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History Introduction to LTE LTE specification MIMO and different input output schemes OFDMA and SC-FDMA


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The 0th generation ( 0G). The first generation (1G) analog systems The second generation (2G) digital systems. The Third generation (3G) systems. The Fourth generation (4G) systems.


Ö 4 . through operator Ö IMTS improved MTS.× Mobile radio telephoneTechniques: PTT : Push To Talk Ö MTS: Mobile Telephone Services. no operator Ö AMTS ± Advanced Mobile Telephone System.

× × × Wireless telephone technology Voice during call was modulated @ 150 MHz carrier using Analog modulation. Standards NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephony AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone Systems NTT: Nippon Telegraph and Telephone TACS: Total Access Communication Systems 5 .

× × Digital encrypting of all telephone calls Launched ³SMS´ data services for mobile More efficient 2 techniques: TDMA and CDMA × × 6 .

2G systems ± ‡ GSM ‡ CDMA 2G systems were primarily designed ‡ To support voice communication ‡ Data transmission 7 .

× × × TDM CDMA FDM 8 .

with the special point that instead of having one transmitter connected to one receiver. there are multiple transmitters GSM.× × × Channel access method for shared medium networks TDMA is a type of Time-division multiplexing.PDC and IDEN 9 .

5 G Packet data transport with enhanced speed -2.× × × × × × Digital. circuit switching with full duplex voice telephony ± 2G Circuit switched data transport Improved Packet data transport via GPRS ± 2.75 G TDMA and FDMA GMSK Gaussian minimum-shift keying 10 .

Peak bit-rates of up to 1Mbit/s and typical bit-rates of 400kbit/s can be expected. to complement High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) 11 .g.× × × × × × × Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) Pre-3G radio technology Improved data transmission rates. Evolved EDGE continues in Release 7 of the 3GPP standard providing reduced latency and more than doubled performance e. backward-compatible extension of GSM threefold increase in capacity and performance compared with an ordinary GSM/GPRS connection.

cdma 2000 3x 12 . cdma 2000 1x . Standards: cdmaOne. since the modulated coded signal has a much higher data bandwidth than the data being communicated.× × × Allows several transmitters to send information simultaneously over a single communication channel CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum signalling.

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In 2. × 2G Ö Ö Ö 15 . We can contact within premises of nation .5G packet data service is available but slow data rates. No roaming More clarity to the conversation and can send SMS. No packet data transmission.× 1G Ö Ö Narrow band analogue Network so only voice calls. GPRS is not available .

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× × The ITU-R initiative on IMT-2000 (international mobile telecommunications 2000) paved the way for evolution to 3G. 17 . respectively) to develop IMT-2000 compliant standards based on the CDMA technology. × Both GSM and CDMA standards formed their own separate 3G partnership projects (3GPP and 3GPP2. Requirements Ö peak data rate of 2 Mb/s and support for vehicular mobility were published under IMT-2000 initiative.

25MHz bandwidth.25MHz subcarriers referred to as cdma2000-3x. × CDMA ( 3GPP2 )Ö Ö 5MHz version supporting three 1. CDMA2000 and it uses 1.× GSM 3G (3GPP )Ö Wideband CDMA(WCDMA) because it uses a larger 5MHz bandwidth. 18 .

19 . Ö Ö HRPD requires a separate 1. So it is referred to as cdma-1x EVDO system.× Problems with 3G Ö 3G standards did not fulfil its promise of high-speed data transmissions as the data rates supported in practice were much lower than that claimed in the standards.25Mhz for data transmission and no voice service. × The 3GPP2 first introduced the HRPD (high rate packet data) system that supported high speed data transmission.

20 .× The 3GPP introduced HSPA (high speed packet access) enhancement to the WCDMA system. Ö A difference relative to HRPD. however. is that both voice and data can be carried on the same 5MHz carrier in HSPA.




× WIMAX ± Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö IEEE 802 LMSC(LAN/MAN Standard Committee) introduced the IEEE 802. Technology .16 standard for fixed broadband wireless access.OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access) Better data rates and spectral efficiency than that provided by HSPA and HRPD. Known as WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) . 24 .16e standard for mobile broadband wireless access. Enhancement to an earlier IEEE 802.

