Earthquakes,Folds, Fractures in Rocks, Mass Wasting, Karstic Phenomena.

Course 4

How the Earth-crust¶s was made
Geomorphology- study the landsforms and their modifications thanks to intrusive or extrusive factors The landsforms can be: - As first order (planetary) - the biggest landsforms of the crust - the continentals blocks - the oceanic basins -As second order (major landsforms) - units from oceanic basins and of continents - they are made by intrusive factors - contain - orogenical zones - with curly layers (the mountains, the hills) - platphorms zones - with horizontal layers (the tablelands, the plains) -As third order (micro-relief) - small landsforms - they are the result of extrusive factors - they can be erosive, acumulation or tectonics forms The intrusive factors - the internal dynamic ( the tectonics plates movement) The extrusive factors - the external dynamic ( the atmosphere, hydrosphere actions)- weathering

THE INTERNAL DYNAMIC Contain: -the orogenic motions (horizontal) - the earthquakes - the epirogenic motions (vertical) - the volcanism - the tectonics plates motions - the gravity OROGENICAL MOTIONS ± the effect is an important deformation of layers Mountains chains Obs. When the deformation keep the continuity of rocks, appear the FOLDS The folds µ elements are: Hinge line Hinge plane

Limb folds¶ angle Folds type: -Vertical -Recumbent -Bending - overturned
folds¶ shaft

Obs. Salt folds Isoclinal folds Anticlinal folds

THE FRACTURING= FAULT- are break in the Earth-crust which suffer change of

The fault elements are: - The fault¶s flanks(A and B) -the fault¶s plan (P) -the fault¶s direction -the fault¶s step (jump) (p)

A P p B

The Volcanism- is tying to ridge zone and to subduction zone of tectonics plates The magma from astenosphere arrive to the surface, by a volcano

The volcano components parts are: -the crater -the cone -the feeders -the magma chamber piroclastic and igneous rocks

EARTHQUAKES (SEISMICAL MOTIONS) Definition Earthquake is a trembling, a shaking of a ground caused by the sudden release of energy stored in the rocks beneath the Earth¶s surface The earthquake elements are: -The length- second fractions, rarely few seconds -The intensity- is a measure of an earthquake¶s effect on people and building - micro-quake ±measured with a seismograph - macro-quake- they are felt by people -The frequency- every year almost 100000 earthquakes ( quake each 5 minutes) -The depth- the distance from hypocenter (in deep) to epicenter (to surface) -Quakes are classified into three groups according to their depth of focus, as: -shallow focus 0 - 70 km deep - 85% -intermediate focus 50-70 ± 350 km deep -12% -deep focus 350 ± 700 km deep 3% The point on the earth¶s surface directly above the focus is the epicenter Seismic waves±longitudinally (7-13 km/s), transversally (4-7 km/s), and superficially (3-3,5 km/s)

THE EARTHQUAKE¶S CAUSES Cosmic causes- due to falling of cosmic bodies on the Earth¶s surface Ex: meteorites Earth¶s cause- volcanic quakes explosions- are local, depending of volcanic eruptions (represent 10% of earthquakes) - breakdown quakes- the breakdown of natural caves roof of earth¶s crust Ex. In limestone caves; in salt, in gypsum due to underground explosion - tectonic quakes-due to subduction of tectonic plates (80% of all earthquakes) Quakes intensity are expressed in Mercalli scale Richter scale is a numerical scale of magnitudes
Richter Scale Mercalli Scale 2 1,5 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 9 8 10,5 9 12



Earthquakes from Romania ± Vrancea zone, tranyilvania zone (Mures-Tarnave), Banat zone (Periam-Vinga), Fagaras zone (at S of Fagaras Mountains), Sea zone (Constanta-Mangalia), Danube zone (Moldova Noua- Virset)

GEODYNAMIC PROCESS REGARDING THE BUILDING ACTIVITY. MASS WASTING Because of the force of gravity the various agents of erosion (moving water, ice and wind) work to make slopes gentler and therefore increasingly more stable 1. FALL- accurs when material free-falls or bounces down a cliff 2. LANDSLIDES- slow-to-very-rapid descent of rock or soil The landscape¶s elements are:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Detach surface Slides terrace Transversally crack Longitudinally crack Slide¶s surface Slide¶s foot Slide¶s base

TYPE OF LANDSLIDES MOVEMENT: Flow- the descending mass is moving downslope as a viscous fluid ( 1a) Slip- the descending mass remains relatively coherent moviung along one ore more well-defined surfaces (1b) Slump - movement along a curved surface the upper part moving downward while the lower part moves outward

While the slides are producing on the ground mass, two forces are acting: -The passive force- (strength force)- which holds this mass in stable equilibrium (cohesion and internal friction of particles) -The active force -(slides force)-which moves this mass (hydrodynamic pressure, own weight)

THE LAYER¶S BEND EXTREMITY -is due to the gravity -the layer¶s extremity of rocks are bend in the same direction as the slope side -appear frequently in marly ±clays and rarely in limestone

THE SETTLE ±it¶s a process of packed, due to own rock¶s weight or to building¶s weight SUPHOSION- is due to the soluble components which are dissolved by ground water Obs. The ground motions due to suphosion can be control by drain

SOLIFLUCTION ± is the flow of water- saturated debris over impermeable material -usually takes place in arctic or subarctic climates where the ground is permanently frozen (permafrost) KARST PHENOMENA- all the geological process which appear in soluble rocks, specially in limestone, due to ground water circulation (water with CO2) Soluble rocks- the salt, the gypsum, the anhydrite, the limestone and the dolomite Karts - to surface- natural bridges, key -to interior- caves, underground channel

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