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Personality is a set of traits and characteristics, habit patterns and conditioned responses to certain stimuli that formulate the

impression an individual makes upon others. Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual.  Personality traits develop in the early childhood years.  Physical build, intelligence-biological  Patience, open mindedness, extrovertness-learned

Personality is a dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to the environment. GORDON ALLPORT Elements of personality: 1. Represents distinctive traits. 2. Integrating and organising agent between physiological psychological facets of individual. 3. Unique in nature. 4. Becomes habitual to person. 5. Results finally into action behaviour in relation to a person, organization and situation.

Personality denotes psychological characteristics of a person that influence his behaviour towards goal achievement. Sum total of ways in which a person interacts with others. Key influence on work performance-human relation jobs.

1) HEREDITY  Transmission of qualities from ancestors to the descendants Eg. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, temperament.  Importance of heredity varies from one personality trait to other. Eg. More important in determining persons temperament than values and ideas. 2) BRAIN  Another biological factor  Research shows that better understanding of the human personality and behaviour might come from the study of brain.

3) EMOTIONAL MAKE-UP OR TEMPERAMENT  Non-intellectual personality trait.  Temperament is the degree to which one responds emotionally. 4) INTEREST  Individual has varied interests.  Top executives may not have common interests-job rotation, special training programme to satisfy interests.  Successful persons in same occupation have same interests to large extent.


MOTIVES Inner drives of individual Represent goal-directed behaviour of individual cognitive factor-determine behaviour towards goal Behaviour of individual to accomplish goal varies because of inner drives.

6) PHYSICAL TRAITS  External appearance-tremendous effect on personality.  Higher weightage to physical features while defining personality. Eg. Asset for job of sales person and public relations.

7) FAMILY FACTORS  Influences behaviour in early stages. Social-economic level of family Family size Birth order Race Religion Parents educational level Geographical location 8) SOCIAL FACTORS  Infant acquires behaviour patterns customary and acceptable to standards of community where family lives.  Status of family in society influences individuals perception about self, others, work, money etc.

9) SITUATIONAL FACTORS  Demands of different situations may call for different aspects of ones personality  Therefore, personality factor should not be looked in isolation.  Although, certain generalization can be made.

Given by Sigmund Freud He concluded by clinical finding that major force which motivates a human being is his unconscious framework. This framework includes three conflicting psychoanalytic concepts : The Id The Ego The Superego

The ID: It resides completely at unconscious level. Acts under the pleasure principle .

The Ego:  It is the conscious and logical part and is based on the reality principle.  Ego controls ID.

The Superego:

 It is the higher level force to restrain the Id.  It is described as the conscience of a person.  Resides on ideal principle.

Anal stage Oral stage

Phallic stage

Latency Genital stage stage

This theory states that as we age our personality traits from immature to mature in an continuum process.





 Mature organizational participant becomes frustrated and anxious and is in conflict with the formal organization.  It also only focused on only one aspect of personality(mature or immature). Much also depend upon individuals perception , self concept and ability.

A trait can be thought of dimension of personality used to categorize people according to the different attributes that appears constantly in a variety of situations. Assumptions :  Traits are continuous.  Traits describe individual differences.  Traits can be distinguished from states such as anxiety, dependency, aggression.  Traits can be quantifiable.

Mentioned common traits used to compare one personality with another. Identified unique traits called Personal Dispositions Personal dispositions are classified as Cardinal Traits Most pervasive Central Traits - Unique and limited in number Secondary Traits Periphery

Factor analytic approach

Surface traits : affectionate versus cold Source traits : dominance versus submissiveness

For example : Reserved  Less Intelligent  Submissive  Trusting

vs vs vs vs

Outgoing More Intelligent Dominant Suspicious

It emphasizes an integrated set of traits that appear to be valid predictors of certain behavior in the workplace.

Conscientiousness : Dependable, hardworking, organized, self disciplined, responsible. Emotional stability : Calm , secure, happy, unworried. Agreeableness : Cooperative , warm ,caring, good-natured, trusting. Extroversion : sociable, outgoing, talkative, assertive. Openness to experience : curious, intellectual, creative, cultured, artistically sensitive, imaginative.

1. Authoritarianism 2. Machiavellianism 3. Introversion and Extroversion 4. Type A and Type B Personality 5. Self-Concept and Self Esteem 6. Locus of Control

Authoritarianism refers to a belief that there should be status and power differences among people in organisations 1. Tend to be rigid in their positions. 2. Place high moral value on their beliefs 3. Views obedience to authority as necessary 4. Adheres to conventional and traditional value system 5. Prefer stable and structured work environments which are governed by clear rules and procedures. 6. Prefer autocratic or directive leadership.

Also known as Mach is named after Niceolo Machiavelli, who wrote on how to gain and use power. Characteristics of HIGH MACH employees are as follows:1. The high mach is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance and believes that ends can justify means. 2. They manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less and persuade others. 3. They have high self confidence and self esteem. 4. They are not easily swayed by a sense of friendship, trust or loyalty. 5. They are successful when situation has a minimum no. of rules and regulations. 6. They flourish when they interact face to face with others rather than indirectly.

Terms are associated with an individuals sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts and Introverts have different career orientations and require different environments to maximize performance.

gregarious ,sociable individuals.

Shy, quiet retiring

more suitable for positions that Are more inclined to excel at tasks require considerable interaction that require thought and analytical with others .Managerial skills. positions are dominated by extroverts.

Type A

Type B

 People who are impatient, aggressive and highly Competitive. Very productive as they work hard, negative side of them is they are more irritable and have poor judgement .

Easy going, laid back and non-competitive.

They do better or complex tasks involving judgement and accuracy rather than speed and hard work.

Self-Concept:- The way individuals define themselves as to who they are and derive their sense of identity. Self-Esteem:- Denotes the extent to which they consistently regard themselves as capable, successful, important and worthy individuals. In Organisations Self-Esteem determines how managers perceive themselves and their role in organisation. People with high self-esteem takes on challenging assignments, contribute significantly to organisational goals and believe that they possess the ability they need at work. Whereas, people with low self-esteem are more susceptible to external influence and are dependent on receipt of positive evaluation from others.

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Locus of control means whether people believe that they are in control of events, or events control them. It is of two types: People with internal locus of control 1. They believe that they are master of their own destiny. 2. Are more active in seeking information to make decisions. 3. More dependent and less susceptible to influence of others. 4. More active socially. 5. Are more likely to use personally persuasive rewards. People with external locus of control 1. They are at the mercy of destiny or chance. 2. Less satisfied with their jobs and have higher absenteeism rates. 3. They are more interested in job security and not in advancement of careers. 4. Prefer extrinsic or chance oriented rewards whereas internals prefer intrinsic rewards e.g. feeling of achievement.