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Chapter 4 The Tissue Level of Organization

BIOL 2210 : Dr. Yoga Sundram

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What is a Tissue?


A tissue is a group of cells


Common embryonic origin Function together to carry out specialized activities

 

Hard (bone), semisolid (fat), or liquid (blood) Histology is the science that deals with the study of tissues. Pathologist specialized in laboratory studies of cells and tissue for diagnoses
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4 Types of Tissues
Epithelial  Covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, duct, and forms glands Connective  Protects, supports, and binds organs.  Stores energy as fat, provides immunity Muscular  Generates the physical force needed to make body structures move and generate body heat Nervous  Detect changes in body and responds by generating nerve impulses
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Development of Tissues


Tissues of the body develop from three primary germ layers:  Ectoderm, Endoderm, and Mesoderm Epithelial tissues develop from all three germ layers All connective tissue and most muscle tissues drive from mesoderm Nervous tissue develops from ectoderm

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Cell Junctions


Contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells 5 most common types:
    

Tight junctions Adherens junctions Desmosomes Hemidesmosomes Gap junctions

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Tight Junctions


Web-like strands of transmembrane proteins


Fuse cells together Seal off passageways between adjacent cells


Common in epithelial tissues of the stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder Help to retard the passage of substances between cells and leaking into the blood or surrounding tissues

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Adherens Junctions


Dense layer of proteins called plaque


Resist separation of cells during contractile activities Located inside of the plasma membrane attached to both membrane proteins and microfilaments of the cytoskeleton Transmembrane glycoproteins called cadherins insert into the plaque and join cells In epithelial cells, adhesion belts encircle the cell

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Desmosomes


Contain plaque and cadherins that extends into the intercellular space to attach adjacent cells together
Desmosome plaque attaches to intermediate filaments that contain protein keratin Prevent epidermal cells from separating under tension and cardiac muscles cells from pulling apart during contraction

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Hemidesmosomes


Resemble half of a desmosome


Do not link adjacent cells but anchor cells to the basement membrane Contains transmembrane glycoprotein integrin Integrins attach to intermediate filaments and the protein laminin present in the basement membrane
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Gap Junctions


Connect neighboring cells via tiny fluid-filled tunnels called connexons


Contain membrane proteins called connexins Plasma membranes of gap junctions are separated by a very narrow intercellular gap (space)
 

Communication of cells within a tissue Ions, nutrients, waste, chemical and electrical signals travel through the connexons from one cell to another

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Epithelial Tissues


Epithelial tissue consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers
Closely packed and held tightly together Covering and lining of the body Free surface

3 major functions:
Selective barrier that regulates the movement of materials in and out of the body Secretory surfaces that release products onto the free surface Protective surfaces against the environment
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General Features of Epithelial Cells




Surfaces of epithelial cells differ in structure and have specialized functions


Apical (free) surface


Faces the body surface, body cavity, lumen, or duct Faces adjacent cells Opposite of apical layer and adhere to extracellular materials

Lateral surfaces


Basal surface


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General Features of Epithelial Cells




Basement membrane
Thin double extracellular layer that serves as the point of attachment and support for overlying epithelial tissue Basal lamina
 

Closer to and secreted by the epithelial cells Contains laminin, collagen, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans Closer to the underlying connective tissue Contains collagen secreted by the connective tissue cells

Reticular lamina
 

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Epithelial Cells

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Epithelial Tissues
Own nerve supply Avascular or lacks its own blood supply Blood vessels in the connective tissue bring in nutrients and eliminate waste High rate of cell division for renew and repair Numerous roles in the body (i.e. protection and filtration)
 

Covering and lining epithelium




Outer covering of skin and some internal organs Secreting portion of glands (thyroid, adrenal, and sweat glands)

Glandular epithelium


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Covering and Lining Epithelium




Normally classified according to:


Arrangement of cells into layers Shapes of cells

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Covering and Lining Epithelium




Arrangement of cells in layers


Consist of one or more layers depending on function Simple epithelium


Single layer of cells that function in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, or absorption Appear to have multiple layers because cell nuclei at different levels All cells do not reach the apical surface Two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in areas of wear and tear
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Pseudostratified epithelium


Stratified epithelium


Different Types of Covering and Lining Epithelium




Cells vary in shape depending on their function


Squamous
 

Thin cells, arranged like floor tiles Allows for rapid passage of substances As tall as they are wide, shaped like cubes or hexagons May have microvilli Function in secretion or absorption

Cuboidal
  

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Different Types of Covering and Lining Epithelium


Columnar
  

Much taller than they are wide, like columns May have cilia or microvilli Specialized function for secretion and absorption Cells change shape, transition for flat to cuboidal Organs such as urinary bladder stretch to larger size and collapse to a smaller size

