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Sometimes called the root, the stem of a verb is simply the verb without its infinitive ending!

What are the stems of the following verbs? Leer = Comer = Terminar = Escribir =

Sometimes called the root, the stem of a verb is simply the verb without its infinitive ending! What are the stems of the following verbs? Leer = le Comer = com Terminar = termin Escribir = escrib-

You already know how to conjugate regular verbs:


1.

Drop the infinitive ending to find the stem. hablar = hablFind your subject. Margarita y yo = nosotros Add the ending that matches your subject to the stem of the verb. Habl- + -amos = hablamos

2.

3.

Like the verb tener from Spanish I, a stem changing verb is just a verb that alters its stem when it is conjugated. tener (ella) = tiene *note how just like a regular verb, the ending changed when tener was conjugated, but the stem, ten-, also changed.

In the back of your book, stem change verbs are listed in their infinitive form, with the change the stem undergoes in parentheses following it. When you do your vocabulary lists, it is important to copy this notation down as well, to remember to make the change. Empezar (ie) this shows that the stem changes in from e to ie when the verb is conjugated Jugar (ue) this shows that the stem changes from u to ue when the verb is conjugated

Stem changing verbs use the same endings as regular ar, -er, and ir verbs. When conjugating, stem change verbs function almost exactly the same as regular verbs, with one small added step the stem change!

Lets try it with to begin or empezar(ie): Step 1: Is the same as the first step for regular verbs! Just take off the infinitive ending and find the stem. empezar empez-

Step 2: change the old stem to the new stem. Since empezar is followed by (ie) we know that the vowel in the stem will change to (ie). NOTE: THE STEM CHANGE TAKES PLACE IN ALL FORMS EXCEPT NOSOTROS AND VOSOTROS. THOSE STEMS REMAIN THE SAME.

The new stems: yo t l, ella, usted empiezempiezempieznosotros vosotros ellos, ellas, ustedes empezempezempiez-

NOTE AGAIN IN CASE YOU MISSED IT: THE STEM CHANGE TAKES PLACE IN ALL FORMS EXCEPT NOSOTROS AND VOSOTROS. THOSE STEMS REMAIN THE SAME.

Step 3: Now the easy part! Just add the regular verb endings to your new stem and youre done!
yo t l, ella, usted empiezo empiezas empieza nosotros vosotros ellos, ellas, ustedes empezamos empezis empiezan

NOTE ONE MORE TIME TO BE SURE: THE STEM CHANGE TAKES PLACE IN ALL FORMS EXCEPT NOSOTROS AND VOSOTROS. THOSE STEMS REMAIN THE SAME.

You already know empezar(ie). Now lets learn the rest of the e ie stem change verbs from this chapter! comenzar(ie) to begin to lose perder(ie) preferir (ie) to prefer *the stem change happens in the second syllable of the stem

yo t l, ella, usted

nosotros vosotros ellos, ellas, ustedes

yo t l, ella, usted

comienzo comienzas comienza

nosotros vosotros ellos, ellas, ustedes

comenzamos comenzis comienzan

In your notes, list all of the conjugations for preferir(ie) and perder(ie).

Now lets move on to the o changers.

ue stem

to return (a person) Volver (ue) Devolver (ue) to return (an object) to be able to to Poder (ue) can to sleep Dormir (ue)

yo t l, ella, usted

vuelvo vuelves vuelve

nosotros vosotros ellos, ellas, ustedes

volvemos volvis vuelven

Our last stem changer is jugar, the only u ue stem changer we have in this chapter. jugar(ue) to play

Conjugate jugar in your notes.

Stem change verbs are often called boot verbs because when you draw a line around all of the forms that have a stem change (which are all forms except nosotros and vosotros, in case youve forgotten), it looks a little like a boot.

Change ALL the stems EXCEPT FOR NOSOTROS AND VOSOTROS!