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THE HYPOTHETICAL PROPOSITIONS

(Aristotelian Classification)

Conditional Proposition
‡ The conditional is the ³if - then´ proposition. ‡ It expresses a relation in virtue of which one judgment or proposition necessarily flows from the other. ‡ Example. ‡ If you are a Catholic, then you are a Christian. ‡ Parts: Antecedent Consequent

If it rains

then the ground is wet.

Antecedent: condition, cause, reason Consequent: conditioned, effect, result There is a necessary or logical connection between the antecedent and consequent.
Terms of conditional:

If ± then,

unless

when

Not all if ±then statements are conditional, example: If you need money then go to the bank. Both antecedent and consequent must be statements

You are either for or against Christ.or´ statement ‡ It expresses that two things cannot be false at the same time.Disjunctive Proposition ‡ The disjunctive is the ³either . ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Example: A person is either a male or female. Parts are called disjuncts . one at least must be true.

Doctor or engineer Red or blue I will visit my friend either on Monday or Tuesday.when the component parts are not mutually exclusive. .Proper Disjunctive . Pass or fail Dead or alive Today is either Monday or Tuesday. Improper Disjunctive . The parent who will attend the meeting is either the father or the mother.when the component parts are mutually exclusive or contradictories. they cannot be both true. A parent is either a father or a mother.

‡ You cannot inhale and exhale at the same time. ‡ Parts are called conjuncts .Conjunctive Proposition ‡ The conjunctive proposition expresses that two alternatives cannot be true simultaneously. ‡ Example: ‡ One cannot be in Davao and in Cebu at the same time.

A parent cannot be a father and a mother at the same time. .One cannot study and play at the same time. One cannot study and play at the same time The president cannot be a conservative and liberal at the same time. Two-part conjunctive ± the conjuncts are limited to two alternatives only. More than two-part conjunctive ± the conjuncts are not limited to two alternatives. The suspect cannot be guilty and not guilty.

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COMPLEX AND HYPOTHETICAL PROPOSITIONS (Modern Logic Classification) .

does not contain any other statement as its component. Manila is a city. Complex or compound statement contains logical components. (hypothetical and negative propositions in the Aristotelian logic are considered complex.) .Simple and Complex Statements Simple statement . Examples: John is a student.

Additional examples:: John is a student and John is honest. If there is a weather disturbance. it is necessary that the components are statements in themselves and that they are sensical on their own. It is not the case that Marie is the best student in the class. then classes will be suspended. The man who killed Ninoy was a murderer. Not a complex statement . Either the rebels surrender or they die in battle. For statements to be compound.

. Manila is a city AMV is a college. ‡ A compound statement is a truth-functional statement.‡ The truth-value of a complex/compound statement depends of the truth-value of its components. ‡ A truth-function is an expression whose truth-value (truth or falsity) is completely determined by the truth values of its component statements. depends on the truth value of the components: . The truth value of the statement: Manila is a city and AMV is a college.

" * It is not the case that Marie is the most beautiful girl in the world.Additional Examples: *The sun is shining and the boys are playing. . The truth value of this proposition is determined by the truth-value of the logical component: Marie is the most beautiful girl in the world. is a function of its component simple propositions: "The sun is shining" "the boys are playing.

. It is false that life is tragic.. It is not the case that the Philippines is the poorest country in Asia." "it is not the case that.Negation ‡ The negation of a statement is formed by using "not³ in the original statement or by prefixing the phrases "it is false that.." Examples: John is not the president of the class.

.‡ The symbol for negation is the curl . The definition of negation may be presented in this truth table: If p is true then p ~p --------T F F T ~p is false If p is false then ~p is true .S It is not the case that students are -~S responsible. '~' This is a simple statement the negative statement The curl denies or contradicts the statement it preceeds. Examples: Students are responsible.

then.. Example: If the Philippines is a democratic country. . then Vatican is a state..Material Implication Material implication is an if then statement. . Parts: Antecedent Consequent .If.

then our ancestors are pigs. symbol of material implication .Material Implication This is another type of implication where there is no real or causal connection between the antecedent and the consequent.the horse shoe - . Material implication is an emphatic way of denying the antecedent. Example: If man could be have wings.

The only way it can be false is if the antecedent is true and the consequent is false . Philosophy is not myth then science is empirical.If Manila is a city then UST is a university. M ~P U S The horse shoe is a truth functional connective material implication is true if it is not the case that the antecedent of the statement is true and its consequence is false.

Material implication may be defined by this truth table: p q p q _____________ T T T T F F F T T F F T Application: Five is an odd number number. This is true (T) one is an even This is false (F) T F thus the material implication is false (F) .

Examples: An A proposition is affirmative or O is negative. Two things cannot be false at the same time one at least must be true.Disjunction The disjunctive is the ³either . .or´ statement. The antecedent is condition or consequent is cause. The disjunction of two statements is formed by inserting the word "or" between them.

‡ The symbol for disjunction (inclusive) is the wedge v Examples: I either run or I get hit. ~p v ~q The wedge is a truth-functional connective. . It connotes that a disjunctive statement is true if at least one of the components it connects is true. pvq Logic is not fiction or arts is not magic.

This is true (T) This is false (F) T F thus the disjunction is true (T) .Disjunction may be defined by this truth table: p q p v q _____________ T T T T F T F T T F F F Application: Five is an odd number v one is an even number.

Three is a odd number and six is divisible by two. The conjunction in Aristotelian is not a conjunction in modern logic. PNB is a bank and SM is a department. Examples: An I proposition is affirmative and E is negative. .Conjunction The conjunctive is formed by placing the word ³and´ between two statements.

.‡ The symbol for conjunction is the dot.) Examples: p.q PNB is a bank and SM is a mall. p . ~q The dot is a truth-functional connective. ~p . q Snakes are reptiles and birds are not wild. ( . It connotes that a conjunctive statement is true if both components it connects are true. Politics is not showbiz and painting is an art.

one is an even number. q _____________ T T T T F F F T F F F F Application: Five is an odd number . This is true (T) This is false (F) T F thus the conjunction is false (F) .Conjunction may be defined by this truth table: p q p .

Material Equivalence Material equivalence is the bi-conditional statement The phrase ³if and only if´ is placed between two statements. . Examples: UST is a university if and only if a university is a big school. Ten is an even number if and only if an even number is divisible by two.

‡ The symbol for material equivalence is ( ) Examples: PNB is a bank if and only if and SM is a mall. It connotes that a materially equivalent statement is true if both components are true or both are false. Metal is not air if and only if lightning is electrical ~p q The is a truth-functional connective. p q Politics is showbiz if and only if painting is p ~q not an art. .

This is false (F) T F thus the material equivalence is false (F) .Material equivalence may be defined by this truth table: p q p q _____________ T T T T F F F T F F F T Application: Five is an odd number This is true (T) one is an even number.

T) ~ (T) v T F v T T .) ~ ( T T ) v ( T . Preachers. Dominic is the founder of the Order of .Application ‡~(If critical thinking is important then Logic is required in college) or T T T v T (St. Thomas is a philosopher and St.

‡ [(one is less than any even number and two is divisible by two) or (five is an odd number or six is less than seven)] then ~(ten is equal to five times two or nine is eleven minus five). T) v (T v T)] > ~(T v F) [ T v T] > ~T T>F F . [ (T .

Determine the truth-value A±T B±F C-? ~[(A . B) > (C v A)] [ ~(B > C) v (A . B)] ~[(F) > (T)] [ ~(T) v (F)] ~[T] [ F v F] F F T .