Swing Era: Popular Music, Big Bands
The Swing era .
was the period of time (1935 1946) when big band swing music was the most popular music in the United States. Though the music had been around since the late 1920s and early 1930s, being played by black bands led by such artists as Duke Ellington, Jimmie Lunceford, Benny Moten, Ella Fitzgerald, Cab Calloway, Louis Armstrong and Fletcher Henderson, most historians believe that the Swing Era started with Benny Goodman's performance at the Palomar Ballroom on August 21, 1935, bringing the music to the rest of the country.
The swing era was precipitated by spicing up familiar commercial, popular material with a Harlem oriented flavour and selling it via a white band for a white musical/commercial audience.
Vanilla Ice s 1990 single "Ice Ice Baby" was the first hip hop single to top the Billboard charts. Topping the Australian, Dutch, Irish, Italian and UK charts, the song helped diversify hip hop by introducing it to a mainstream audience. To the Extreme became the fastest selling hip hop album of all time, peaking at #1 on the Billboard 200.
Public Enemy-Fight The Power http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PaoLy7P Hwk Ice Ice Baby http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=149jGeIlx 3I&feature=related
From the Journal of the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy Online:
I refer to this process as cultural bridge building. Although rap artists who are African-American and Latino are able to earn a great deal of mainstream success, their record sales and overall marketability have lagged in comparison to that of white artists. Economically speaking, it would benefit the music industry greatly if the larger white audience could further identify with hiphop culture instead of seeing it as something foreign which left them as casual observers. The industry desperately looked for an artist or event that could pull white America into becoming active participants of hip-hop culture. Eminem was indeed that artist. -Ryan Ford
The Beastie Boys whiteness benefited them in numerous ways. For instance, the Beasties were the first group in the history of rap music to score a platinum record.12 In spite of their phenomenal success, it was much too early in the evolutionary process of hip-hop for any bridgebuilding. Thinking that the music and culture were passing fads, the industry was too unfamiliar with hip-hop to fully exploit it. This left the Beasties success as more of a novelty and less of an example to build marketing blueprints around.
There was a time, from 1935 1946, when teenagers and young adults danced to jazzorientated bands. When jazz orchestras dominated pop charts and when influential clarinettists were household names. This was the swing era. Scott Yanow Also-trombonists were popular! George Colligan
Ken Burns Excerpt Episode 5
Top 10+of Swing/Big Bands
1. Fletcher Henderson(December 18, 1897 December 29, 1952) 2. Benny Goodman(May 30, 1909 June 13, 1986) 3. Tommy Dorsey(November 19, 1905 November 26, 1956 4. Glen Miller(March 1, 1904 missing in action December 15, 1944 5. Jimmy Lunceford(June 6, 1902 July 12, 1947) 6. Count Basie (August 21, 1904 April 26, 1984 7. Woody Herman(May 16, 1913 October 29, 1987) 8. Stan Kenton(December 15, 1911 August 25, 1979 9. Maynard Ferguson(May 4, 1928 August 23, 2006) 10. Roy Eldridge(January 30, 1911 February 26, 1989) 11. Benny Carter(August 8, 1907 July 12, 2003) 12. Raymond Scott(10 September 1908 8 February 1994)
James Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr. (December 18, 1897 December 29, 1952) was an American pianist, bandleader, arranger and composer, important in the development of big band jazz and swing music. His was one of the most prolific black orchestras and his influence was vast. Louis Armstrong was a featured soloist in his band in the 20 s
His band, concept and arrangements considered the model for the Swing Era Had little success as a bandleader financially although his band was popular When his band folded, he worked as an arranger for Benny Goodman Many of Goodman's hits from the swing era were played by Henderson and his own band in the late 1920s and early 1930s. In fact they usually were head arrangements that Fletcher transcribed from his own records and then sold to Goodman. In 1939, Henderson disbanded his own band and joined Goodman's, first as both pianist and arranger and then working full-time as the staff arranger. He reformed bands of his own several times in the 1940s, toured with Ethel Waters again in 1948-1949. Henderson suffered a stroke in 1950 resulting in partial paralysis that ended his days as a pianist. He died in New York City in 1952.