Transitional
 

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Simple Epithelium
Simple squamous epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium (nonciliated and ciliated) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium (nonciliated and cilated)

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Simple squamous epithelium


Single layer of cells that resembles a tiled floor on the surface


Nucleus is centrally located and appears flattened oval or sphere

Found at sites for filtration or diffusion

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Covering and Lining Epithelium




Endothelium
The type of simple squamous that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels

Mesothelium
The type of epithelial layer of serous membranes such as the pericardium, pleura, or peritoneum

Unlike other epithelial tissue, Both are derived from embryonic mesoderm

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Simple cuboidal epithelium


Cuboidal shaped cells Cell nuclei round and centrally located Found in thyroid gland and kidneys Functions in secretion and absorption

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Simple columnar epithelium

Column shaped cells Oval nuclei at near base Nonciliated and ciliated

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Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium

Contains columnar cells with microvilli at their apical surface and goblet cells
Secreted mucus serves as lubricant for the lining of digestive, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts Also prevents the destruction of the stomach lining by acidic gastric juices
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Ciliated simple columnar epithelium


Columnar epithelial cells with cilia at the apical surface  In respiratory tract, goblet cells are interspersed among ciliated columnar epithelia  Secreted mucus on the surface traps inhaled foreign particles. Beating cilia moves particles to the throat for removal by coughing, swallowing, or sneezing  Cilia also moves oocytes to the uterine tubes
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Covering and Lining Epithelium




Pseudostratified columnar epithelium


Appears to have several layers due to nuclei are various depths All cells are attached to the basement membrane in a single layer but some do not extend to the apical surface Ciliated cells secrete mucus and bear cilia Nonciliated cells lack cilia and goblet cells

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Covering and Lining Epithelium

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Stratified Epithelium
 

Two or more layers of cells Specific kind of stratified epithelium depends on the shape of cells in the apical layer
Stratified squamous epithelium Stratified cuboidal epithelium Stratified columunar epithelium Transitional epithelium

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium


 

Several layers of cells that are flat in the apical layer


New cells are pushed up toward apical layer As cells move further from the blood supply they dehydrate, harden, and die Found in superficial layers of the skin Found in mouth and esophagus

Keratinized form contain the fibrous protein keratin




Nonkeratinized form does not contain keratin




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Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium


Fairly rare type of epithelium Apical layers are cuboidal Functions in protection

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Stratified columnar epithelium


Also very uncommon Columnar cells in apical layer only Basal layers has shorten, irregular shaped cells Functions in protection and secretion

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Transitional Epithelium
Found only in the urinary system Variable appearance In relaxed state, cells appear cuboidal Upon stretching, cells become flattened and appear squamous Ideal for hollow structure subjected to expansion

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Glandular Epithelium: Endocrine Glands


Secretions, called hormones, diffuse directly into the bloodstream Function in maintaining homeostasis

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Glandular Epithelium: Exocrine Glands


Secrete products into ducts that empty onto the surfaces of epithelium Skin surface or lumen of a hollow organ Secretions of the exocrine gland include mucus, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva, and digestive enzymes Examples of glands include sudoriferous (sweat) glands

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Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands




Multicellular glands are categorized according to two criteria:


Ducts are branched or unbranched Shape of the secretory portion of the gland
    

Simple gland duct does not branch Compound gland duct branches Tubular glands have tubular secretory parts Acinar glands have rounded secretory parts Tubuloacinar glands have both tubular and rounded secretory parts
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Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands

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Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands

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Connective Tissue


Most abundant and widely distributed tissues in the body Numerous functions
Binds tissues together Supports and strengthen tissue Protects and insulates internal organs Compartmentalize and transport Energy reserves and immune responses

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Extracellular matrix of Connective Tissue




Extracellular matrix is the material located between the cells


Consist of protein fibers and ground substance

 

Connective tissue is highly vascular Supplied with nerves


Exception is cartilage and tendon. Both have little or no blood supply and no nerves

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Cells and Fibers in Connective Tissue

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Connective Tissue Cells


 

Fibroblasts Secrete fibers and components of ground substance Adipocytes (fat cells) Store triglycerides (fat) Mast cells Produce histamine White blood cells Immune response Neutrophil and Eosinophils Macrophages Engulf bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis Plasma cells Secrete antibodies
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Connective Tissue Extracellular Matrix




Ground substance
Between cells and fibers


Fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcified

Functions to support and bind cells, store water, and allow exchange between blood and cells Complex combination of proteins and polysaccharides

Fibers
Collagen fibers Elastic fibers Reticular fibers

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Classification of Connective Tissues




Embryonic connective tissue


Mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue

Mature connective tissue


Loose connective tissue


Areolar, adipose, and reticular Dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic Hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage

Dense connective tissue




Cartilage


Bone tissue Liquid connective tissue




Blood and lymph


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Embryonic Connective Tissue


Mesenchyme  Gives rise to all other connective tissues Mucous (Whartons Jelly)  Found in umbilical cord of the fetus

