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Microbiology Chapter 1

Microbiology - The science that studies very small living things Usually requires a magnification tool the microscope Some organisms are large though Helminths worms Sub groups of Microbes we will study Bacteria Archaea Fungi Protozoans Algae Viruses Multicellular animal parasites Helminths

Microbiology Chapter 1 Bacteria

Microbiology Chapter 1 Fungi

Microbiology Chapter 1 Protozoans Ameba


Microbiology Chapter 1 Viruses Avian Flu


Microbiology Chapter 1 Helminth Ascaris round worm


Microbiology Chapter 1 Various disciplines of study within microbiology: Bacteriology, Mycology, Parisitology, Immunology, Epidemiology, Biotechnology Virology Environmental Microbiology Bioremediation

Microbiology Chapter 1 Historical review of the Science of Microbiology Robert Hook 1665 Englishman, used a primitive compound (two magnifying lenses) microscope, reported that lifes smallest units were little boxes Cells, his work started the process of the development of the Cell theory of life

Microbiology Chapter 1 Hooks microscope

Microbiology Chapter 1 Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek 1673 probably the first person to observe living cells with a simple microscope, amateur scientist, ground his own lenses and described what we know today as bacteria rod shaped , spiral shaped , etc. animalcules

Microbiology Chapter 1 Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek

Microbiology Chapter 1

Francesco Redi 1668 opposed the prevailing theory of Spontaneous Generation, maggots in meat , He used covered jars to show that maggots came from flies strong evidence against spontaneous generation Now we teach the theory of Biogenesis Life comes from Life But issue of Spontaneous Generation was actively believed for many more years

Microbiology Chapter 1 Francesco Redi

Microbiology Chapter 1
Edward Jenner is credited with first vaccine in epidemics of smallpox during the late 1700s he observed that milk maids didnt get the disease, cattle had a similar disease cowpox, milk maids had cow pox lesions, but not small pox, he purposefully took scrapings from cowpox blister and scraped a 8 year old volunteer. With the material child got mild illness but not small pox, Vaccination comes from Latin word vacca meaning cow. Jenner laid the foundation for Pasteurs later work with other vaccinations. (Vaccinia virus similar to Variola smallpox virus, today a possible bioterror weapon genetically engineered variola?)

Microbiology Chapter 1 Jenner and vaccination

Microbiology Chapter 1
Pasteur French sceintist that dealt the death blow to the spontaneous generation theory. He devised the ingenious curved necked flasks that prevented contaminated air from reaching boiled beef broth the broth remained uncontaminated even though exposed to the air He was very lucky no endopores present, or it would have failed (resitant to boiling)

Microbiology Chapter 1
1. He developed process we call Pasteuriztion he heated wine to kill contaminating microbes cured sick wine (today we heat treatment to kill pathogens in milk also) 2. He proved that fermentation was caused by a microbe yeast 3. He developed vaccines for rabies and anthrax. Vaccines led to immunity to diseases that routinely killed many people, used to help people long before they understood how they even worked (science of Immunology) 4. He began the revolution in science that led to the Golden Age of Microbiology (from 1857-1914)

Microbiology Chapter 1

Microbiology Chapter 1
Robert Koch - Developed Kochs postulates important technique for determining the actual microbial cause agent of a disease more later, German, contemporary of Pasteur, several very important contributions 1. He discovered the tuberculosis bug (tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis) 2. He discovered the cause of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) from blood of dead cattle, cultured bacteria in pure culture, injected bacteria in live cattle and they died, then again cultured the bacteria in pure culture. This led to the establishment of a procedure for determining microbial cause of disease (see p. ____-for modern application of Kochs postulates)

Microbiology Chapter 1 Kochs postulates

Microbiology Chapter 1

Kochs and Pasteurs work helped establish the Germ Theory of Disease - that microorganisms cause disease (in people, animals, and even plants)

Microbiology Chapter 1

Iwanowski 1892 - Discovered that plant disease can be caused by small organisms that were so small they passed through filters , Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was later identified as the cause - beginning of virology (Today we have discovered new and weird things like viroids, prions) See next slide

Microbiology Chapter 1

Microbiology Chapter 1
Paul Ehrlich, German doctor, wanted to find a magic bullet an agent that would kill the disease agent without hurting the patient (see the Coming plague video, part 1) 1. Developed Salvarsan, salvation from syphilisagent 2. This was an arsenical arsenic compound, that was effective against syphilis Antimicrobial agent, medicine to treat a microbial disease, it was chemical chemotherapy

Microbiology Chapter 1
Syphilis spirochete: T. pallidum Paul Ehrlich

Microbiology Chapter 1
Joseph Lister 1860s, English surgeon that applied ideas of the germ theory to surgery, remembered the work of Semmelweis in Hungary in the 1840s, if a Dr. would wash their hands childbed fever was prevented. He knew that phenol would kill bacteria; put 2 and 2 together and treated wounds with phenol - and no infection (phenol is the basic agent of todays Lysol) 1. First antiseptic use in surgery, chemicals used as agents on tissue before surgery (tissue treated with an antimicrobial agent antiseptic, betadine) disinfectants are chemicals, used on a surface 2. Also proved that microbes cause surgical infections (todays scourge MRSA)


