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Scarcity of water in the World

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Present scenario of Fresh water in this world


2/3 of earth surface is made up of water so when astronauts viewed the earth it looked blue Out of which 97 % water is Saline water and 3 % Fresh water Out of 3 % Fresh water a) Icecaps & Glaciers = 68.7 % b) Ground water = 30.1 % c) Surface water = 0.3 % of which 87 % Lakes, 11% Swamps and 2% Rivers d) Others = 0.9 % Let s consider that total quantity of water in the Earth is 1000 ml or 1 Litre then: 1) Ocean = 972 ml 2) Fresh Water i) Icecaps and Glaciers = 23 ml ii) Ground water = 4 ml iii) Surface water = 2 drops iv) Water in Air and Soil = 1 drop

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Present scenario of Fresh water in this world A statistics of Water


Total Global water = 1400 MM Tr. Litres Total Fresh water = 35 MM Tr. Litres 0.76 % total Fresh Water are most easily accessible and used as a source of water Every year 0.11 MM Tr. Litres of precipitation falls on land and 92% of this is lost due to surface runoff, evaporation etc. By 2025 an estimated 3 bn people will be living below water stress threshold (Annual per capita water availability 1.7 MM litres) Between 1995- 2025 global population and per capita water consumption are 1995projected to grow at Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 1.16% and 0.67 % respectively Dense populated and developing regions of the World, such as Asia and Africa are expected to face maximum water stress.

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Present scenario of Fresh water in this world India vs. China from 2000-2050 2000Country Year Domestic ( Bn. Ltr) Industrial (Bn. Ltr) Agriculture CAGR Per capita (Bn. Ltr) % consumption

_______________________________________________________________ India 2000 93 115 1158 80.9 Ltr. 0.56% 2050 227 441 1745 167 Ltr.
__________________________________________________________________________________

China

2000

105

382

1024 0.94 %

82.7 Ltr.

2050 219 822 1151 155.4 Ltr. ________________________________________________________________ This increment of water demand is due to : Increase of population & urbanization Change of consumption pattern of the population towards use of more water intensive products Rapid industrial growth.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in this world

According to assessment of International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka in 2007 a) About 1.2 Billion people live in Physical Water scarcity ( Where there is not enough water to meet all demands that needed for ecosystems for functional effectively) b) About 1.6 Billion people live in areas, experiencing Economic Water Scarcity ( This is due to lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity or inadequate infrastructure )( Source: Molden D (ED)- Water for Food, Water for Life- p-II) (ED)Lifec) Inadequate access to safe drinking water for about 884 Millions ( Progress for Drinking Water & Sanitation WHO/UNICEF, July- 08 p-25) Julypd) Inadequate access to water for Sanitation & Waste disposal- 2.5 billions people out of disposalwhich 1.8 billions are in Asia( Source : Update Nos. WHO/UNICEF JMP Report,08) e) 87 % of total sewage is not treated in Afghanistan before being discharged into that country s rivers & waterways ( Source : Press release of WHO dated 20.3.08) f) For Children under age of 5, waterborne diseases are the leading cause of death. g) 50 % of World Hospital s bed are occupied by the patients suffering from waterborne diseases. h) 88 % of waterborne diseases are caused by unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene.

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Present scenario of Fresh water in this world

It takes about 3000 litres of water converted from liquid to vapour to produce enough food to satisfy one person s daily dietary use. The present population is about 6.5 Billions. So to produce food for them, requirement of water for today would fill a canal having 10m deep X 100 m wide with a length of 7.1 million kilo meters. This length is enough to circle the Globe 180 times. Projected population in 2050 is about 9 Billions. So choosing to eat fewer cereals, more meat and vegetable could add an additional 5 million kilo meters to our virtual canal. Average Rainfall of this World is 850 mm World wide consumption of water is doubling every 20 years- more than twice the rate of yearspopulation As per Dr. Peter Gleick the average consumption of water was around 50 litres/ capita/day
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2.0

Scarcity of water in India

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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Statistics

