For a wire probe (1order probe response):
Frequency limit ( 3dB damping): f
c
= 1/1.3 t
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Dynamic calibration
Conclusion:
Indirect methods are the only ones applicable in practice.
Sinus test necessary for determination of frequency limit for fiber
and film probes.
Square wave test determines frequency limits for wire probes.
Time taken by the anemometer to rebalance itself is used as a
measure of its frequency response.
Square wave test is primarily used for checking dynamic stability
of CTA at high velocities.
Indirect methods cannot simulate effect of thermal boundary
layers around sensor (which reduces the frequency response).
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Disturbing effects (problem sources)
Anemometer system makes use of heat transfer from the probe
Qc = Nu A (Tw Ta)
Nu = h d/kf = f (Re, Pr, M, Gr, ),
Anything which changes this heat transfer (other than the flow
variable being measured) is a PROBLEM SOURCE!
Unsystematic effects (contamination, air bubbles in water,
probe vibrations, etc.)
Systematic effects (ambient temperature changes, solid wall
proximity, eddy shedding from cylindrical sensors etc.)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem sources
Probe contamination I
Most common sources:
 dust particles
 dirt
 oil vapours
 chemicals
Effects:
 Change flow sensitivity of sensor
(DC drift of calibration curve)
 Reduce frequency response
Cure:
 Clean the sensor
 Recalibrate
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Probe contamination II
Drift due to particle
contamination in air
5 m Wire, 70 m Fiber and
1.2 mm SteelClad Probes
20
10
0
10
20
0 10 20 30 40 50
U (m/s)
(
U
m

U
a
c
t
)
/
U
a
c
t
*
1
0
0
%
wire
f iber
steelclad
(From Jorgensen, 1977)
Wire and fiber exposed to unfiltered air at 40 m/s in 40 hours
Steel Clad probe exposed to outdoor conditions 3 months during
winter conditions
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Probe contamination IV
Low Velocity
 slight effect of dirt on heat transfer
 heat transfer may even increase!
 effect of increased surface vs. insulating effect
High Velocity
 more contact with particles
 bigger problem in laminar flow
 turbulent flow has cleaning effect
Influence of dirt INCREASES as wire diameter DECREASES
Deposition of chemicals INCREASES as wire temperature
INCREASES
* FILTER THE FLOW, CLEAN SENSOR AND RECALIBRATE!
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Probe contamination III
Drift due to particle contamination in water
Output voltage decreases with increasing dirt deposit
0,1
1
10
0,001 0,01 0,1 1
Dirt thicknes versus sensor
diameter, e/D
%
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
theory
f iber
wedge
(From Morrow and Kline 1971)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Bubbles in Liquids I
Drift due to bubbles in water
In liquids, dissolved gases form bubbles on sensor, resulting in:
 reduced heat transfer
 downward calibration drift
(From C.G.Rasmussen 1967)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Bubbles in Liquids II
Effect of bubbling on
portion of typical
calibration curve
Bubble size depends on
 surface tension
 overheat ratio
 velocity
Precautions
 Use low overheat!
 Let liquid stand before use!
 Dont allow liquid to cascade in air!
 Clean sensor!
(From C.G.Rasmussen 1967)
155
e
175 195 cm/sec
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources (solved)
Stability in Liquid Measurements
Fiber probe operated stable in water
 Deionised water (reduces algae growth)
 Filtration (better than 2 m)
 Keeping water temperature constant (within 0.1
o
C)
(From Bruun 1996)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem sources
Eddy shedding I
Eddy shedding from cylindrical sensors
Occurs at Re ~50
Select small sensor diameters/ Low pass filter the signal
(
F
r
o
m
E
c
k
e
l
m
a
n
n
1
9
7
5
)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Eddy shedding II
Vibrations from prongs and probe supports:
 Probe prongs may vibrate due to eddy shedding from them or
due induced vibrations from the surroundings via the probe
support.
 Prongs have natural frequencies from 8 to 20 kHz
Always use stiff and rigid probe mounts.