Benjamin David Benny Goodman (May 30, 1909 June 13, 1986) was an American jazz and swing musician, clarinetist and bandleader; widely known as the "King of Swing". In the mid-1930s, Benny Goodman led one of the most popular musical groups in America. His January 16, 1938 concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City is described by critic Bruce Eder as "the single most important jazz or popular music concert in history: jazz's 'coming out' party to the world of 'respectable' music."[ Goodman's bands launched the careers of many major names in jazz, and during an era of segregation, he also led one of the first now well known racially-integrated jazz groups. Goodman continued to perform to nearly the end of his life, including exploring his interest in classical music.
The next night, August 21, 1935 at the Palomar Ballroom in Los Angeles, Goodman and his band began a three-week engagement. On top of the Let's Dance airplay, Al Jarvis had been playing Goodman records on KFWB radio, and Los Angeles fans were primed to hear him in person. Goodman started the evening with stock arrangements, but after an indifferent response, began the second set with the arrangements by Fletcher Henderson and Spud Murphy. According to Willard Alexander, the band's booking agent, Krupa said "If we're gonna die, Benny, let's die playing our own thing."The crowd broke into cheers and applause. News reports spread word of the enthusiastic dancing and exciting new music that was happening. Over the course of the engagement, the "Jitterbug" began to appear as a new dance craze, and radio broadcasts carried the band's performances across the nation. The Palomar engagement was such a marked success it is often exaggeratedly described as the beginning of the swing era. Donald Clarke wrote "It is clear in retrospect that the Swing Era had been waiting to happen, but it was Goodman and his band that touched it off."
Sing Sing Sing
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62ZSQUy U00s&feature=fvwrel Featuring Gene Krupa on the drums
Gene Krupa (January 15, 1909 October 16, 1973) was an American jazz and big band drummer and composer, known for his highly energetic and flamboyant style.
Thomas Francis "Tommy" Dorsey, Jr. (November 19, 1905 November 26, 1956) was an American jazz trombonist, trumpeter, composer, and bandleader of the Big Band era. He was known as "The Sentimental Gentleman of Swing", due to his smooth-toned trombone playing. He was the younger brother of bandleader Jimmy Dorsey. After Dorsey broke with his brother in the mid1930s, he led an extremely popular and highly successful band from the late 1930s into the 1950s. He remains a famous big bandleader of the swing era into the twenty first century.
By 1939, Dorsey was aware of criticism that his band lacked a jazz feeling. He hired arranger Sy Oliver away from the Jimmie Lunceford band . Dorsey was known for raiding other bands for talent .. Tommy Dorsey had a run of 286 Billboard chart hits! Wow! That s a lot! Who in the modern era can claim that many hits!
Opus One-composed by Sy Oliver
Alton Glenn Miller (March 1, 1904 missing in actionDecember 15, 1944) was an American jazz musician (trombone), arranger, composer, and bandleader in the swing era. He was one of the bestselling recording artists from 1939 to 1943, leading one of the best known "Big Bands". Miller's notable recordings include "In the Mood", "Moonlight Serenade", "Pennsylvania 6-5000", "Chattanooga Choo Choo", "A String of Pearls", "At Last", "(I've Got a Gal In) Kalamazoo", "American Patrol", "Tuxedo Junction", and "Little Brown Jug". While he was traveling to entertain U.S. troops in France during World War II, Glenn Miller disappeared in bad weather over the English Channel. The Glenn Miller Orchestra was reformed after the war and continues to record and perform to this day.
In the Mood
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_CI-0E_jses&feature=related "In The Mood" was arranged by Joe Garland and Andy Razaf based on a pre-existing melody. The main theme, featuring repeated arpeggios rhythmically displaced, previously appeared under the title of "Tar Paper Stomp" credited to jazz trumpeter/bandleader Wingy Manone. Manone recorded "Tar Paper Stomp" which did not become popular until the middle of 1930, just months before Horace Henderson used the same tune in "Hot and Anxious", recorded by his brother's band, The Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, on 1931 March 19. Under copyright rules of the day, a tune that had not been written down and registered with the copyright office could be appropriated by any musician with a good ear. A story says that after "In the Mood" became a hit, Manone was paid by Miller and his record company not to contest the copyright.
