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Direct strength analysis is a FE based strength check of the vessel Direct strength analysis is to be performed for all cargo

hold regions of the vessel Objective of analysis is to verify that

 The stress levels in all the structural members are within the acceptance criteria for yielding  Buckling capability of plates and stiffened panels are within the acceptance criteria for bucking  Fatigue capacity of structural details is within the acceptance criteria as defined in Ch 9

DSA procedure as per HCSR is divided in to 3 partsPart 1: Cargo hold analysis for the strength assessment of  Longitudinal hull girder structural members
Primary supporting structural members Bulkheads

Part 2: Detailed stress assessment of local structural details Part 3: Very fine mesh stress assessment for fatigue check

Objective Objective of Cargo hold strength analysis is to check the strength adequacy (both yielding and buckling) of  Longitudinal hull girder structural members
Primary supporting structural members Bulkheads

Areas of application Cargo hold strength analysis is to be performed for all the cargo holds of the vessel

    

Entire cargo hold region is distributed in 5 categories


Holds in midship cargo region Holds in afterward cargo hold region Holds in fwd cargo hold region Aftmost cargo hold Foremost cargo hold

Procedure Cargo hold strength analysis is to be performed in following steps-

 Modeling and meshing  Applying Boundary conditions at the ends of model  Application of local loads upon the model  Application of global loads upon model  Solution  Result extraction and check for yielding and buckling criteria

Extent of model 1. Longitudinal extent


 For holds except for foremost and aftmost cargo holds 3-hold modeling is to be done (one cargo hold aft and one cargo hold fwd of the hold to be assessed)  Trans Bulkheads at the ends of (along with stools, if any) the model are to be included  Trans frames at ends of the model also need to be included

Extent of model 1. Longitudinal extent


 For the Foremost and the Aftermost cargo holds, these cargo holds are to be located at middle of the FE model with the extension at the both sides as followingo Foremost cargo hold: from the aft bulkhead of the cargo hold no. 2 to ship's fore end Aftermost cargo hold: from the aft most bulkhead of the engine room to the forward bulkhead of previous cargo hold

Extent of model 1. Transverse extent


 Both port and starboard side are to be modeled

2. Vertical extent
 The full depth of the ship is to be modeled including primary supporting members above upper deck, trunks and/or cargo hatch coaming  The superstructure and the bulwark are not required to be included in the model

Finite Element Types


4 noded Shell elements are to be used to represent plates Stiffeners to be modeled with eccentricity using beam elements having axial, torsional, bi-directional shear and bending stiffness.

Structures to be modeled
All main longitudinal and transverse structural elements like inner and outer shell, double bottom floor and girder system, transverse and vertical web frames, stringers and transverse and longitudinal bulkhead structures are to be modeled All plates and stiffeners on the structure, including web stiffeners, are to be modeled. Brackets which contribute to primary supporting member strength and the size of which is not less than the typical mesh size

Openings ho/h < 0.5 ho/h 0.5 or or go < 2.0 opening need not to be modeled go 2.0 opening to be modeled

ho

lo tw-net50

lo

ho tw-net50

Mesh Size
One element between every longitudinal stiffener Longitudinally, the element length is not to be greater than 2 longitudinal spaces with a minimum of three elements between primary supporting members. At least three elements over the depth of double bottom girders, floors, transverse web frames, vertical web frames and horizontal stringers on transverse bulkheads.
S

Mesh Size
For a single side bulk carrier, one element over the depth of side frames is acceptable. The mesh on the hopper tank web frame and the topside web frame shall be fine enough to represent the shape of the web ring openings

Aspect Ratio The aspect ratio of the plate elements is not to exceed 3. The use of triangular plate elements is to be kept to a minimum. Where possible, the aspect ratio of plate elements in areas where there are likely to be high stresses or a high stress gradient is to be kept close to one and the use of triangular elements is to be avoided Net Scantling For cargo hold FE analyses, local fine mesh FE analysis and very fine mesh FE analyses, corrosion addition of 0.5tc are to be applied All buckling capacity assessment are to be based on corrosion addition of tc

Boundary conditions at the model ends except foremost and aftmost cargo hold models
Location
x

Translation
y z x

Rotation
y z

Aft End Cross section Independent point Cross section Fore End Cross section Independent point Intersection of centerline and inner bottom Cross section where: [-] means no constraint applied (free). Fix End beam Rigid link Fix Rigid link Fix Rigid link Fix Rigid link Fix Rigid link Fix Rigid link MT-end End beam -