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Temperature Variations I
Fluctuating fluid temperature
Heat transfer from the probe is proportional to the temperature
difference between fluid and sensor.
E
2
= (TwTa)(A + BU
n
)
As Ta varies:
 heat transfer changes
 fluid properties change
Air measurements:
 limited effect at high overheat ratio
 changes in fluid properties are small
Liquid measurements effected more, because of:
 lower overheats
 stronger effects of T change on fluid properties
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Temperature Variations II
Anemometer output depends on both velocity and
temperature
When ambient temperature increases the velocity is measured too
low, if not corrected for.
Hotwire calibrations at diff. temperatures
1,5
1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9
2,0
2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
T=20
T=25
T=30
T=35
T=40
Relative velocity error for 1C temp. increase
2,7
2,5
2,3
2,1
1,9
1,7
1,5
0 10 20 30 40
Tdif f =10 C
(
F
r
o
m
J
o
e
r
g
e
n
s
e
n
a
n
d
M
o
r
o
t
1
9
9
8
)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Temperature Variations III
Film probe calibrated at different temperatures
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Problem Sources
Temperature Variations IV
To deal with temperature variations:
 Keep the wire temperature fixed (no overheat adjustment),
measure the temperature along and correct anemometer voltage
prior to conversion
 Keep the overheat constant either manually, or automatically
using a second compensating sensor.
 Calibrate over the range of expected temperature and monitor
simultaneously velocity and temperature fluctuations.
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Measurements in 2D Flows I
XARRAY PROBES (measures within 45
o
with respect to probe axis):
Velocity decomposition into the (U,V) probe coordinate system
where U
1
and U
2
in wire coordinate system are found by solving:
U = U1cos
1
+ U2cos
2
V = U1sin
1
 U2sin
2
U
cal1
2
(1+k
1
2
)(cos(90 
1
))
2
= k
1
2
U1
2
+ U2
2
U
cal2
2
(1+k
2
2
)(cos(90 
2
))
2
= U1
2
+ k
2
2
U2
2
U = U1cos
1
+ U2cos
2
V = U1sin
1
 U2sin
2
U
cal1
2
(1+k
1
2
)(cos(90 
1
))
2
= k
1
2
U1
2
+ U2
2
U
cal2
2
(1+k
2
2
)(cos(90 
2
))
2
= U1
2
+ k
2
2
U2
2
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Measurements in 2D Flows II
Directional calibration provides yaw coefficients k
1
and k
2
(Obtained with Dantec 55P51 Xprobe and 55H01/H02 Calibrator)
40.00
34.68
29.14
23.59
18.04
12.49
6.945
24.00 8.000 8.000
Angle (deg)
Uc1,Uc2 vs. Angle
Uc1,Uc2
24.00 40.00 40.00
3.000
0.600
0.200
0.200
0.600
1.000
24.00 8.000 8.000
Angle (deg)
K1,K2 vs. Angle
K1,K2
24.00 40.00
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Measurements in 3D Flows I
TRIAXIAL PROBES (measures within 70
o
cone around probe axis):
Probe stem
45
55
35
3
1
z
x
35
2
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Measurements in 3D Flows II
Velocity decomposition into the (U,V,W) probe coordinate system
where U
1 ,
U
2
and U
3
in wire coordinate system are found by solving:
left hand sides are effective cooling velocities. Yaw and pitch
coefficients are determined by directional calibration.
U = U
1
cos54.74
r
+ U
2
cos54.
r
74
r
+ U
3
cos54.74
r
V = U
1
cos45
r
 U
2
cos135
r
+ U
3
cos90
r
W = U
1
cos114.09
r
 U
2
cos114.09
r
 U
3
cos35.26
r
U
1cal
2
(1+k
1
2
+h
1
2
) cos
2
35.264
r
= k
1
2
U
1
2
+ U
2
2
+ h
1
2
U
3
2
U
2cal
2
(1+k
2
2
+h
2
2
)cos
2
35.264
r
= h
2
2
U
1
2
+ k
2
2
U
2
2
+ U
3
2
U
3cal
2
(1+k
3
2
+h
3
2
)cos
2
35.264
r
= U
1
2
+ h
3
2
U
2
2
+ k
3
2
U
3
2
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Measurements in 3D Flows III
U, V and W measured by Triaxial probe, when rotated around
its axis. Inclination between flow and probe axis is 20
o
.