The beyond 3G system in 3GPP is called evolved universal terrestrial radio access (evolved UTRA) and is also widely referred to as LTE (Long-Term Evolution) while 3GPP2¶s version is called UMB (ultra mobile broadband).× × The introduction of Mobile WiMAX led both 3GPP and 3GPP2 to develop their own version of beyond 3G systems based on the OFDMA technology and network architecture similar to that in Mobile WiMAX. 25 .

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The goal of LTE ± Ö High-data-rate. LTE system supports flexible bandwidth.× × LTE is also known as Long Term Evolution and it is considered a system beyond existing 3G systems. Because of OFDMA and SC-FDMA access schemes. Ö In LTE . low-latency and packet-optimized radio access technology supporting flexible bandwidth deployments. Ö 27 . uplink access is based on SC-FDMA and downlink access is based on OFDMA.

on the core network side.4MHz up to 20MHz as well as both FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex). LTE architecture is referred to as EPS and comprises the E-UTRAN on the access side and EPC via SAE .× × LTE supports flexible carrier bandwidths. from 1. 28 .

It has great advantage where there is asymmetry between uplink and downlink data rates. User is able to send and receive data at same time. Uplink and downlink sub-bands are separated by the frequency offset. It uses TDM to separate transmitted and received signal.× FDD Ö Ö Ö FDD means transmitter and receiver operates at different frequency. 29 × TDD Ö Ö .

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Increased downlink and uplink peak data rates. Scalable channel bandwidths of 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz in both the uplink and the downlink. Spectral efficiency improvements. Sub-5 ms latency for small internet protocol (IP) packets. Optimized Performance.



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Ö Single transmitter . Ö 36 . Ö × SIMO ± Single transmitter . Ö The transmitters send the same underlying user data. multiple receiver.× SISO ± Standard transmission mode. single receiver. Ö It aids received data integrity . where signal to noise ratio is poor due to multipath fading. single receiver. but in different parts of the RF frequency space. Ö × MISO ± Multiple transmitter .

MIMO is also known as spatial multiplexing. Multiple antennas improve capacity. 37 .× × × × × Multiple transmitter . MIMO is required to increase high band width application such as streaming video. LTE provides multiple access and that is explained using concept of MIMO. multiple receiver.

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Due to low symbol rate. Each sub-carrier is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme such as QAM or PSK at a lower rate.× OFDMA ± Ö It is FDM used as a digital multi carrier modulation method. Ö Ö Ö The data is divided into several parallel data channels. guard interval can be provided between symbols and hence ISI can be eliminated. 39 . Total data rates similar to single carrier modulation schemes in the same bandwidth. A large number of closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers are used to carry data.

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Ö A prominent advantage of SC-FDMA over OFDMA is that its transmit signal has a lower peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Ö In SC-FDMA.× SC-FDMA ± Ö SC-FDMA can be interpreted as a linearly precoded OFDMA scheme. multiple access among users is made possible by assigning different benefits the mobile terminal in terms of transmit power efficiency. different sets of non-overlapping Fourier-coefficients (sub-carriers). Ö Due to low PAPR . in the sense that it has an additional DFT processing preceding the conventional OFDMA processing. 41 .

× × × In LTE . OFDMA scheme is used for downlink access. The basic principle of OFDM is to divide the available spectrum into narrowband parallel channels referred to as subcarriers and transmit information on these parallel channels at a reduced signalling rate. The name OFDM comes from the fact that the frequency responses of the sub channels are overlapping and orthogonal. 42 .

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Lack of flexible bandwidth support as bandwidths supported can only be multiples of 5MHz and also bandwidths smaller than 5MHz cannot be supported. Difficult to employ multiple 5MHz WCDMA carriers to support 10 and 20MHz bandwidths.× × × The multi-path interference problem of WCDMA increases for larger bandwidths such as 10MHz ± 20MHz required by LTE. 44 .

