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# Sampling Techniques

Presented By: SMBA 16 - Pratik Shah - 12

What is SAMPLING?

Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen .

Sampling Process

Units of Analysis (people) Target Population Population of Interest List or Procedure

Sampling Frame List or Rule Defining the Population

Actual Population to Which Generalizations Are Made Defined/Listed by Sampling Frame

Method of selection

Generalization

Target Sample Response Rate List of Target Sample

Sample The people actually studied

Method of SAMPLING

Probability

Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster Sampling

Non-Probability

Convenience Sampling Purposive Sampling Quota Sampling

Multistage and Multi Phase Sampling

Probability Sampling

**Simple Random Sampling
**

Each element in the population has an equal probability of selection AND each combination of elements has an equal probability of selection

e.g.

Names drawn out of a hat Random numbers to select elements from an ordered list

Systematic Sampling

Each element has an equal probability of selection, but combinations of elements have different probabilities. Population size N, desired sample size n, sampling interval k=N/n. Randomly select a number j between 1 and k, sample element j and then every kth element thereafter, j+k, j+2k, etc.

e.g.

N=64, n=8, k=64/8=8. Random j=3.

**Stratified Random Sampling
**

A method of sampling that involves the division of a population into smaller groups known as strata. In stratified random sampling, the strata are formed based on members' shared attributes or characteristics. A random sample from each stratum is taken in a number proportional to the stratum's size when compared to the population. These subsets of the strata are then pooled to form a random sample. e.g. A state could be separated into counties, a school could be separated into grades. These would be the 'strata'.

Cluster Sampling

With cluster sampling, the researcher divides the population into separate groups, called clusters. Then, a simple random sample of clusters is selected from the population. The researcher conducts his analysis on data from the sampled clusters.

**Multistage and Multi Phase Sampling
**

Large national probability samples involve several stages of stratified cluster sampling The whole country is divided into geographic clusters, metropolitan and rural Some large metropolitan areas are selected with certainty (certainty is a non-zero probability!) Other areas are formed into strata of areas (e.g. middle-sized cities, rural counties); clusters are selected randomly from these strata

Non Probability Sampling

Convenience Sampling

It is a technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher. e.g. Using subjects that are selected from a clinic, a class or an institution that is easily accessible to the researcher. A more concrete example is choosing five people from a class or choosing the first five names from the list of patients.

Purposive Sampling

It is use to access a particular subset of people. When taking the sample, reject people who do not fit a particular profile. e.g. A researcher wants to get opinions from non-working mothers. They go around an area knocking on doors during the day when children are likely to be at school. They ask to speak to the 'woman of the house. Their first questions are then about whether there are children and whether the woman has a day job.

Quota Sampling

The basic objective of quota sampling is to control biases arising out of non-probability method by stratification and the setting of quotas for each stratum.

e.g.

A sample of 40 students can be selected from a group of 200 students comprising of 120 boys and 80 girls. To make the sample representative, the group of 40 should include 24 boys and 16 girls (i.e. 120: 80 = 3: 2).