Total Reserve = Non usable water = Usable water =

1853 Tr. Litres 777 Tr. Litres 1076 Tr. Litres out of which 36% Ground water and remaining 64% Surface water Annual Precipitation= 4000 Tr. Litres Uses : a) Domestic = 5 %, b) Industrial = 6% & c) Agriculture= 89% Population :1.21 Bn. in 2011 and projected population in 2050 is 1.66 Bn Urban Population : 29.2 % in 2007 and projected 55.2% in 2050 of total population Par capita income : $ 468 in year 2007 & projected $ 17366 in 2050 Industrial Contribution to GDP : 78 % in 2007 while 92% in 2050 (Proj.) Increase of water intensive crops : 80 % increase between 2000-2050 2000Major crops :Wheat, Rice & Sugarcane (about 91% of total crop in 2008) Water demand for production of crop/MT : a) Wheat=1654 Cum, b) Rice = 2580 Cum & c) Sugarcane = 159 Cum Demand of food grain : 178 MM Mt in 2000 & 241 MM Mt in 2050 (Proj.)
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India

* Traditionally, India has been well endowed with large fresh water reserves but the increasing population and over exploitation of Ground and Surface water over past few decades has resultant in water scarcity in some regions. * Growth of Indian Economy is driving increased water usage across sectors. Waste water is increasing significantly and in absence of proper measures for treatment and management, the existing fresh water reserves are being polluted * Increased urbanisation is driving an increase in par capita water consumption. Urbanisation is also driving a change in consumption pattern and increased demand of water intensive Agriculture crops and Industrial products. * Over exploitation of Ground water in certain states has resultant in long term decline in water levels with associated adverse consequences such as land subsidence and pollute the Ground water quality.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


One of every three persons is facing water problem Water is rationed twice a week in Bangalore. 30 minutes/day supply of water in Bhopal. 250 tankers make 2250 trips for supplying of drinking water at Chennai. Routinely water cut in Mumbai from January to June. Some areas of Hyderabad get water once in three days. Queue of people are found in midnight in Vypuri, an island off the mainland of Kochi. Due to Coca-cola plant at Plachimida severe water crisis is noticed in Cocaadjoining district. People of some places of Kottayam district hesitate to offer a glass of water to a visitor. In upper Kottanadu district people collect water from a distance of 3-4 Km. 3In summer, some parts of Rajasthan, people have to walk more than 14000 Km per year for collecting water.

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Present scenario of Fresh water in India Water, most Commercial Product


In some parts of Rajasthan people collect water from a distance of 3-4 3Km. In drought condition women and girls are trudging still further. This time loss in fetching water can very well translate in financial gain. If opportunity costs were taken into account, it would be clear that in most rural areas, household are paying for more for water supply than the often normal rates charges in urban areas. Also the cost of fetching water which is equivalent to 150 million Women Day each year is covered into a loss for National Exchequer into a whopping 10 Billion Rupees per year. ( Source : Roy 2004)

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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Need and Shortfall of water in 12 major cities
City Need ( M Ltrs/ day) Shortfall (M Ltrs./day) ____________________________________________________________ Delhi 3830 880 Lucknow 560 120 Kolkata 2268 690 Jaipur 349 313 Jabalpur 239 45 Bhopal 335 70 Indore 318 134 Visakhapartnam 305 146 Mumbai 4000 1030 Hyderabad 956 186 Chennai 300 105 Bangalore 840 135
( Source Aiyar, India Today (N.D0 09.06.2006)
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India Par Capita availability of water


Year Population (Million) Water available/capita Cum ____________________________________________________________ 1951 361 5117 1955 395 4732 1991 846 2209 2001 1027 1820 2025 1394 1341 2050 1640 1140 _____________________________________________________________ India 16 % of World population has only 2.45 % of world s land resources and 4% of world s Fresh Water resources.
( Source Ministry of Water Resource, Govt. of India)
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Quality of water available High Iron content Salinity Some district of Assam Orissa 31% of Rajasthan Haryana Southern Part of West Bengal

Fluorosis : Andhra Pradesh Haryana Gujarat Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharastra Bihar Delhi

Arsenic South Eastern part of West Bengal Mercury Haryana Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Position of India* a) Quality: 120 out of 122 countries b) Quantity : 133 out of 180 countries (B Desh=40, Sri Lanka=64, Nepal=78 Pakistan= 80)
( Source IIT, Kharagpur/*Indian Express 6.3.03) Serampore SANGHAM

