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Ogan Gurel, MD

Biology 301
Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

Biology 301
Cellular and Molecular Biology
Fall 2002

Lecture # 2: Water & pH


Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

Overall outline
 Structure of Water

 Properties of Water

 Acid-base chemistry in aqueous solutions


Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

Structure of Water
 Water is a polar molecule

 Hydrogen bonds between water molecules

 Phases transitions are determined by intermolecular


forces

 Molecular view of ice, water, and steam

 The structure of ice


Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Water is a polar molecule


Roosevelt University
Ogan Gurel, MD

Hydrogen bonds between water Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

molecules
Ogan Gurel, MD

Phases transitions are determined


Biology 301
Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

by intermolecular forces
Ogan Gurel, MD

Molecular view of ice, water, Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

and steam

Ice Water Steam


Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

The structure of ice


Roosevelt University
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

Properties of Water
 Cohesion, adhesion & surface tension
 Cohesive behavior leads to capillarity
 Some thermodynamic concepts
 Water’s high heat capacity moderates temperature
changes
 The high heat of vaporization cools surfaces upon
evaporation
 Water expands when frozen: Ice floats and frozen
benzene sinks
 … this has profound implications for the global climate
 Some definitions in solution chemistry
 The mole concept
 Dissolution of salt in water
 A water-soluble protein
Ogan Gurel, MD

Cohesion, adhesion & Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

surface tension

Cohesion = phenomenon of a substance being held


together by noncovalent bonds

Adhesion = phenomenon of a substance being


attracted to a vessel wall. (e.g. water in glass
containers results in a “meniscus”)

Surface tension = measure of how difficult it is to


stretch or break the surface of a liquid
 Water has a greater surface tension than most liquids
Ogan Gurel, MD

Cohesive behavior leads to Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

capillarity
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Some thermodynamic concepts


Roosevelt University

Kinetic energy Energy of motion

Heat Total kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter

Temperature Measure of heat intensity due to the average kinetic energy of


molecules in a body of matter

Calorie Amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one gram of


water by one degree Celsius. Conversely, one calorie is the
amount of heat released by one gram of water when it cools down
by one degree Celsius. Note: The “calories” on food packages are
actually kilocalories (kcal).

Kilocalorie The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one


kilogram of water by one degree Celsius (1000 cal)

Specific heat Amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a
substance to change its temperature by one degree Celsius

Specific heat One calorie per gram per degree Celsius (1 cal / g / °C)
of water
Ogan Gurel, MD

Water’s high heat capacity Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

moderates temperature changes


Ogan Gurel, MD

The high heat of vaporization cools Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

surfaces upon evaporation

Vaporization Also called evaporation = transformation of a liquid to a gas

Heat of Quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for one gram to be


vaporization converted to the gaseous state. Water has a relatively high heat
of vaporization at the boiling point (540 cal/g).

Evaporative Cooling of a liquid’s surface when a liquid evaporates.


cooling

… Stabilizes temperature in aquatic ecosystems

… Helps organisms from overheating by evaporative


cooling
Ogan Gurel, MD

Water expands when frozen: Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

Ice floats and frozen benzene sinks


Ogan Gurel, MD

… this has profound implications Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

for the global climate

… and is the reason behind the sinking of the Titanic


Ogan Gurel, MD

Some definitions in solution Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

chemistry

Solution A liquid that is a completely homogenous mixture of two or more


substances

Solvent Dissolving agent of a solution

Solute Substance dissolved in a solution

Aqueous Solution in which water is the solvent


solution

Hydrophilic Ionic compounds and polar compounds are, in general, water


soluble

Hydrophobic Nonpolar compounds are NOT water-soluble.


Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

The mole concept


Roosevelt University

Molecular Sum of the weight of all atoms in a molecule (expressed in


weight Daltons)

Mole Amount of a substance that has a mass in grams numerically


equivalent to its molecular weight in daltons

Molarity Number of moles of solute per liter of solution

A mole of various substances

Advantage of using moles:


2. Rescales weighing from daltons
to grams
3. A mole of any substances has a
fixed number of molecules
(e.g. Avogadro’s number)
4. Allows one to combine substances
in fixed ratios of molecules
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Dissolution of salt in water


Roosevelt University
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

A water-soluble protein
Roosevelt University
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

Acid-base chemistry in aqueous


solutions
 Dissociation of water
 Definitions of acids & bases
 Definition of pH: a logarithmic scale of [H+]
concentration
 pH of some aqueous solutions
 Conjugate acids & bases
 Strong acids & bases
 Weak acids & bases
 Buffers attenuate changes in pH
 Indicators
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Dissociation of water
Roosevelt University

 The reaction is reversible


 At equilibrium, most of the water is not ionized
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Definitions of acids & bases


Roosevelt University

 Acids donate protons


H+ and Bases accept
protons H+.
Ogan Gurel, MD

Definition of pH: a logarithmic Biology 301


Lecture #2
Roosevelt University

scale of [H+] concentration

 For very small


numbers we use
logarithms for
convenience. Typical
[H+] concentrations
range from 10-14 to 10-1
molar which is simplified
by converting this to a
pH range of 14 to 1.

The pH of the blood  is ~ 7.4 which is close to neutral but slightly on the basic side.  Changes
in the blood pH of a few tenths on either side of this value can be fatal.  Does this make sense
mathematically?  On a moment­by­moment basis, how is the blood pH so tightly regulated?
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

pH of some aqueous solutions


Roosevelt University

Because pH is a logarithmic measure,


apparently “small” numerical changes
in pH actually correspond to
very “large” changes in hydrogen
ion concentration.

Normal physiological pH is 7.41.


Depending on the circumstances a
pH below 7.00 or above 7.8 can be
Lethal.
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Congugate acids & bases


Roosevelt University

 Strong acids
have weak
conjugate bases
and vice versa.

Why is it not possible to look at the


acid alone and say that it is a good acid?
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Strong acids & bases


Roosevelt University

 Strong acids (and


bases) dissociate
(associate) almost
completely. A full
equilibrium analysis is
usually not necessary
since you can assume
that the initial acid (or
base) is converted
completely to products.
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Weak acids & bases


Roosevelt University

 Weak acids (and


bases) dissociate
(associate) only partially
... so a full equilibrium
analysis necessary.
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Buffers attenuate changes in pH


Roosevelt University

 Buffers minimize changes in pH  The maximum buffering capacity


because protons can be taken up occurs when the pH equals the pKa
or given up by the buffer (when [A-] = [HA]).
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #2

Acid-base indicators
Roosevelt University

 A weak acid (or base)


coupled to a conjugated
system. Titration of the
proton leads to changes
in the visual absorption
spectrum (hence color
changes) in the
conjugated system.