Clyde Hurley, trumpet
Trumpet solo on In The Mood Taught himself to play from Louis Armstrong records Oftentimes, you might hear other bands play this tune, but trumpeters will play Hurley s solo
James Melvin "Jimmie" Lunceford (June 6, 1902 July 12, 1947) was an American jazz alto saxophonist and bandleader in the swing era. From Denver Studied under Paul Whiteman s father Went to Fisk University Dated W.E.B. DuBois daughter Organized a student ensemble in Memphis called the Chickasaw Syncopators, which became the Jimmy Lunceford Orchestra
Very popular band, even more popular than Duke Ellington, at least for a short time Featured at the Cotton Club Known for great showmanship, as well as impressive uniforms Willie Smith was a great alto player in the band, many of the band members remained loyal to Lunceford, who was known for his professionalism
On July 12, 1947, while playing in Seaside, Oregon, Lunceford collapsed and died from cardiac arrest during an autograph session, aged 45. Allegations and rumors circulated that he had been poisoned by a fishrestaurant owner who was unhappy at having to serve a "Negro" in his establishment.]This story is given credence by the fact other members of Lunceford's band who ate at this restaurant were sickened within hours of the meal.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3o1cksr4p dk&feature=related Jimmy Lunceford-The Three Brown Jacks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cz6_9bz-00&feature=related
From movie, Blues In The Night , 1941
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfpVlXNvX to According to one band member, they were disappointed that a band known for being snappy dressers were featured in a major movie, wearing rags
William "Count" Basie (August 21, 1904 April 26, 1984) was an American jazz pianist, organist, bandleader, and composer. Basie led his jazz orchestra almost continuously for nearly 50 years. Many notable musicians came to prominence under his direction, including tenor saxophonists Lester Young and Herschel Evans, guitarist Freddie Green, trumpeters Buck Clayton and Harry "Sweets" Edison and singers Jimmy Rushing and Joe Williams. Basie's theme songs were "One O'Clock Jump" and "April In Paris".
Swingin The Blues, 1941
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYLbrZAko 7E April in Paris from Blazing Saddles(1974) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cLDmgU 2Alw
Woodrow Charles Herman (May 16, 1913 October 29, 1987), known as Woody Herman, was an American jazz clarinetist, alto and soprano saxophonist, singer, and big band leader. Leading various groups called "The Herd," Herman was one of the most popular of the 1930s and '40s bandleaders. His bands often played music that was experimental for their time.
Had popular swing band, Woodchopper s Ball was a hit song Gradually shifted to bebop type arrangements, hiring Dizzy Gillespie to arrange for the band Igor Stravisnky wrote the Ebony Concerto for Woody Herman s band Band continued to work after Herman s death
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hK_9otl3s Z0&feature=related From 1947 Woody Herman (clarinet,alto sax) Sam Marowitz (alto sax) Herbie Steward, Stan Getz, Zoot Sims (tenor sax) Serge Chaloff (baritone sax)
Ebony Concerto-Igor Stravinsky
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: , transliterated: Igor Fëdorovi Stravinskij; Russian pronunciation: [ i r f jod r v t str v insk j]); 17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 6 April 1971) was a Russian, and later French and American, composer, pianist, and conductor. He is acknowledged by some as one of the most important and influential composers of 20th century music.[
Stanley Newcomb "Stan" Kenton (December 15, 1911 August 25, 1979) was a pianist, composer, and arranger who led an innovative, influential, and often controversial American jazz orchestra. In later years he was active as an educator. Actually had more success after the swing era Was influenced by Earl Hines and Jimmy Lunceford
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oax-u-X0G8E Malaguena http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bulNszvkPc&feature=related Features Mellophonium Band of 1960-63
The mellophone is a brass instrument that is typically used in place of the horn (sometimes called a French horn) in marching bands or drum and bugle corps. Owing to its use primarily outside of concert music, there is not much solo literature for the mellophone, other than that used within drum and bugle corps.