Present scenario of Fresh water in India Status of Quality problem of Water in India
Nature of quality problem Nos. of affected village ____________________________________________________________ Excess fluoride 36988 Excess Arsenic 3553 Excess Salinity 32597 Excess Iron 138670 Excess Nitrate 4003 Other element 1400 _____________________________________________________________
( Source : Chand 2002)

Ministry of Rural Development claims that more than 95% villages of India are under Government water supply scheme but independent reports show scarcity of water is about half of the villages of India.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India Withdrawal of Ground water


* The Agriculture Sector in India is the single largest user of water resources for as much as 80% of total annual withdrawal. * India having highest irrigated area in the world ( 55.14 out of 255.46 million hectare) . Instead of focusing on long term solutions, every government has found it is easier to allow exploration of ground water, it meant less investment and for the sake of popularity it is free to farmer. It causes long term damage as the pump culture has wrought havoc on the Hydrological Cycle. Ground water have plunged more than 206 district, where pumping of under ground water is now more than double the rate of aquifer recharge from rainfall.

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% of Water Usage for Domestic Activities in India

7, 7% 16, 16%

4, 4% 3, 3% 2, 2% 28, 29%

Bathing Toilet Washing Clothes Washing Utensils House Cleaning Drinking Cooking Others

19, 19%

20, 20%

India s Water Food Print (lts/kg) For Key Domestic Product Compare to Global

20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Chicken Milk Cotton Egg Amount in World (Lts /Kg) Amount in India(Lts /Kg)

Present scenario of Fresh water in India Water, different from other crisis
The major difference between the water and energy crisis is, that there is no known substitute for water to satisfy direct demands of people, but there are many known substitutes for petroleum in producing energy. Similarities, present energy crisis and expected water crisis emphasis on increasing scarcities and increasing cost. Thus increasing scarcity of water is likely to bring profound effects upon Economical Progress, Employment, Income Distribution and Debt.

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Present scenario of Fresh water in India Effect of Arsenic in Ground Water


Studies in the arsenic affected zone have shown that the concentration increases with depth reaching at peak around 100-125 feet down and gets 100reduced as it reaches to 400 feet. Groundwater arsenic contamination by arsenic was first reported in 1983 in West Bengal when 63 people were reported suffering from arsenic poisoning. In May 2000, nine district in West Bengal had arsenic levels in ground water above the permissible unit of World Health Organization (WHO). The maximum permissible limit for arsenic in drinking water is 0.05 milligram per litre (mg/l). l). In 77 percent samples the arsenic level was found to be higher than the permissible limit, Arsenic crisis or arsenic toxicity develops after two to five years of exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water. Arsenic causes DIFFUSE MELANOSIS ( Skin begins darken) leads to SPOTTED MELANOSIS ( darken spot in chest, back and limps) followed by KERATOSIS ( skin becomes hard and fibrous with hard boils and Ulcers). Diffuse or Nodular KERATOSIS is a sign of moderate to severe toxicity. This can lead to formation of GANGRENE or even CANCER This may causes complications in Liver, Spleen Enlargement, Cirrhosis of Liver, Neuropathy affecting and Skin Cancer.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Presence of Arsenic in Ground Water
Every new survey shows that the arsenic trail is far from being completely known. It certainly seems to be creeping along the basins of rivers of Ganga and Brahamputra. The extent of arsenic contamination now includes several states in India. The recent studies prove the presence of the contaminant in several states: West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and Jharkhand. In Ekwana Rajpur village of Balia district, water is found to have 73 parts per billion ( ppb) while the limit is only 10 ppb, more than 7 times of the prescribed limit. In Rajnandan gaon district in Chattisgarh, about 8% samples had arsenic above 50 ppb, 5 times higher than the standard limit. In Bhojpur district of Bihar more than 57% people in a village are drinking water which has arsenic concentration above 50 ppb, scenario is equally bad in Buxar . The menace has also spread to Jharkhand, where in Sahibganj district, 30% samples had arsenic above 10ppb, prone to arsenic poisoning.