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Loose Connective Tissue: Areolar Connective Tissue


Most widely distributed in the body Contains several types of cells and all three fibers

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Loose Connective Tissue: Adipose Tissue


Contains adipocytes Good for insulation and energy reserves White (common) and brown adipose tissue

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Loose Connective Tissue: Reticular Connective Tissue


Fine interlacing reticular fibers and cells Forms the stroma of liver, spleen, and lymph nodes

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Dense Connective Tissue




Dense connective tissue


Contains numerous, thicker, and denser fibers Packed closely with fewer cells than loose connective tissue

Dense regular connective tissue


Bundles of collagen fibers are regularly arranged in parallel patterns for strength Tendons and most ligaments

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Types of Mature Connective Tissue: Dense Irregular Connective Tissue


Collagen fibers are usually irregularly arranged Found where pulling forces are exerted in many directions Dermis of skin and heart

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Dense Connective Tissue: Elastic Connective Tissue


Contain branching elastic fibers Strong and can recoil to original shape after stretching Lung tissue and arteries

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Types of Mature Connective Tissue: Cartilage




Cartilage is a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded in chondroitin sulfate
Chondrocytes


Cartilage cells found in the spaces called lucunae Covering of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage Two layers: outer fibrous layer and inner cellular layer

Perichondrium


No blood vessels or nerves, except perichondrium


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Hyaline cartilage
Most abundant cartilage in the body Surrounding by perichondrium (some exceptions like articular cartilage) Provide flexibility and support. Reduces friction

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Fibrocartilage
Chondrocytes are scattered among bundles of collagen fibers within the extracellular matrix Lack a perichondrium Strongest type of cartilage Found in intervertebral disc (between vertebrae)

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Elastic Cartilage
Chrondrocytes are located within a threadlike network of elastic fibers Perichondrium is present Provides strength and elasticity

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Repair and Growth of Cartilage


 

Cartilage grows slowly When injured or inflamed, repairs is slow due to its avascular nature. Two patterns of cartilage growth:
Interstitial growth


Growth from within the tissue Growth at the outer surface of the tissue

Appositional growth


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Bone tissue


 

Bones are organs composed of several different connective tissues: bone (osseous) tissue, periosteum, and endosteum. Compact or spongy Osteon or haversian system
Spongy bone lacks osteons. They have columns called trabeculae

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Liquid Connective Tissue




Blood tissue
Connective tissue with liquid extracellular matrix called blood plasma

Lymph

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Membranes

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Epithelial Membranes


Mucous membranes
Lines a body cavity that opens directly to the exterior Epithelial layer is important for the bodys defense against pathogens Connective tissue layer is areolar connective tissue and is called lamina propria

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Epithelial Membranes


Serous membranes or serosa


Lines a body cavity that does not open directly to the exterior. Also covers the organs that lie within the cavity Consist of areolar connective tissue covered by mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium) that secrete a serous fluid for lubrication

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Epithelial membranes: Mucous Membranes




Membranes are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body Epithelial membranes are a combination of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer
Mucous, Serous, and Cutaneous membranes

Synovial membranes
Lines joints and contains connective tissue but not epithelium
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Muscular Tissue


Consists of elongated cells called muscle fibers or myocytes


Cells use ATP to generate force Several functions of muscle tissue Classified into 3 types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscular tissue

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Skeletal Muscle Tissue


Attached to bones of the skeleton Have striations Voluntary movement or contractions by conscious control Vary in length (up to 40 cm) and are roughly cylindrical in shape

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Cardiac Muscular Tissue


Have striations Involuntary movement or contraction is not consciously controlled Intercalated disc unique to cardiac muscle tissue

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Smooth Muscle Tissue


Walls of hollow internal structures


Blood vessels, airways of lungs, stomach, and intestines

Nonstriated Usually involuntary control

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Nervous Tissue


Consists of two principle types of cells Neurons or nerve cells Neuroglia

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Excitable Cells
 

Neurons and muscle fibers Exhibit electrical excitability


The ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals such as action potentials Actions potentials propagate along a nerve or muscle plasma membrane to cause a response
 

Release of neurotransmitters Muscle contraction

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Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis




When tissue damage is extensive both stroma and parenchymal cells are active in repair
Fibroblast divide rapidly New collagen fibers are manufactured New blood capillaries supply materials for healing

All of these process create an actively growing connective tissue called granulation tissue
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Aging and Tissues


  

Tissue heal faster in young adults Surgery of a fetus normally leaves no scars Young tissues have a better nutritional state, blood supply, and higher metabolic rate Extracellular components also changes with age Changes in the bodys use of glucose, collagen, and elastic fibers contribute to the aging process
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End of Chapter 4
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