Boundary conditions at the model ends for foremost and aftmost cargo hold models Foremost cargo hold
Location
x

Aftmost cargo hold


Rotation Translation
z

Translation
y z x

Rotation
z x y z

Location
x y

Aft End Cross section Independent point Intersection of centerline and inner bottom Cross section Fore End 1) Cross section Fix End beam Rigid link Fix Rigid link Fix Rigid link Fix Cross section Independent point Intersection of centerline and inner bottom Cross section Fix Rigid link Fix Rigid link Fix Rigid link MT-end Aft End Cross section Independent point Cross section Fore End -

Rigid link Fix

Rigid link Fix

Rigid link MT-end

End beam

Independent point Cross section End beam where: [-] means no constraint applied (free). Note: 1) Boundary constraints in Fore End shall be located at the most fore ward, relatively stiff cross section (e.g. web frame) in the ships fore end area. The contour of the side shell at Fore End cross section is to be continous from the base line to the strength deck.

Rigid link Fix

Rigid link Fix

Rigid link Fix

End beam

where: [-] means no constraint applied (free).

End Constraint Beams

Iyy-n50 = Izz-n50 = Ixx-n50(J) = 1/25 of IYY of hull girder section at the model end Ay-n50 and Az-n50 = 1/10 of the bottom plating end cross-sectional areas based on the net FE model. The properties of beams are calculated at fore and aft sections separately All beams at each end section should have identical sectional properties

Load combinations for FE analysis applicable to bulk carriers midship holds in alternate condition of BC-A (mid-hold is empty hold)

Types of local loads to be applied over model areWeight of the 3-hold structure is to be considered. Standard density of steel is to be taken 7.85 t/m3 External Sea Pressure Internal liquid pressure Internal dry cargo pressure Internal shear load due to dry cargo in holds External pressures on exposed decks All the local loads are to be applied for S+D scenario except for harbour and tank testing conditions

Target vertical hull girder bending moment Mv-targ is to be taken as For hold in midship (0.4 L) region Max combination of Msw-i and Mwv-LC at 0.5 L from AP, to be achieved in mid hold For the holds in other regions Combination of Msw-i and Mwv-LC at all transverse loc and BHDs of thef mid hold
m

1.0

x
0.0 AE 0.4L 0.65L 1.0L FP

Target vertical hull girder shear force The value of Qv-targ is to be taken as For hold in midship (0.4 L) region Max combination of Qsw-i and Qwv-LC at Trans BHDs within 0.4 L region, to be achieved at fwd BHD of mid hold. At aft BHD target value is just opp in sign of aft BHD For holds in other regions Combination of Qsw-i and Qwv-LC at aft and fwd BHDs of the mid hold
0. 7

AE

0.2L 0.3L 0.4L

0.6L

0.7L

0.85L

FP

Target horizontal hull girder bending moment The value of MH-targ is to be taken as For hold in midship (0.4 L) region Value at of Mwh-LC 0.5 L from AP, to be achieved in hold of 3-hold model For holds in other regions Values of Mwh-LC to be achieved at all Trans and BHD loc of mid hold of the model f
m

1.0

x
0.0 AE 0.4L 0.65L 1.0L FP

Target hull girder torsional moment Applicable only for OST and OSA LCs Value of Mwt-targ is to be taken as For all holds except fwdmost and aftmost cargo holds Value of Mwt-LC at fwd BHD of mid hold if CG of mid hold is loacted at or fwd of 0.531 L. Value of Mwt-LC at aft BHD of mid hold if CG of mid hold is loacted aft of 0.531 L. For aftmost hold Value of Mwt-LC at fwd BHD of mid hold For aftmost hold Value of Mwt-LC at aft BHD of mid hold

180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Series1

Steps Calculation of VBM, HBM, VSF, HSF at target locations generated due to local loads Adjustment of longitudinal unbalanced force Application of external moments to make SFs zero at mid of mid hold Adjustment of SFs at target bulkhead locations to target SFs Adjustment of BMs at target locations to target BMs Adjustment of Torsional moment at target location to target torsional moment

Datas to be calculated
MV_FEM(x), MH_FEM(x) for mid hold region

QV_FEM(xmid), QV_FEM(aft_bhd), QV_FEM(fwd_bhd) For QV_FEM(aft_bhd), QV_FEM(fwd_bhd) max of values at xj- and xj+ Unbalanced force in x direction Fx-unb at fwd end

Adjustment forces are to be applied at aft end of model nj= 1 for beam element, nj = 2 for 4-node shell element.