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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Level of Arsenic in Ground Water in West Bengal District Year of Survey Agency Level of contamination (ppb) Maximum Minimum _____________________________________________________________ Malda Since 1988 Jadavpur University 1904 <3 Murshidabad Since 1988 Jadavpur University 3003 <3 Nadia Since 1988 Jadavpur University 3200 <3 2424-Pgs (N) Since 1988 Jadavpur University 4772 <3 2424-Pgs (S) Since 1988 Jadavpur University 3700 <3 Kolkata Since 1988 Jadavpur University 825 <3 Howrah Since 1988 Jadavpur University 622 <3 Hooghly Since 1988 Jadavpur University 600 <3 Bardhaman Since 1988 Jadavpur University 2230 <3
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Level of Arsenic in Ground Water in other States Arsenic is found in different district of different states of India by UNICEF and Jadavpur University during since 1999. In Bihar : Patna, Bhojpur, Buxar, Saran ( Chapra) and Vaishali where presence of Arsenic is found at high to very high level In Uttar Pradesh : Arsenic contamination is found at high level in Ballia district. In Assam : Moderate contamination is found in Dhemaji and Karimganj district In Jharkhand : Sahibganj district In Chattisgarh : Rajnandgaon district

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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Effect of Fluoride in Ground Water Fluorosis is another crippling and painful disease caused due to excess intake of fluoride through water. Fluorine and Fluoride compounds are listed by U.S. Agency for Toxic substance and disease registry as one of the top 20 among 275 substances that pose the most significant threat to the human health. There is no treatment for fluoride related human disorders. Safety lies only in the prevention (Sarkar 2004) In India, Flurosis has spread over 19 states. According to WHO nearly 66 million i.e about 9.4% of the total rural population are in the grip of fluorosis. Though the prescribed limit of fluoride is 1.5 mgl, but fluoride level is as high as 48 mgl have been reported. The states where the ground water is contaminated include Andhra pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnatka, Chandigarh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and North Eastern Region. Fluoride Toothpaste is now banned in all over the World.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


% of population of different states affected in Fluoride contamination A.P = 18.1 % * Rajasthan = 20.60 % Bihar = N.A * Tamil Nadu = 12.40 % Delhi = 1.14% * U.P = 7.00 % Gujarat = 10.1 % * West Bengal = 2.10 % Haryana = 10.9 % * Assam = N.A J. K = N.A _________________________________ Karnataka = 13.4 % All India = 6.90 % Kerala = N.A M.P = 2.10 % ( source : UNICEF 2001) Maharastha = 0.20 % Orissa = 9.20 % Punjab = 8.90 %

* * * * * * * * * * * *

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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Different states affected in Fluoride contamination Hundreds of villages of southern bank of the Bamhmaputra River are affected with Fluoride contamination. The most affected district of Assam is Karbi-Anaglong. KarbiWest Bengal is not in the list. But survey report shows a large area of Birbhum district- Nalhati, Suri, Rampurhat and Sainthia are under the districtthreat of Fluoride contamination 32 districts of Rajasthan are affected. Out of them Nagaur, Bhilwara, Ajmer, Pali, Jalore, Barmer and Charu are the worst affected. The worst affected block is Liliya of Amreli district in Gujarat
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India Pesticide contamination According to experts, pesticides are the most difficult to remove from water. Pesticides enter surface and groundwater as runoff from crops and they even pollute fresh water bodies like rivers, lakes and estuaries. Incidentally, Delhi uses as much as 62 metric tonnes of pesticides while farmers in UP and Haryana use 7569 metric tonnes and 5025 metric tonnes annually. The rivers Yamuna and Ganga flowing through this region are already carrying huge amounts of pesticides when they enter Delhi. The DJB, in fact, does not have the sophisticated equipment needed to remove pesticide residue from water. (Sharma and Patranobis 2003)
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Pesticide contamination

Cancer, liver and kidney damage, neurological and reproductive disorders are just a few of fatal and chronic health condition one can end up from prolonged consumption of such contaminated water. The most alarming fact about pesticide and effluent pollution of water is that young children are more sensitive to the effects of toxic chemicals because they eat and drink more per body weight and have faster metabolism than adults. Most people are said to receive up to 12 percent of their lifetime dose of toxic chemicals in the first year of their life(Sharma and Patranobis, 2003)
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Pesticide contamination