SC-FDMA enables a lower peak-to-average ratio (PAR) to conserve battery life in mobile devices. SC-FDMA scheme is used for uplink access. 45 .× × × In LTE . Single-carrier FDMA scheme provides orthogonal access to multiple users simultaneously accessing the system.

× Uplink transmissions should be of low peak signal due to the limited transmission power at the user equipment (UE). 46 .

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× × × × Introduction LTE Architecture and Network LTE Radio Interface Architecture and different parameters MIMO Spatial Multiplexing 49 .

× Things which we have covered in review-1 Ö Basic Introduction of 1G.2.75G.2.2G.3G and 4G. Ö Introduction of LTE Ö LTE attributes Ö LTE uplink and downlink 50 .5G.

Supporting packetswitched traffic with seamless mobility Quality of service (QoS) Minimal latency 51 .The LTE network architecture is designed with the following goals.

× LTE encompasses the evolution of: Ö The radio access through the E-UTRAN Ö The non-radio aspects under the term System Architecture Evolution (SAE) Ö Entire system composed of both E-UTRAN and SAE is called the Evolved Packet System (EPS) 52 .

53 . called Evolved Packet Core (EPC) in SAE Ö Access network (E-UTRAN) CN is responsible for overall control of UE and establishment of the bearers.× × × The LTE network is comprised of: Ö Core Network (CN). A bearer is an IP packet flow with a defined QoS (Quality of service) between the gateway and the User Terminal (UE).

× × × The LTE network is comprised of: Ö Core Network (CN). called Evolved Packet Core (EPC) in SAE Ö Access network (E-UTRAN) CN is responsible for overall control of UE and establishment of the bearers. 54 . A bearer is an IP packet flow with a defined QoS (Quality of service) between the gateway and the User Terminal (UE).

such: Ö Home Subscriber Server (HSS) Ö Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) E-UTRAN solely contains the evolved base stations.× × × Main logical nodes in EPC are: Ö PDN Gateway (P-GW) Ö Serving Gateway (S-GW) Ö Mobility Management Entity (MME) EPC also includes other nodes and functions. called Ö eNodeB or eNB 55 .

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59 . The S1 interface supports a many-to-many relationship between MME/GW and eNBs.× × × × All the network interfaces are based on IP protocols. The functional split between eNB and MME/GW is shown in following figure. The eNBs are interconnected by means of an X2 interface and to the MME/GW entity by means of an S1 interface.

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The MME is a signaling only entity and hence user IP packets do not go through MME. The P-GW also performs several IP functions such as address allocation.× × × × The S-GW acts as a local mobility anchor forwarding and receiving packets to and from the eNB serving the UE. 61 . An advantage of a separate network entity for signaling is that the network capacity for signaling and traffic can grow independently. packet filtering and routing. The P-GW interfaces with external packet data networks (PDNs) such as the Internet and the IMS.

× × × × × × Radio resource management IP header compression and encryption Selection of MME at UE attachment Routing of user plane data towards S-GW Scheduling and transmission of paging messages and broadcast information Measurement and measurement reporting configuration for mobility and scheduling 62 .

authentication Security negotiations.× × × × × × × Non-access stratum (NAS) signaling and NAS signaling security Access stratum (AS) security control Idle state mobility handling EPS bearer control Roaming. Authorization and P-GW/S-GW selection 63 .

× × × Mobility anchor point for inter eNB handovers Termination of user-plane packets for paging reasons Switching of user plane for UE mobility 64 .

Now we will see about LTE Radio Interface and its architecture. 65 .× × × UE IP address allocation Per-user-based packet filtering Lawful interception Ö This was all about functions of different components in LTE architecture.

Control plane protocol User plane Protocol 66 .

× × × IP packets are passed through multiple protocol entities: Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) Ö IP header compression based on Robust Header Compression(ROHC) Ö Ciphering and integrity protection of transmitted data Radio Link Control (RLC) Ö Segmentation/Concatenation Ö Retransmission handling Ö In-sequence delivery to higher layers 67 .

× × Medium Access Control (MAC) Ö Handles hybrid-ARQ retransmissions Ö Uplink and Downlink scheduling at the eNodeB Physical Layer (PHY) Ö Coding/Decoding Ö Modulation/Demodulation (OFDM) Ö Multi-antenna mapping Ö Other typical physical layer functions 68 .

