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**How do those things really fly?
**

Dr. Paul Kutler

Saturday, March 31, 2007 Monterey Airport

Airbus 380

An aerodynamics challenge

FA-18 Condensation Pattern

Aerodynamics involves multiple flow regimes

Legacy Aircraft

Aerodynamics is a maturing science

Outline

Terms and Definitions Forces Acting on Airplane Lift Drag Concluding remarks

Terms and Nomenclature Airfoil Angle of attack Angle of incidence Aspect Ratio Boundary Layer Camber Chord Mean camber line Pressure coefficient Leading edge Relative wind Reynolds Number Thickness Trailing edge Wing planform Wingspan .

Force Diagram .

Airfoil Definitions .

Definition of Lift. Drag & Moment L = 1/2 V V2 CL S D = 1/2 V V2 CD S M = 1/2 V V2 CM S c .

the pressure is lower on the top than on the bottom. The distance traveled over the top is greater than over the bottom. . Hence. lift is produced.A Misconception A fluid element that splits at the leading edge and travels over and under the airfoil will meet at the trailing edge. It must therefore travel faster over the top to meet at the trailing edge. According to Bernoulli¶s equation.

How Lift is Produced Continuity equation Bernoulli¶s equation Pressure differential Lift is produced .

. The two elements do not meet at the trailing edge.The Truth A fluid element moving over the top surface leaves the trailing edge long before the fluid element moving over the bottom surface reaches the trailing edge. This result has been validated both experimentally and computationally.

E) .Airfoil Lift Curve (cl vs.

Lift Curve .Cambered & Symmetric Airfoils .

a stall results .Slow Flight and Steep Turns L = 1/2 V V2 CL S Outcome versus Action Slow Flight Lift equals weight Velocity is decreased CL must increase E must be increased on the lift curve Velocity can be reduced until CL max is reached Beyond that.

give it some gas More effective since lift is proportional to the velocity squared .Slow Flight and Steep Turns L = 1/2 V V2 CL S Outcome versus Action (Concluded) Steep Turns (³Bank. increase E (³yank´) on the lift curve To increase V. yank and crank´) Lift vector is rotated inward (³bank´) by the bank angle reducing the vertical component of lift Lift equals weight divided by cosine F Either V (³crank´). CL or both must be increased to replenish lift To increase CL.

Stalling Airfoil .

Vstall increases This is what¶s taught in the ³Pilot¶s Handbook´ .Effect of Bank Angle on Stall Speed L = 1/2 V V2 CL S F equals the bank angle At stall CL equals CLmax L = W / cos F Thus Vstall = [2 W / (V CL max S cos F)] 1/2 Airplane thus stalls at a higher speed Load factor increases in a bank Thus as load factor increases.

Effect of CG Location on Stall Speed .

Surface Oil Flow .Grumman Yankee E = 40. 110 . & 240 .

M = 0.Airfoil Pressure Distribution NACA 0012.345.930 . E = 3.

Supercritical Airfoil & Pressure Distribution .

Drag of an Airfoil D = Df + Dp + Dw D = total drag on airfoil Df = skin friction drag Dp = pressure drag due to flow separation Dw = wave drag (for transonic and supersonic flows) .

Skin Friction Drag The flow at the surface of the airfoil adheres to the surface (³no-slip condition´) A ³boundary layer´ is created-a thin viscous region near the airfoil surface Friction of the air at the surface creates a shear stress The velocity profile in the boundary layer goes from zero at the wall to 99% of the freestream value X = Q (dV/dy)wall Q is the dynamic viscosity of air [3.73 (10) -7 sl/f/s] .

The Boundary Layer Two types of viscous flows Laminar Streamlines are smooth and regular Fluid element moves smoothly along streamline Produces less drag Turbulent Streamlines break up Fluid element moves in a random. irregular and tortuous fashion Produces more drag Xw laminar < Xw turbulent Reynolds Number Rex = V V x / Q Ratio of inertia to viscous forces .

H = 0.962.37 x / Rex1/5 Example: Chord = 5 f.025 H = 0.L. Tripped Turbulent B.049 inches Laminar B.L.16 x / Rex1/7 Turbulent Flow-Tripped B.L.011 inches H = 7. V = 150 MPH. . Sea Level Rex = 6.L. Turbulent B.114 inches H = 1.Boundary Layer Thickness (Flat Plate) Laminar Flow H = 5 x / Rex1/2 Turbulent Flow H = 0.

Infinite vs. Finite Wings AR = b2 / S .

Finite Wings .

The Origin of Downwash .

The Origin of Induced Drag Di = L sin Ei .

Elliptical Lift Distribution CD.I = CL2/ (Te AR) .