A huge proportion of the rural population suffers due to chloride, zinc, nitrate and sulphide pollution. The gravity of the problem can be understood from the fact that nitrate is present in68 districts of 12 states, chloride in 17 districts of 5 states, sulphide in 3 districts of one state, iron in 26 districts of seven states, zinc in six districts of 3 states and chromium in one district of one state (Patel 2003) To add to the pesticide load in the water, there are industrial effluents being dumped into the river everyday. There are paper and sugar industries and distilleries besides glass, nickel and chromium plants, along the river all-contributing to the pollution of the river.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Scarcity of water for Multi National Soft Drinks Company

In a water-stressed India, two companies are able to extract nearly a combined billion litres of potable water per day to earn Rs. 4000 crore a year ( two thirds of the Rs. 6000 crore industry) while communities living near the companies operations are forced to do with depleted, contaminated, and unhealthy local supplies. With few government regulations to curb water over extraction practices and inadequate environmental monitoring to catch and penalise polluting practices, villagers living near the 55 plants operating under the Coca-Cola Company and the 38 plants operating under PepsiCo India Holdings Pvt. Ltd. are forced to witness daily the decline in quantity and quality of their precious water resources.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India Scarcity of water for Multi National Soft Drinks Company
The villagers-especially the women-of Plachimada in the state of Kerala illustrate the extent of suffering that foreign multinationals inflict when their water extraction and pollution practices are not properly regulated. Living near one of Coca-Cola s largest bottling plants, commissioned in March 2000 to produce 1,224,000 bottles of Coca-Cola, Fanta, Sprite, Limca, Thums Up, Kinley bottled water, and Mazza fruit drinks, villagers watched as the company extracted some 1.5million litres a day. The extraction of water by the company from 65 bore wells with electric pumps depleted the ground water supplies from 150 to 500 feet. Suddenly, communities that had previously enjoyed sufficient water supplies found themselves with an extreme water scarcity. As a result of the depleted water resources; the livelihood of 2,000 farm families was destroyed.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Scarcity of water for Multi National Soft Drinks Company

In the town of Mehdiganj, located 20km from the holy city of Varanasi in the state of Uttar Pradesh, villagers are protesting against the unjust practices of the plant near their home. The Bharat Coca-Cola Bottling North East Private Limited, operating under the Coca-Cola Company since 1999, is designed to produce 600 bottles per minute of Coca-Cola brand beverages.5 The company s extraction of millions of litres of water a day has contributed to a 40-foot drop in community water resources. While the loss of groundwater may not appear significant in contrast to the drop in groundwater levels in Plachimada, women in Mehdiganj see the loss of water as a sign of what is to come and they worry daily if there will be enough water to supply their family s needs. They are also aware that, like in Plachimada, Coca-Cola factories have contaminated water supplies after dumping wastewater into empty bore wells that leaked toxins into local water resources.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Scarcity of water for Multi National Soft Drinks Company

discrepancy is that, in India, there are no Laws on groundwater extraction that distinguish between the secondary water use of industry (to facilitate the creation of non-potable products) and the primary use of water by the beverage industry for the sale of products that contain water as their main component. Unlike in Europe, where industry is not allowed to draw groundwater, in India beverage companies can deplete groundwater levels for a pittance. In Tamil Nadu, for instance, industry is charged around 2 to 4 paise per litre. According to P.C Chako, the Ground Water Authority s executive engineer, Palakkad division, Pepsico has been buying water at Rs. 10.60 for 1,000 litres, WBIIDC, Raninagar Division, is selling Rs.9.00 for 1000 litres to Coca-cola, when the market price for a litre of branded mineral water is Rs. 12.
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The massive extraction of water by the beverage industry in India is shocking when see in contrast to the inadequate and unsafe water supplies that women and families struggle to meet the requirements of daily life. The reason for the

Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Water Privatisation
Water Privatisation has suddenly come to mean big bucks in India. With water resources in the country fast depleting and the government throwing up its hands, at least five global Corporates are ready to tap the over $ 2,000 million market. They have already set up shops in several States and are confident of seeing their projects approved, with the central government literally rolling the red carpet to welcome them. (Shiva and Jalees 2003) To facilitate private partnerships, the ministry of urban development in May 2003 released a set of guidelines to State governments for creating a welcoming atmosphere in the drinking water sector. Neither the guidelines nor the National Water Policy, 2002, which advocates more private involvement in the water sector bother to see the result of such corporatisation elsewhere in the world. As in Bolivia, where riots broke out in the city of Cochabamba after a 35 per cent increase in water bills, such experiment have been contentious almost everywhere. According to a study compiled by David Hall, director of the Public Services International Research Unit at the University of Greenwich, privatization of water of the Philippines, Germany, Brazil, Nairobi and Argentina have led to a tremendous increase in water prices, triggering public outrage. Making profit on people s most basic needs is the dream of many corporate executives. (Shiva and Jalees 2003)
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India

Water Privatisation Serious questions are raised when the public properties are given to the corporations. Public funds bear the burden of public accountability (Dhawan, 2003). As no one can survive without water, the multinational water companies have discovered a profitable market. The biggest multinational water companies come from Europe Vivendi, Suez-Lyonnaise, Thames Water. Vivendi is the world s largest water service provider through its subsidiary, Generale des Eaux, and operates in 90 countries. Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux has operations in 120 countries, supplying water to 72 million people. The water industry is expanding rapidly the range of their activities and the geographic reach of their services. (Shiva and Jalees 2003)
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Myth and Reality in WTO & World Bank New Policy
Myth 1: New Policies (NP) would increase investments in the sector. Reality: The Portuguese government financed the building of a new water

treatment plant in Matsulu, Nelspruit. The South African Government constructed it, and operated it for one year. After this it was given as a gift to the water multinational, Biwater as per the understanding. The MNC is currently increasing prices in Nelspruit, even through this company contributed nothing to the project.
Myth 2: NP ( New Policies) would lead to more efficient Water Sector. Reality: The people of Nairobi, Kenya, for example, were forced to

fork out over R (Rands) 160 million when Nairobi s water was privatised to French multinational, Generales Des Eaux. Soon after the company, they decided to install a new (but not budgeted for) R 1.5 billion billing and revenue collection service. Although the Mayor complained, the company proceeded and put water prices up by 40 per cent in order to pay for the new system. During this time, 3,500 municipal workers were replaced by 45 foreign staff who earned massive salaries from a total R 13.6 million in the second year of the contract, rising to R 31.2 million per year by the end of the contract.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India

Myth and Reality in WTO & World Bank New Policy


Myth 3: NP would provide clean water.

Reality: The most recent example is the World Bank role in creating the conditions that caused the current cholera epidemic in South Africa. Myth 4: NP would provide equitable access to water. Reality: The World Bank s insistence on full cost recovery service cut-offs to those unable to pay forced a number of communities to access unclean water sources in South Africa recently. The World Bank has funded some rural water schemes in Ghana. These have failed because the Bank demanded that rural communities pay upfront cash amount towards constructing the water system. The policy has resulted in excluding poor communities incapable of paying from enjoying their right to consume potable water, says the CAP-Ghana of Water.

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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Myth and Reality in WTO & World Bank New Policy Myth 5: NP would provide sustainable water services. Reality: Biwater, which privatised Nelspruit s water, withdrew from a Zimbabwean water privatisation project when it became clear that citizens could not pay the tariffs that would be required for Biwater to make a profit. Myth 6: NP would mean less corruption. Reality: The World Bank s preference for massive projects led to the exceedingly and unnecessary expensive (and fatally corrupt) Lesotho Highlands dam project, which caused water price to jump, forcing even more communities to be a cut off. Twelve multinationals are being prosecuted for paying bribes in connection with huge water engineering contracts for the water supply scheme. [The trial began in Lesotho Government for what is expected to be a very complex and costly trial.] Myth 7: NP would make water sector economically viable. Reality: The World Bank s preference for massive projects led to the exceedingly and unnecessary expensive (and fatally corrupt) Lesotho Highlands dam projects, which caused water prices to jump, forcing even more communities to be cut off.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in India


Myth and Reality in WTO & World Bank New Policy Myth 8: NP will create competitive market, to the advantage of consumers. Reality: Water and Sanitation sectors by their very nature create monopolies in their respective service areas. There are only four European multinationals that have the monopoly worldwide on water for profit. One of these, French Vivendi, has recently started raising water prices in the poorest countries of the world because they need extra cash to inject into a Hollywood studio they acquired recently.
Myth 9: NP has been successful elsewhere.