Bkhd

Bkhd

QFEM(x)

0.5lmid

0.5lmid

Maft
m1

Mfore

Corrections are to be done for both Vertical and Horizontal SFs.

Bkhd

Bkhd -Target SF

Target BM (hogging)

Bkhd

Bkhd

(Qaft Qaft

Qfwd (Qfwd Target SF (-ve)

W 1(l 2  l1 )  W 3 (l 2  l 3 ) F ! 0.5 l
Bkhd l1 (lend Hw1 = W1/(n1 - 1) W1 = total load applied n1 = number of frame spaces in aft tank of FE model Bkhd l2 Hw2 = W2/(n2 - 1) W2 = total load applied n2 = number of frame spaces in middle tank of FE model Bkhd l3 Hw3 = W3/(n3 - 1) W3 = total load applied n3 = number of frame spaces in forward tank of FE model (lfore Bkhd

Hw1 Hw1 Hw1 Hw1 Hw1 Hw1 Hw1 Simply Support end Hw2 Hw2 Hw2 Hw2 Hw2 Hw2 Hw2

Hw3 Hw3 Hw3 Hw3 Hw3 Hw3 Hw3 Simply Support end

Note: Transverse bulkhead frames not loaded Frames beyond aft transverse bulkhead of aft most tank and forward bulkhead of forward most tank not loaded F = Reaction load generated by supported ends

For holds in midship (0.4 L) region

M v end ! M v targ  M v  peak


M v peak ! max { M V _ FEM ( x)  M lineload  M Y _ aft _ 0 (2

x  xaft x fore  xaft

 1) }

Where
M lineload ! ( x  xaft ) F  ( x  xi )Hwi
i

x is to be taken from aft BHD to fwd BHD of mid hold


Bkhd Bkhd Target BM (hogging/positive)

Mend

Mend

M h  peak ! max { M H _ FEM ( x)  M Z _ aft _ 0 (2

x  xaft x fore  xaft

 1)}

For holds outside midship (0.4 L) region


mvi ! M vt arg(i )  v LOC (i )  M lineload  mvn M
n !0
Bkhd Bkhd

i 1

mv0= 0

mend

mi

m3

m2 i

m1

mvi is to be applied at web frames and bulkhead positions of the midhold plus one web frame position at both after and forward of mid-hold

Correcting moments are to be applied in the form of axial forces at the element nodes of the ship section
(Fx )i ! Mv I y  n50 Ai  n 50 zi ni

for vertical bending moment. for horizontal bending moment.

(Fx )i !

Mh I z n 50

Ai n50 yi ni

f vik y ik
yi !
k

f
zi !
k

hik z ik

f hi !

f vi

f hi

f
k

hik

f vi !

f
k

vik

M WTi ! f hi z i  z r  f vi y i
M WT ( x j ) !

M
i

WTi

M T end ! M WT t arg  M WT ( xt arg )

MT_end is to be applied at independent point of aft end section of the model

For plate elements Von Mises stress at mid plane


2 2 2 W vm ! W x  W xW y  W y  3X xy
x, xy y:

Element normal membrane stresses, in N/mm2. : Element shear stress, in N/mm2.

For stiffener elements axial stress, axial, in N/mm2 at middle of the element

Structural component
- Plating of all longitudinal hull girder structural members, primary supporting structural members and bulkheads. - Face plate of primary supporting members modeled using plate or rod elements. - Corrugation of corrugated bulkheads under lateral pressure from liquid loads, for shell elements only. - Supporting structure in way of lower end of corrugated bulkheads without lower stool(3).
y

Yield utilization factor


1.0 y 0.8 0.90 y 0.72
y

(load combination S+D) (load combination S) (load combination S+D) (load combination S) (load combination S+D) (load combination S)

- Corrugation of corrugated bulkheads under lateral pressure from liquid loads and without lower stool, for shell elements only.

0.81 y 0.65
y

where: : Yield utilisation factor. y k W W for plate elements in general. ! !


vm vm

235

Ry

k W axial W axial ! Ry 235

for rod or beam elements in general.

: Material factor. 2 vm : Von Mises stress, in N/mm . 2 axial : Axial stress in rod or beam element, in N/mm . RY : = 235/k