× × × RLC offers services to PDCP in the form of radio bearers MAC offers services to RLC in the form of logical channels PHY offers services to MAC in the form of transport channels 69 .

It includes Radio Access Modes Transmission Bandwidth Supported Frequency Bands Peak single user data rates and UE capabilities 70 .

The LTE air interface also supports the multimedia broadcast and multicast service (MBMS) 71 .× LTE air interface supports Ö Ö FDD and TDD Another mode half duplex FDD. × × Half-duplex FDD allows the sharing of hardware between the uplink and downlink since the uplink and downlink are never used simultaneously.

with subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz. An RB is 180 kHz wide and lasts for one 0.5 kHz is also possible.4 to 20 MHz. Thus involving FDD as well as TDD. The smallest amount of resource that can be allocated in the uplink or downlink is called a resource block (RB). A subcarrier spacing of 7.5 ms timeslot.× × × LTE specifications include variable channel bandwidths selectable from 1. 72 . Subcarrier spacing is constant regardless of the channel bandwidth.

and TDD requires a single band as uplink and downlink are on the same frequency but time separated.× × × The LTE specifications inherit all the frequency bands defined for UMTS. 73 . Frequency bands for FDD duplex mode and TDD duplex mode is shown in following figure. In some cases these bands may overlap. one of the uplink and one for the downlink. FDD spectrum requires pair bands. there are different LTE band allocations for TDD and FDD. As a result.

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4 Mbps on the uplink These rates represent the absolute maximum the system could support and actual peak data rates will be scaled back by the introduction of UE categories.× × The estimated peak data rates feasible in ideal conditions Ö 100 to 326.4 Mbps on the downlink Ö 50 to 86. 76 . A UE category puts limits on what has to be supported.

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Mimo spatial multiplexing 78 .

79 . Multiple antennas improve capacity.× × × × × Multiple transmitter . MIMO is required to increase high band width application such as streaming video. MIMO is also known as spatial multiplexing. As we have seen in the attributes of LTE that LTE provides multiple access and that is explained using concept of MIMO. multiple receiver.

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from each of the multiple transmit antennas.× × × × Spatial multiplexing is a transmission technique in MIMO Wireless Communication. The space dimension is reused. more than one time. Nr ) 81 . the maximum spatial multiplexing order (the number of streams) is N(s)=min(Nt. Purpose: transmit independent and separately encoded data signals. If the transmitter is equipped with Nt antennas and the receiver has Nr antennas. so-called streams.





In an Open loop MIMO system with Nt transmitter antennas and Nr receiver antennas, the input-output relationship can be described as y=Hx+n is Nt x 1 vector of transmitted symbols y , n are the Nr x 1 vectors of received symbols & noise H is the Nr x Nt matrix of channel coefficients.




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A closed-loop MIMO system utilizes Channel State Information (CSI) at the transmitter. In a closed-loop MIMO system the input-output relationship with a closed-loop approach can be described as y = HWs+n is Ns x 1 vector of transmitted symbols . y,n are the Nr x 1 vectors of received symbols and noise H is the Nr x Nt matrix of channel coefficients W is the Nt xNs linear precoding matrix.


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In order that data can be transported across the LTE radio interface. 86 . These are used to segregate the different types of data and allow them to be transported across the radio access network in an orderly fashion. various "channels" are used.

Logical channels: Provide services for the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer within the LTE protocol structure. Transport channels: The physical layer transport channels offer information transfer to Medium Access Control (MAC) and higher layers. 87 .× × × Physical channels: These are transmission channels that carry user data and control messages.

× × × × × × × Downlink: Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH): This physical channel carries system information for UEs requiring to access the network. Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) : As the name implies. 88 . Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) : This physical channel carries system information for multicast purposes. Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) : This provides information to enable the UEs to decode the PDSCH. Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) : The main purpose of this physical channel is to carry mainly scheduling information. Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) : This channel is used for unicast and paging functions. this channel is used to report the Hybrid ARQ status.

