MAGNESIUM

INTRODUCTION 
It is a macromineral  The eighth most abundant element in the earth s crust  The fourth most abundant cation in body.  The second abundant intracellular cation.

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Acts as an important physiological regulator of phospholipase C.MgATP € Play a critical role in second messenger system CAMP is formed from MgATP and adenyl cyclase is activated by Mg. € Helps in ATP utilisation. Its is a non competitive inhibitor of IP3 induced calcium release . .Functions € It is involved in more than 300 essential metabolic reactions.

.results in stabilisation of DNA and RNA.Cont MODIFIES NUCLEIC ACIDS € Ribose phosphate structure of nucleic acids binds to Mg with high affinity.transcription. STABILISES MEMBRANES € Reacts with hydrophilic polyanions to stabilise the membranes and thereby affects fluidity and permeability. Induces physiochemical changes that affect DNA maintainence.duplication.

.Cont. K+ and Ca++ channels Mg regulates Mg sensitive K+ channels in skeletal and heart muscle . € ION CHANNELS A regulator of Na+. . € Mg IS A NATURAL CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER.

4 mg/dl  RBC magnesium levels-2.3-7.7-2.EDTA should not be used.  Anticoagulants such as citrate.  Serum or heparanised plasma preferred. oxalate.REFERENCE INTERVALS  Serum magnesium levels-1. .3 mg/dl.

DIETARY SOURCES  Green vegetables such as spinach because the center of the chlorophyll molecule(which gives green vegetables their color)  Legumes(beans and peas)  Fruits.grains .animal and diary products .

.  Parathyroid harmone.BIOAVAILABILITY  Calcium intake does not significantly affect Mg absorption or retention. neomycin therapy increases absorption. high protein intake.  Phosphorus. vit-D. zinc. dietary fibres .fatty acids decreases absorption.growth harmone.

Daily Requirement (RDA)  ADULT MEN 19 to 30  31 yrs and older  ADULT WOMEN 19 to 30  31 yrs and older  Pregnancy  Lactation 400mg 420mg 310mg 320mg 400mg 400mg .

in jejunum and ileum through passive paracellular mechanism  In normal diet 30-40% absorbed.critical organ regulating Mg homeostasis.  ABSORPTION. .  Kidney.CONT .  Bone-important reservoir of magnesium .

REGULATION .

ASSESSMENT  Atomic absorption spectrophotometryREFERENCE METHOD  ISE  NMR  Mg isotopes. .

 Magnesium load test.BIOLOGIC INDICATORS  Total serum magnesium  Ionised serum magnesium  Urinary magnesium excretion . .

cisplatin.CAUSES OF DEFICIENCY € Gastrointestinal disorders € Renal disorders € Drugs-diuretics. amphotericin B. € Metabolic acidosis € Diabetes mellitus-The vicious cycle .

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY .

 Impairs parathyroid gland functions by affecting its second messenger system.  Impairs the ability of the kidney to synthesis vit-D .HYPOCALCEMIA  Mg causes disturbances in the mineral homeostasis.

HYPOKALEMIA  Mg deficiency increases urinary K+ loss.  Increases the efflux of k+ from the Mg sensitive K+ channel Resting membrane potential of the heart is disturbed CARDIAC DYSRHYTHMIAS .

 Generalised seizures.carpopedal spasm.NEUROMUSCULAR MANIFESTATIONS  Mg -neuromuscular hyperexcitablity. Latent tetany-+chvostek sign. . muscular tremor weakness and wasting.Troussaeu sign.

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CHRONIC MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY  HYPERTENSION Decreases PG-I2 synthesis Increases vasocontrictive effect of angiotensin II and norepinephrine. Platelet aggregation due the release of TX A2 .

 OSTEOPOROSIS. .CONT  ATHEROSCLEROTIC VASCULAR DISEASES.  PRE-ECCLAMPSIA.

HYPERMAGNESEMIA  Magnesium overdose  Renal failure  GIT disorders. .

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