Reality: In Europe, water privatisation has been failing for decades, and in several towns water has been re- municipalized or taken back from whichever multinational messed up the service. In Africa, recent research conducted by London-based Greenwich University s Public Service International Research Unit uncovered that where water was privatised, it was as disastrous as the European experience.
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Present scenario of Fresh water in Burdwan


Burdwan District is the 1st. District in the state to start convergence between NREGS & Roof top rain water harvesting. On 30.07.2009, 31 Technical Assistant of 31 Blocks organised a programme at District NREGS Cell. The main object of that programme was: To meet the ever increasing demand of water To reduce the runoff which chokes storm drain. To avoid flooding of road. To augment the ground water reserve. To reduce ground water pollution. To reduce soil erosion. To supplement domestic water requirement during summer and scarcity. For that 4 nos. Practical Training were organised in a) BDO- Katwa-1, b) BDO BDO- KatwaGalsiGalsi-II, c) BDO- Memari- II & d) BDO- Barabani. BDO- MemariBDOA complete structure was also constructed in BDO- Galsi-II having 10 KL BDO- Galsi-

3.0 Rain Water Harvesting

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Rain Water Harvesting Capturing rainwater where it falls or capturing the run off also taking measures to keep water clean without allowing polluting activities to take place in catchments. Harvesting can be done though variety of ways: Capturing run off from Roof top Capturing run off from catchments Capturing seasonal flood water from local streams Conserving water through water shed management
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Rain Water Harvesting


Artificial Recharge to Ground Water Artificial recharge to ground water is process by which the ground water aquifer is augmented at a exceeding that obtaining under natural condition or replenishment. It is manmade scheme or facility that adds water to natural aquifer by the following process: By filtered well By filtered pit By abundant Tube well etc.
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Rain Water Harvesting Advantages of collection of rain water for personal consumption. Rain water provides a source of water at the point where it is consumed. It is owner s operated and managed It provides an essential reserve in time of emergency and/ or break down of Public water supply system particularly in disaster. Construction technique is simple, economical and local people can easily be trained. Flexible technology- poor household can start with a single small tank and add more when they can afford them. The physical and chemical properties of rain water is superior to surface and /or ground water. Running cost is very low Construction, operation and maintenance are not labour intensive. Ideal for drinking water in heavy metal or pesticide contaminated zones, as prevention is only medicine there.
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Rain Water Harvesting


Disadvantage of collection of rain water for personal consumption.

Success of Rain Water Harvesting depends upon frequency and amount of rain fall Low storage capacity will limit the project. Regular checking is required to avoid contamination where rain water is used as drinking water Care to be taken that storage tank should not be breeding ground for mosquitoes.

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4.0 The Projects

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Project Ground floor plan

Project First floor plan

Project Elevation

Project Elevation

Project Roof Plan

Project Details

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5.0 Project Cost


(based on P.W.D Schedule of Rates)

Serampore SANGHAM

Project Cost 1.0 Earth work in excavation for Tank a) upto1.5 m depth b) up to 3.0 m depth 2.0 Brick Flat soling 3.0 P.C.C 1:3:6 4.0 R.C.C M-20 grade M5.0 Shuttering 6.0 Pressure Grouting 7.0 Flooring I.P.S 8.0 Reinforcement 9.0 Plastering & rendering 10.0 Epoxy Anti bacterial paint 11.0 P.V.C pipe line & UV tube