× × × Uplink: Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) : Sends Hybrid ARQ acknowledgement Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) : This physical channel found on the LTE uplink is the Uplink counterpart of PDSCH Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) : This uplink physical channel is used for random access functions. 89 .

Paging Channel (PCH) : To convey the PCCH Multicast Channel (MCH) : This transport channel is used to transmit MCCH information to set up multicast transmissions. Downlink: Broadcast Channel (BCH) : The LTE transport channel maps to Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) : This transport channel is the main channel for downlink data transfer.× × × × Physical layer transport channels offer information transfer to medium access control (MAC) and higher layers. 90 . It is used by many logical channels.

91 .× Uplink: Ö Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH) : This transport channel is the main channel for uplink data transfer. It is used by many logical channels. Ö Random Access Channel (RACH) : This is used for random access requirements.

e.g. for actions including setting up a connection. e.g. Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) : This control channel is used for Information needed for multicast reception. Common Control Channel (CCCH) : This channel is used for random access information. for controlling actions including power control.× × × × × Control channels: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) : This control channel provides system information to all mobile terminals connected to the eNodeB.. Paging Control Channel (PCCH) : This control channel is used for paging information when searching a unit on a network. handover. etc. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) : This control channel is used for carrying user-specific control information. 92 .

93 .× × Traffic channels: Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) : This traffic channel is used for the transmission of user data. Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) : This channel is used for the transmission of multicast data.

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Simon Fraser University 96 .A Tutorial by Ahmed Hamza.wikipedia. Network Systems Long Term Evolution (LTE) . Agilent EEsof EDA En.× × × × LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband by Farooq Khan LTE-Advanced Signal Generation and Measurement Using System Vue Application Note By Jinbiao Xu.

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× × × × × × × Introduction of WiMAX Back Ground How WIMAX works ? WIMAX feature Advantages of WIMAX Channel Access Comparison of LTE and WIMAX 98 .

Defines deployment of broadband wireless metropolitan area networks. Promises high data rates and wide coverage at low cost. Allows accessing broadband Internet even while moving at vehicular speeds of up to 125 km/h. Both fixed and mobile broadband wireless Internet access. 99 .× × × × Emerging technology for broadband wireless access.

The WiMAX Forum is developing mobile WiMAX system profiles that define the mandatory and optional features of the IEEE standard that are necessary to build a mobile WiMAX compliant air interface which can be certified by the WiMAX Forum.16e-2005 airinterface standards. 100 .16-2004 and IEEE 802.× × IEEE 802.

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16-2004) ‡ Mobile(IEEE 802.16e-2005) 102 .Types of WIMAX ‡ Fixed (IEEE 802.

WiMAX Forum CertifiedŒ means a service provider can buy equipment from more than one company and be confident that everything works together. It is doing this through developing conformance and interoperability test plans and certification program.× × × It is a non-profit industry body dedicated to promoting the adoption of this technology and ensuring that different vendors¶ products will interoperate. 103 .

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DSL and cable modem. Broadband Wireless Access ) point-to-point (PTP) telecommunications point-to-multipoint (PMP) telecommunications 105 .Channel ( TDM ± FDM ) Access network Internet access (Dial-up.

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107 . WiMAX base station is mounted on a tower.× × × × WiMAX network consists of Ö WiMAX base station Ö Multiple WiMAX subscriber stations (fixed or mobile). WiMAX base station on the tower is physically wired to the Internet service provider's (ISP) network through fibre optic cables. WiMAX subscriber station is a WiMAX customer premise equipment (CPE) that is located inside the house.

108 .× × × OFDMA High Data Rates: Ö Peak downlink (DL) data rates up to 128 Mbps Ö Peak uplink (UL) data rates up to 56 Mbps Quality of Service (QoS): Ö Fundamental premise of the IEEE 802.16 architecture is QoS.

109 . Security: Ö Most advanced security features Ö Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) based authentication.× × Scalability : Ö It utilizes scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) and has the capability to operate in scalable bandwidths from 1.25 to 20 MHz to comply with various spectrum allocations worldwide. and Cipherbased Message Authentication Code (CMAC) and Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) based control message protection schemes. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) based authenticated encryption.

