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SCULPTURE

SCULPTURE
A three dimensional

form constructed to represent a natural or imaginary shape.

CATEGORIES OF SCULPTURE

Full Round Relief Linear

FULL ROUND
 Free standing and fully

three dimensional  Inhibits threedimensional space in the same way that living things do.  It has no background support

RELIEF
 Can be viewed from

only one side one that projects from a background  It maintains a two dimensional quality  Has background support.

LINEAR
 Emphasizes

construction with thin, elongated items such as wire or neon tubing.  It puzzle the viewer and try to decide whether they are linear or full round.

METHODS OF EXECUTION
 Additive  Subtractive  Substitute  Manipulative  Found

ADDITIVE METHOD
 The sculpture is built up like modeling a stretchy material of clay, plaster or wax.  It permits the sculptor to redo or rework his material and introduce details as he sees fit and necessary.  The sculptor use an additive processs starting with raw materials and adds element to element until the work is finished.

Bakota
ancestor figure from Gabon, late 19th Century. French Congo. Ancestral figure of wood. Overlaid with copper and brass.

SUBTRACTIVE METHOD
 The sculpture is curved out of hard materials like wood or stone.  It involves removing unwanted portions of the raw material to reveal the form or figure that the sculptor has visualized (Ortiz, et.al 1976)

Samson Slaying a Philistine

SUBSTITUTION
 Any material that can be transformed

from a plastic, molten, or fluid state can be molded or cast into a work of sculpture.

MANIPULATION
 In this technique, materials such as clay are shaped by skilled use of the hands.  The difference between this technique and addition is clear when we watch an artist take a single lump of clay and skillfully transform it, as it turns on potter s wheel, into a final shape.

FOUND
 This category is exactly what its name implies.  Often natural objects, whether shaped by human hands or otherwise, are discovered that for some reason have taken on characteristics which stimulate aesthetic responses.  An artist may combine found objects to create a work

METHODS OF SCULPTURE

 Modeling  Carving  Casting  Fabrication

MODELING
 Sculptors used clay but they often build the clay form around a metal skeleton or armature for added strength.  Materials is added clay, wax, plaster, paper mache

The Terracotta Army

CARVING
 Used either through wood or stone  It is a subtractive technique with some difficulty in trying out to shape materials into desired stature by removing or peeling away unwanted portion of the wood or stone allowing the form to emerge.

CASTING
 A sculptural process which allows the sculptor to make lasting copies of his masterpiece or if he wanted to create multiple copies of his art piece.  The most common material used in casting is the metal bronze. Copper, lead, plaster, or plastic may also be used in casting.  Casting requires a complex process unlike the more direct method done in modeling.

Lost wax method or cire-perdue, often used for jewelry or small sculptures

Sleeping Eros

FABRICATION
 Another method of sculpture wherein a creation of art is done through joining or fastening.  It also includes nailing, stapling, soldering and welding.  Usually welding is done by joining pieces of metal with an oxyacetylene torch.

ASSEMBLAGE
 Assembling found

objects in unique ways

KINETIC SCULPTURE
 Movable parts

(wind)

Alexander Calder: the mobile

THE MEDIUMS OF SCULPTURE


 MEDIUM
Refers to the material used by the sculptor in making his art piece. There are many available mediums for a sculptor to work with depending on his liking.

STONE
 Is a hard substance formed from mineral

and earth material. The finished stone sculpture is granular and tedious in appearance. Stone is normally used for gravestones in cemetery.

WOOD
 The easiest to curve compare to other

mediums for the reason that it can be carved into a variety of treatment.

GRANITE
 A granular igneous rock composed of

feldspars and quartz combine with other minerals and is quite difficult top chisel. But then granite is good for large works with only few design and details. The Egyptian sculptures of Pharaos were mostly made of granite.

MARBLE
 Is a limestone capable of taking a high

polish, occurring in many varieties. It is easier to curve than granite because it is relatively softer. Sculptors have used marble for detailed carving of figures.

IVORY
 Comes from the tusks of an elephant

and wild boar. It is a hard white substance used in carving specially in billiard balls. Faces, hands, and feet of some images and saints are made of ivory, while the body is made of wood and painted.

METAL
 Includes gold, copper and silver.

Aluminum is a recent addition to the list. These ae characterized by capacity, ductility, conductivity, and lustre when freshly fractured. Usually, the metals used by sculptors are gold, brass, bronze, copper, silver and lead.

CLAY
 Is an earthy material that is plastic

when moist but is hard when fired and is usually used in making pottery during the early times. When clay is baked the finished product is also known as terra cotta. Since terra cotta is easily breaks, a few art pieces were saved and survived the time.

PLASTER
 Is a composition of lime, water and

sand. It is mixed into a paste that hardens as it dries then can be shaped. It is also used for coating walls and ceilings. The plaster in used expansively in making manikins, molds, models and architectural decorations.

GLASS
 Is a medium that is brittle, hard, non-

crystalline, and transparent substance which is produced by fusion. It is usually consisting of mutually dissolved silica and silicate that contains soda and lime. Glass is used to make beautiful yet fragile figurines that can be molded into various colors and shapes.

JADE
 A medium preferred by some

sculptors. It comes in various types of quarts, rock crystal and alabaster. Jade has been employed to symbolize certain virtues such as faithfulness, wisdom, chastity and charity

WIRE
 Wire is the last type of media in this presentation. To create a wire sculpture, you create a shape or form by adding wire.

TOOLS

CHISELS

ARMATURE

Sculpture

Features & Characteristics of Sculpture


 Line  Color  Texture  Volume  Perspective  Form  Style

LINE
 Refers to the shape of the piece