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Research in Psychology

Intro. to Psychology PSY-101 Instructor: Ms. Tahira Zafar

Systematic investigation to establish facts 

Information gathering

Variety of techniques are applied to get into the minds of the people .Cont.

the resolution to a problem. or the greater understanding of a phenomenon Generation of new information and testing of ideas .What Research is? Attempt to achieve systematically and with the support of data the answer to a question.

Scientific Research Characteristics of scientific findings are: Empirical Systematic Precise Verifiable Public Ethical & Ideological neutrality Objective .

Goals of Scientific Research Description Explanation Prediction control .

Goals Description Questions asked to reach the goal What happens? When and where does it happen? How does it happen? Why does it happen? What will happen next? How can we influence this behavior or intervene in this situation? Explanation Prediction Control .

more successful negotiation tactics. and greater understanding amongst groups of people Application  .Goals of Psychological Research Description of social behavior  Are people who grow up in warm climates different from those in cold climates? Does heat cause higher amounts of aggression? Establish a relationship between cause & effect  Develop theories about why people behave the way that they do  We dislike Duke students to feel better about ourselves Creating effective therapeutic treatments.

Purposes of Research A research can be undertaken for two different purposes:   To solve a currently existing problem (applied research) To contribute to the general body of knowledge in a particular area of interest (basic/fundamental research) .

The Scientific Research Process Identifying the problem Defining the problem Formulating Hypothesis Data collection Analyzing the data Preparing a report .

and then open the file again. select a topic  Good theory:  Has predictive power  Is simple & straightforward The image cannot be displayed. search the literature  Find out what others have done that may be applicable to your area of interest . you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Restart your computer. If the red x still appears.The Process of Doing Research First. Then. or the image may have been corrupted. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.

or behavior . characteristic. condition.The Process of Doing Research Next. formulate hypotheses  Hypothesis: specific statement of expectation derived from theory  State the relationship between two variables  Variable: can be any event.

. .at variables Dependent variable (outcome variable)   Dependent on the influence of other factor(s) How do we operationally define? Independent variable (predictor variable)    Factor(s) that change the outcome variable How do we operationally define & manipulate? Control group .Let s take a closer look .

collect & analyze your data .The Process of Doing Research Then pick your research method   Experimental vs. laboratory (Setting Setting) Finally. co relational (Design Design) Field vs.

. Relationship means that an individuals status on one variable tends to reflect his or her status on the other.Correlational research The purpose of correlational research is to discover relationships between two or more variables.

Helps us understand related events. conditions.  Is there a relationship between educational levels of farmers and crop yields? To make predictions of how one variable might predict another  Can high school grades be used to predict college grades? .Cont. and behaviors.

Correlational research Advantages   Sometimes manipulation of variables is impossible or unethical Efficient look at lots of data Disadvantages   CANNOT DETERMINE CAUSATION Could be a lurking variable .

Experimental Research Researcher manipulates one variable (IV) to see effect on other variable (DV)  Try to hold everything else constant True experiments have   Random sampling: selecting Sample randomly from population Random assignment: chance assignment to condition .

at research methods Research methods used in psychology: Observation Case Study Tests.Let s take a closer look . Survey Experiment . . Questionnaire. .

A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event . Concepts in Research Population: any set of individuals (or objects) having some common observable characteristics. A corpus is a collection of written or spoken material. Sample: the subset of a population which represents the characteristics of the population. A sample consists of respondents or subjects An informant: a person from whom a linguist obtains information about language or culture.Imp.

Major Limitations in Conducting a Research Time Costs Access to resources Approval by authorities Ethical concerns Expertise .

potential cost APA guidelines Informed consent Confidentiality & anonymity Debriefing How do we protect Ps?    .Ethics in Research Should the study be done?   Value vs.