Antisepsis in surgery

Microbiology Chapter 1

Alexander Fleming - Scottish physician and bacteriologist - 1928 Observed mold growing on a bacteria culture, there was a ring of clearing around the mold where the bacteria didnt grow, the mold was later found to be a Penicillium species and the naturally secreted chemical was called penicillin, an antibiotic 1. Antibiotics are natural agents 2. Synthetic drugs are chemicals produced in labs (sulfas) 3. Problems with them - toxicity, resistance, allergic reactions 4. Flemings work - shelved until early WWII, sulfas were failing, needed penicillin to cure battle field wounds 5. Now have thousands of antibiotics and synthetics (and a significant problem resistance)

Flemming and Penicillium

Microbiology Chapter 1
Salk - Polio vaccine, 1950s polio was a scary epidemic, Salk developed a vaccine by treating the virus with formalin (IPV) inactivated polio virus Sabin 1963 live Polio virus vaccine, attenuated altered virus, OPV-oral polio vaccine The work done on polio revolutionized the science of virology and we are seeing the results today in advances with Hepatitis and HIV viral infections - tissue culture and other techniques

Avery and Macleod, DNA is genetic material

Watson and Crick, DNA, 1953

DNA Double helix

Double Helix

Salk; IPV

Sabin, OPV

Microbiology Chapter 1
Jacob and Monod 1965 Did research on RNA and protein synthesis in bacteria - last necessary step in understanding how genetics works on a cellular level (Replication, Transcription, Translation protein synthesis expression of traits) Modern science thrives today only on the laid foundation of thousands of men and women who did mundane routine and often boring lab science. Dont forget that we are here today because we stand on the shoulders of Giants who were people just like you and me. (Who are the Giants today? CDC, USAMRID, young Joe or Mary the graduate student?, maybe you?)

Microbiology Chapter 1

Microbiology Chapter 1
Classification, Taxonomy, Binomial Nomenclature - Yucchy!!!!! No one likes it. Just do it!!!

The Classification of Living Things

Living organisms are assigned to groups based upon their similarities.

Systematics is the discipline of

identifying and classifying organisms.

The highest largest category, recent addition 3 domains
1. Archaea ancient bacteria, unicellular like bacteria, also simple cell structure (prokaryote no nucleus) but have distinct metabolism (chemistry) allowing them to exist in extreme environments 2. Bacteria unicellular, prokaryote, found everywhere (Old kingdom name Monera) 3. Eukarya unicellular to multicellular, complex and organized cells with nuclei and organelles (mitochondria)

Domain Archaea
Archaea are singlecelled organisms that lack a membranebound nucleus. Prokaryote Archaea can be found in environments that are too hostile for other life forms.

Domain Bacteria
Bacteria are singlecelled organisms that lack a membranebound nucleus. (Prokaryote also) Bacteria are found almost everywhere on the planet Earth.

Domain Eukarya
The cells of all eukaryotes have a membranebound nucleus. Members of the Domain Eukarya are further categorized into one of four Kingdoms. (know these kingdoms)

Check your notes; Older 5 kingdom scheme is still widely used Monera bacteria (Prokaryotic) Protista Protozoans (Eukaryotic) Fungi - yeast, molds, etc. (Eukaryotic) Plant photosynthetic producers (Eukaryotic) Animals heterotrophic consumers (Eukaryotic)

Categories of Classification
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Categories of Classification
Domain - Dumb Kingdom - King Phylum - Philip Class Came Order - Over Family - For Genus - Good Species -



Categories of Classification
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Most inclusive

Least inclusive

Categories of Classification

Scientific Names
Binomial (two name) Genus first and first letter capitalized, then species not capitalized. If written or typed either underline or italicize
Genus name, species name Homo sapiens - italicized Homo troglodytis (Your EX?) underlined Canis familiaris Your puppy (except poodles) Felis domesticus Your Kitty (some strange people have to have Felis leo or Felis tigris) Canis latrans Invites your kitty over for lunch Canis lupus - ____________? guess

Know for test

3 domains Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya 4 Eukarya Kingdoms
Protista Protozoans like Ameba and Paramecium (producers and consumers) Fungi yeasts, molds, mushrooms (consumers) Plants complex producers, trees, grasses Animals complex consumers

Classification of Bacteria
Somewhat different: a clinical rapid ID is often important when trying to find causative agent of a disease Bergeys manual: Manual is in lab for a reference when doing unknown Developed on 1940s for grouping bacteria according to standard diagnostic lab techniques available at the time (such as Grams stain)

Classification of Bacteria
Gram + cocci Gram - bacilli

Classification of Bacteria
Gram - Spirochete

Gram + bacilli

Classification of Bacteria
The manual divides bacteria into 4 groups or divisions on the basis of their Cell Wall
1. Gram + (stain violet) 2. Gram - (destain, and are counterstained pink or reddish color) 3. Bacteria that lack a cell wall (mycoplasma) 4. organisms that have a cell wall lacking peptidoglycan (archaeobacteria Now called Archaea

Classification of Bacteria
More modern methods now used:
1. DNA studies, genomics, gene probes 2. using Bacterial viruses bacteriophages 3. Serology antibody antigen reactions (like blood typing) Examples: Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Azotobacter vinelandii 12837 E. coli 0157H7 nasty strain of E. coli