In 1956, when the band returned from its European trip, the Critics Poll in Down Beat reflected victories by black musicians in virtually every category. The Kenton band was playing in Ontario, Canada, at the time, and Kenton dispatched a telegram which lamented "a new minority, white jazz musicians," and stated his "disgust [with the socalled] literary geniuses of jazz." Jazz critic Leonard Feather, alone of all the critics, responded in the October 3, 1956, issue with an open letter which questioned Kenton's racial views. Feather implied that Kenton's failure to win the Critics Poll was probably the real reason for the complaint, and wondered if racial prejudice was involved.
Maynard Ferguson (May 4, 1928 August 23, 2006) was a Canadian jazz musician and bandleader. He came to prominence playing in Stan Kenton's orchestra, before forming his own band in 1957. He was noted for being able to play accurately in a remarkably high register, and for his bands, which served as stepping stones for up-and-coming talent.
With Stan Kenton
Humbug-from Message from Newport
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_C_ZTzwf eZg&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list= PLA051C7F31E9328BF
The Cheshire Cat Walk
Features fusion stars like Chick Corea, Steve Gadd, David Sandborn
Roy David Eldridge (January 30, 1911 February 26, 1989), nicknamed "Little Jazz" was an American jazz trumpet player. His sophisticated use of harmony, including the use of tritone substitutions, his virtuosic solos and his strong influence on Dizzy Gillespie mark him as one of the most exciting musicians of the swing era and a precursor of bebop.
After You ve Gone
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zctXjgd_L eQ Considered transitional trumpeter between Louis Armstrong and Dizzy Gillespie
Bennett Lester Carter (August 8, 1907 July 12, 2003) was an American jazz alto saxophonist, clarinetist, trumpeter, composer, arranger, and bandleader. He was a major figure in jazz from the 1930s to the 1990s, and was recognized as such by other jazz musicians who called him King. In 1958, he performed with Billie Holiday at the legendary Monterey Jazz Festival.
I Can t Get Started
Raymond Scott (born Harry Warnow, 10 September 1908 8 February 1994) was an American composer, band leader, pianist, engineer, recording studio maverick, and electronic instrument inventor. Although Scott never scored cartoon soundtracks, his music is familiar to millions because of its adaptation by Carl Stalling in over 120 classic Bugs Bunny, Porky Pig, Daffy Duck and other Warner Bros. Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies animated shorts. Scott's melodies have also been heard in twelve Ren & Stimpy episodes (that used the original Scott recordings), while making cameos in The Simpsons, Duckman, Animaniacs, The Oblongs, and Batfink
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YfDqR4fqI WE Cartoon placement http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3FLN0iQ 9SQ&feature=related
War Dance For Wooden Indians
youtube:Raymond Scott-Siberian Sleighride http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gt28p8DT HLg youtube: Raymond Scott Powerhouse Medely http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3FLN0iQ9 SQ&feature=related
Born in Brooklyn Graduated from Juilliard Quintette-although it had six people, Scott feared that calling it a sextet might take your mind off of music.. Band did not improvise, Scott taught the musicians the parts by wrote, without charts Organized the first racially integrated radio band in the 40 s Pioneer in electronic instruments and music Berry Gordy of Motown hired him but lost interest
Thad Jones/Mel Lewis Big Band
The Thad Jones / Mel Lewis Jazz Orchestra was a jazz big band formed by trumpeter Thad Jones and drummer Mel Lewis around 1965. The band performed for twelve years in its original incarnation, and included a 1972 tour of the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War. The band won a 1978 Grammy Award for the album Live in Munich. The collaboration ended in 1978 with Jones suddenly moving to Copenhagen, Denmark, after which the band became the Mel Lewis Jazz Orchestra. Since the death of Lewis in 1990 it has been known as the Vanguard Jazz Orchestra. They have maintained a Monday-night residency at the Village Vanguard for four decades
The Groove Merchant(1968) "US" from Consummation Cherry Juice