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
Roll angle.
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
,
m
/
s
Umeas
Vmeas
Wmeas
Res,meas
Uact
Vact
Wact
Res,act
0,15
0,10
0,05
0,00
0,05
0,10
0,15
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Roll angle
M
e
a
s
.

A
c
t
.
v
e
l
.
,
m
/
s
UpUact
VpVact
WpWact
(Obtained with Dantec Triaxial probe 55P91 and 55H01/02 Calibrator)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Measurement at Varying Temperature
Temperature Correction I
E
corr
= ((T
w
 T
ref
)/(T
w
 T
acq
))
0.5(1m)
E
acq.
Recommended temperature correction:
Keep sensor temperature constant, measure temperature and
correct voltages or calibration constants.
I) Output Voltage is corrected before conversion into velocity
 This gives undercompensation of approx. 0.4%/C in velocity.
Improved correction:
Selecting proper m (m= 0.2 typically for wire probe at a = 0.8) improves
compensation to better than 0.05%/C.
E
corr
= ((T
w
 T
ref
)/(T
w
 T
acq
))
0.5
E
acq.
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Measurement at Varying Temperature
Temperature Correction II
Temperature correction in liquids may require correction
of power law constants A and B:
In this case the voltage is not corrected
A
corr
= (((T
w
T
o
)/(T
w
T
acq
))
(1m)
(k
f0
/k
f1
)(Pr
f0
/Pr
f1
)
0.2
A
0
B
corr
= ((T
w
T
o
)/(T
w
T
acq
))
(1m)
(k
f0
/k
f1
)(Pr
f0
/Pr
f1
)
0.33
(
f1
/
f0
)n(
p
f0
/
p
f1
)
n
B
0
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Data acquisition I
Data acquisition, conversion and reduction:
Requires digital processing based on
 Selection of proper A/D board
 Signal conditioning
 Proper sampling rate and number of samples
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Data acquisition II
Resolution:
 Min. 12 bit (~12 mV depending on range)
Sampling rate:
 Min. 100 kHz (allows 3D probes to be sampled with approx. 30 kHz
per sensor)
Simultaneous sampling:
 Recommended (if not sampled simultaneously there will be phase
lag between sensors of 2 and 3D probes)
External triggering:
Recommended (allows sampling to be started by external event)
A/D boards convert analogue signals into digital information (numbers)
They have following main characteristics:
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Data acquisition III
Signal Conditioning of anemometer output
Increases the AC part of the anemometer output and improves
resolution:
E
G
(t) = G(E(t)  E
off
)
Allows filtering of anemometer
 Low pass filtering is recommended
 High pass filtering may cause phase distortion of the signal
(From Bruun 1995)
Anemometer
E(1)
E(t)E
off
G(E(t)E
off
)
t
t
t
E
G
Offset Amplifier
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Data acquisition IV
Sample rate and number of samples
Time domain statistics (spectra) require sampling 2 times the
highest frequency in the flow
Amplitude domain statistics (moments) require uncorrelated
samples. Sampling interval min. 2 times integral time scale.
Number of samples shall be sufficient to provide stable
statistics (often several thousand samples are required)
Proper choice requires some knowledge about the flow
aforehand
It is recommended to try to make autocorrelation and power
spectra at first as basis for the choice
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Purdue University  School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
CTA Anemometry
Steps needed to get good measurements:
Get an idea of the flow (velocity range, dimensions, frequency)
Select right probe and anemometer configuration
Select proper A/D board
Perform setup (hardware setup, velocity calibration, directional
calibration)
Make a first rough verification of the assumptions about the flow
Define experiment (traverse, sampling frequency and number of
samples)
Perform the experiment
Reduce the data (moments, spectra, correlations)
Evaluate results
Recalibrate to make sure that the anemometer/probe has not drifted