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× × × Uplink and Downlink Transmissions Duplexing TDD and FDD 111 .

112 . Transmission from subscriber station to base station is called uplink transmission. Downlink uses Time Division Multiplexing (TDM).× × × × Transmission from base station to subscriber stations is called downlink transmission. Uplink uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).

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WiMAX is standards-based. high capacity at low cost WiMAX enjoys a wide industry support WiMAX being a wireless technology. (IEEE) 114 .× × × × × WiMAX provides broadband speeds for voice. and video applications WiMAX provides wide coverage. dig trenches and lay cables. data. costs less because there is no need for service providers to purchase rights-of-way.

and because it is cost-effective.× × WiMAX can be used for fixed and mobile broadband Internet access for data and voice using VoIP (Voiceover-IP) technology. 115 . This helps in bringing wireless broadband to the masses and to bridge the digital divide that exists especially in developing and underdeveloped countries. it is easier to extend broadband Internet access to suburban and rural areas. Because WiMAX is based on wireless technology.

3. 4. 2. VOIP and Video Conference Streaming Media Web Browsing and Instant Messaging Media Content Downloads 116 . 5. According to WiMax Forum it supports 5 classes of applications: Multi-player Interactive Gaming.× 1.

Comparison of LTE-WiMAX 117 .

118 . IEEE standard 802.× × × Both LTE and WiMAX both are considered to be standards for 4G mobile communication.16. LTE is the most recent in the line of the GSM broadband network evolvement. WiMAX evolved from a Wi-Fi. IP-based background.

Both use orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) in the downlink. 119 .1. on the other hand. LTE. organizes the available spectrum into smaller chunks. But WiMax optimizes for maximum channel usage by processing all the information in a wide channel.

while WiMax sticks with OFDMA. 120 .16e standard and the LTE standard support FDD and TDD.2. 3. LTE uses single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) for uplink signalling. A major problem with OFDM-based systems is their high peak-to-average power ratios. LTE seems to be heading in the FDD direction because it is true full-duplex operation: Adjacent channels are used for uplink and downlink. Although both the IEEE 802. WiMax implementations are predominantly TDD. LTE opted for the SC-FDMA specifically to boost PA efficiency.

0 802.16m IP e2e Network 3GPP 121 HSPA Rel-6 HSPA+ Rel-7 & Rel-8 IMTAdvanced Ckt Switched Network LTE & LTE Advanced Mobile WiMAX time to market advantage IP e2e Network CDMA-Based OFDMA-Based 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 121 .16e-2005 Rel 1.0 802.5 802.16e Rev 2 Rel 2.Mobile WiMAX Rel 1.

2x2.5 FDD and TDD 2500 MHz Up to 20 MHz OFDMA SC-FDMA 1. 4x4 UL: 1x2.64 bps/Hz/Sector (1x2) SIMO2 Target: Up to 350 km/hr 1 millisec Incremental Redundancy Typically limited by Mobile Device DL: 2x2. 4x4 UL: 1x2. 2x2. 2x4.99 bps/Hz/Sector (1x2) SIMO Up to 120 km/hr 5 millisec Chase Combining Typically limited by Mobile Device DL: 2x2.Parameter Duplex Frequency Band for Performance Analysis Channel BW Downlink Uplink DL Spectral Efficiency1 UL Spectral Efficiency1 Mobility Support Frame Size HARQ Link Budget Advanced Antenna Support LTE FDD and TDD 2000 MHz Mobile WiMAX Rel 1. 2x4 122 . 4x2. 2x4. 1x4. 2x4 Up to 20 MHz OFDMA OFDMA 1. 4x2.57 bps/Hz/Sector (2x2) MIMO2 0.59 bps/Hz/Sector (2x2) MIMO 0. 1x4.

Srinath (Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology Madras) WiMAX INTRODUCTION by Paul DeBeasi Introduction to mobile WiMAX Radio Access Technology by Dr. Sassan Ahmadi (Wireless Standards and Technology. Intel Corporation) 123 .× × × × Introduction to WiMax and Broadband Access Technologies By M.An Introduction by N. Farhad Hussain WiMAX .

124 .

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