Phased Array Radars

Naval Weapons Systems

Limitations of Mechanical Scanning Radars
y y y y

Positioning Antenna is SLOW Reduced reaction times Blind Sided! Mechanical error

Electronic Scanning Increased Data Rates Instantaneous Beam Positioning Elimination of Mechanical Errors MultiMulti-mode Operation MultiMulti-target capability .

Phased Array / SPY ± 1D .

phase. .Phase Concept Principle of Operation The electromagnetic energy received at a point in space from two or more closely spaced radiating elements is a maximum when the energy from each radiating element arrives at the point in phase.

Phase Relationships Constructive Interference Destructive Interference .

Generating a Directional Main Lobe in a Phased Array Radar Wave Fronts of Maximum Energy Boresight Axis Boresight Axis Radiating in Phase Altering the Phase to Change the Axis .

Beam Positioning P Point ³P´ where all waves arrive in phase .

Methods of Beam Steering 3 Kinds Time Delay Scanning Frequency Scanning Phase Scanning .

Methods of Beam Steering Time Delay Scanning Use of time delay to achieve the desired phase relationship Time delay networks installed in front of each radiating element Expensive. Complex & Heavy .

Time Delay Scanning U d .

.Methods of Beam Steering Frequency Scanning The physical length of the wave guide to delay the frequency interval Vary the frequency about a base frequency Very simple and relatively inexpensive.


Frequency Scanning Wave guide feed horns Case #1 All Waves transmitted are in phase Wave guide Case #2 Waves transmitted are phase shifted Wave guide .

Methods of Beam Steering Phase Scanning Radiating elements fed by phasephaseshifting networks (Phasers) Phasers are electronically adjustable More expensive than frequency scanning but cheaper than time delay Most widely used ± SPY1 .


Phase Scanning Phasers!! .

Fleet Uses of Electronic Scanning Ticonderoga Arleigh Burke SPSSPS-48 Air Search .

AN/SPS ± 48 .

Angular Resolution CrossCross-Range Resolution Antenna beam width Range For accurate angular resolution need very long antenna (~10 km long!) Motion of the transmitter/receiver simulates long antenna .




* Motion of the antenna used as the antenna aperture * Sequential instead of simultaneous * High resolution imaging from aircraft .Synthetic Aperture Array Radar * Uses the same theory of electronic scanning.


and Phase scanning ‡ VERY BASIC LOOK AT ELECTRONIC SCANNING! .Electronic Scanning Summary ‡ Multiple functions ‡ Search ‡ Track (so. Frequency. TWS) ‡ Beam Steering ‡ Time delay.


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