= 30 Cum @ Rs. 73.30/Cum = 24 Cum @ Rs. 119.00/Cum = 25 Sqm @ Rs. 265.00/Sqm = 2 Cum @ Rs. 4170.00/Cum = 14 Cum @ Rs. 5675.00/Cum = 92 Sqm @ Rs. 310.00/Sqm = 50 Nos. @ Rs. 250.00/Each = 22 Sqm @ Rs. 272.00/ Sqm = 1650 Kg @ Rs. 55.00/ Kg = 95 Sqm @ Rs. 145.00/ Sqm = 117 Sqm @ Rs. 300.00/Sqm L.S Total

2199.00 2856.00 7950.00 8340.00 79450.00 28520.00 12500.00 5984.00 90750.00 13775.00 35100.00 40000.00 __________ 327424.00

Serampore SANGHAM

Project Cost Operational Cost

Same as operational cost of Pump from Underground Reservoir of a Building, which does not have any additional cost. The main difference is to unplug the First Flush Diverter after shower and re-fixing the same in reposition after cleaning the First Flush Diverter pipe. Apart from that cost of electricity of UV tube fitted in Rain water collecting tank, for a maximum 5 minutes. Hence operational cost is negligible. The construction cost is about 0.6 % only of total building cost.
Serampore SANGHAM

Depreciation

Depreciation of Depreciation of Depreciation of Depreciation of

P.V.C Pipes and fitting = 10 % per Year Pump and motor = 12.5 % per Year Epoxy paint = 12.5 % per Year other Civil structure = 2 % per Year
Serampore SANGHAM

Project Benefit
Availability of water from roof

Our project is a Guest House having 12 Nos Double Bedded Room and 6 Nos. single bedded room. Considering 50 % of double bedded along with an extra guest and 100% are being occupied ( Average) by the Guest. Apart from Guest, considering there are10 nos. residential employees in the Guest House and 5 nos non residential employees. Total Guest and residential employees= 28 Nos. and they are consuming 150 Litres / capita/ day Consumption of 5 nos. non residential employees @ 50 litres /Capita/ day So total consumption of water for Guest and employees = 4450 Litres Consumption for Gardening, Laundry etc = 1550 Litres Total (Avg.) consumption of water of the Guest House / day= 6000 Litres. Area of Roof= 560 Sqm. Average Annual rain fall / year= 1440 mm Total Rain water = 806.4 KL Considering 60 % efficiency of Rain Water Harvesting system, so collection of total rain water= 484 KL or 484000 Litres. The rain water can meet the demand of water of that Guest House for 80 days.
Serampore SANGHAM

Project Benefit
More days by recycling bathing water to W.C Cistern

To make more efficient harvesting of rain water we may collect the bathing water to another tank. From that tank we may supply water to the cistern of Water Closet. Water required for bathing = 28.29 % of total consumption Water required for toilet = 20.20% of total consumption So by recycling the bathing water to toilet flushing about 20.20% of total consumption will be reduced. So 20 % 6000 litres= 1200 Litres Hence consumption will be = 4800 Litres/ day Therefore, Rain water can meet water demand of that Guest House for 100 days

Serampore SANGHAM

We insist you not to save water but not to waste water Replace shower head and faucet aerators with water efficiency model. Use a water filled close plastic bottle in toilet cistern to operate using less water Put spray nozzle on the end of hose for car washing and plant bathing. Use native plants in garden that require less water. Do not let the water run while brushing teeth or washing your face, use mug. Only run Dish washer and Washing machine when they are full. Fix leaks immediately. A slow drip or leak can easily waste more than 2000 litres of water per month.

Serampore SANGHAM

We recommend Implement policies to make Rain Water Harvesting mandatory with new construction projects Efficient water usage practices through community based education programme. Encourage investment in recycling and mandatory treatment of waste water. Statistics of yield of crop to be kept not only per Hectare but also per Cum consumption of water. Supply drinking water from Rain water harvesting system in Arsenic, Fluoride, and Pesticide contaminated zones apart from huge investment for removing the same.

Serampore SANGHAM

We must remember

That this environment we have borrowed from our next generation. Development of our civilization means we gift a better world to our next generation for their live in. But so far the water is concern, we just rob their air, water and other nature s gift day by day, considering all those for us and just only for us. We are accountable to our next generation, which may please be noted

Serampore SANGHAM

Thank you

Serampore SANGHAM