Change in Lift Curve Slope for Finite Wings .

there is no cushion of air Its effect is to increase the lift of the wing and reduce the induced drag The ground diminishes the strength of the wing tip vortices and reduces the amount of downwash The effective angle of attack is increased and lift increases .Ground Effect Occurs during landing and takeoff Gives a feeling of ³floating´ or ³riding on a cushion of air´ between wing and ground In fact.

Ground Effect (Concluded) Mathematically Speaking L = 1/2 V V2 S CL An increased angle of attack. increases CL Hence L is increased D = 1/2 V V2 S [CD.0 + J CL2/(T e AR)] CD.0 is the zero lift drag (parasite) J CL2/(T e AR) is the induced drag e is the span efficiency factor J = (16 h / b)2 / [1 + (16 h / b)2 ] b is the wingspan h is the height of the wing above the ground .

Wing Dihedral (+) Wings are bent upward through an angle +.. i. an airplane in a bank will return to its equilibrium position This is a result of the lift on the higher wing being less than the lift on the lower wing providing a restoring rolling moment . called the dihedral angle Dihedral provides lateral stability.e.

Drag of a Finite Wing D = Df + Dp + Dw + Di D = total drag on wing Df = skin friction drag Dp = pressure drag due to flow separation Dw = wave drag (for transonic and supersonic flows) Di = Induced drag (drag due to lift) .

Drag of a Wing (Continued) Induced drag . wing-pylon) .drag due to non-lifting surfaces Profile drag Skin friction Pressure drag (³Form drag´) Interference drag (e.g..drag due to lift Parasite drag . wingfuselage.

Flaps A Mechanism for High Lift .

Effect of Flaps on Lift Curve .

6. 4. 2. slat Single slotted flap Double-slotted flap Double-slotted flap with slat Double-slotted flap with slat and boundary layer suction Not shown . 7.Fowler flap 9. No flap Plain flap Split flap L. E. 3. .High Lift Devices 1. 8. 5.

Shape Comparison Modern vs. Conventional Airfoils .

Conventional Airfoils .Maximum Lift Coefficient Comparison Modern vs.

What¶s Next on the Agenda Boeing 787 Dreamliner Boeing 787 .

What¶s Next on the Agenda Boeing Blended Wing-Body Configuration Boeing 797 .

Concluding Remarks What was not discussed Transonic flow Drag-divergence Mach number Supersonic flow Wave drag Swept wings Compressibility effects Boundary layer theory The history of aerodynamics .

Airbus 380 Interior Good aerodynamics results in improved creature comforts .

Questions and Answers .

Backup Slides .

Winglets Reduced induced drag Equivalent to extending wingspan 1/2 of winglet height Less wing bending moment and less wing weight than extending wing Hinders spanwise flow and pressure drop at the wing tip Looks modern/esthetically pleasing Boeing 737 Winglet .

Vortex Generators .

Swept-Wing Principle .

Wave Drag .

HondaJet .

HondaJet Engine Position The ³Sweet Spot´ Location where the engine coexists with the wing and enjoys favorable interference effects The reason .NASA Scientist The total cross-sectional area must vary smoothly from the nose to tail to minimize the wave drag Wave drag is created by shock waves that appear over the aircraft as a result of local regions of embedded supersonic flow .³Transonic Area Rule´ Richard Whitcomb .

HondaJet Aerodynamics Engine inlet is positioned at 75% chord As the cross-sectional area decreases at the trailing edge of the wing.73 The pylon is positioned near the outer portion of the nacelle and cambered inward to follow the flow direction During stall. separation starts outboard of the pylon.70 to . the engine adds area thus yielding a smooth area variation This engine position also slows the flow and decreases the wing-shock strength The critical Mach number is thus increased from . separation does not occur between the pylon and fuselage .

the fuselage cross-sectional area increases smoothly.HondaJet Aerodynamics (Continued) Natural laminar flow fuselage nose Following the area rule. the nose expands from its tip and then contracts as the windshield emerges. As the wing is approached. this helps maintain the laminar flow .

HondaJet Aerodynamics (Concluded) Natural laminar flow wing Utilizes integral. machined panels that minimizes the number of parts for smoother flow when mated together Employs winglets to reduce induced drag 30% more efficient than other business jets .

Eagle in Flight cl = 2 L/ V V2 S Variable Twist Adaptive Dihedral Tail ? Turbulator STOL/VTOL Capabilities Winglets Smart Structures b/2 c Variable Camber Elastic Flaps cd.i = cl2 / AR Smooth Fairings Tilting Minimized Noise Control & Detectability Center Retractable Landing Gear .

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